Law - LLM, PDip, PCert


The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.



Studying for a Master's in Law (LLM) at Kent means having the certainty of gaining an LLM in a specialist area of Law. The Kent LLM gives you the freedom to leave your choice of specialism open until after you arrive, when it will be determined by the modules you choose.

About Kent Law School

Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.

In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.

The Law School offers its flagship Kent LLM at the University’s Canterbury campus (and two defined LLM programmes at the University’s Brussels centre). Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field.

You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research.

National ratings

In the most recent Research Excellence Framework, Kent Law School was ranked 8th for research intensity in the Times Higher Education.

Course structure

You can tailor your studies to your particular needs and interests to obtain an LLM or Diploma in a single specialisation, in two specialisations jointly, or by choosing a broad range of modules in different areas of law to obtain a general LLM or Diploma in Law.

As a student on the LLM at Canterbury, your choice of specialisation will be shaped by the modules you take and your dissertation topic. To be awarded an LLM in a single specialisation, at least three of your six modules must be chosen from those associated with that specialisation with your dissertation also focusing on that area of law. The other three modules can be chosen from any offered in the Law School. All students are also required to take the Legal Research and Writing Skills module. To be awarded a major/minor specialisation you will need to choose three modules associated with one specialisation, and three from another specialisation, with the dissertation determining which is your 'major' specialisation.

For example, a student who completes at least three modules in International Commercial Law and completes a dissertation in this area would graduate with an LLM in International Commercial Law; a student who completes three Criminal Justice modules and three Environmental Law modules and then undertakes a dissertation which engages with Criminal Justice would graduate with an LLM in Criminal Justice and Environmental Law.


The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

Modules may include Credits

This module critically engages with the main components of Public International Law. The module begins with a critical review of the history of the international legal order and a review of key current perspectives in the study of international law. From this, the module reviews, amongst other topics, the sources of international law, issues around the relation between domestic law and international law, the recognition of states, the status of international organisations in international law, questions of jurisdiction and immunities, the settlement of disputes between states and state responsibility. As the module moves through these different topics, particular emphasis will be given to how they can help students better understand global current issues, as well as the operation of particular areas of the international legal order, such as, international economic law, the law of the sea, the law of air space and outer space, international human rights law, the use of force and global security.

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Over the past few decades, the scope of intellectual property has grown significantly. The goal of the module is to provide an overview of copyright and the law of confidential information from different angles in order to be able to assess this expansion. In so doing, it will examine this area of law from historical, theoretical and practical perspectives. The emphasis throughout the module is on reflexive critique. That is, we will study the different modes of justifying copyright and the protection of confidential information; the different historical approaches to trace the ways in which we can understand the political economy of copyright and confidential information and we will look at the past to try to find ways of thinking about the present situation of international legal regimes. On a more contemporary level, we will study the interaction between copyright and freedom of expression, the problems posed by technological works, as well as the more practical question on the way of producing evidence in copyright and breach of confidence trials. No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

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This module will examine the problems that arise in commercial transactions between businesses established in different States. The module will concentrate specifically on the 'transnational' nature of such transactions, and some of the solutions characteristically adopted by different legal systems, with emphasis on International, English or the US systems, or where appropriate legal rules and materials of other jurisdictions by way of illustration. The module will also cover the unique features of current transnational business transactions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, and the importance of information and communication technologies.

Indicative topics covered

Sources of Transnational Commercial Law and the interactions of Lex Mercatoria with public international law, International Conventions, Model Uniform Law, UNCITRAL, Reception and Approximation in National Law, Conflicts of Law, International Commercial Customs and Practice, The Role of International Chamber of Commerce; International Sales of Goods, The Vienna Convention 1980, UNIDROIT Principles; Standard Trade Terms especially INCOTERMS; Commercial Paper and Finance of International Sales, Documents of Title, Bills of Lading, Mates' Receipts, Consignment Notes, Paperless Documents and EDI, UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce, comparative analysis of electronic commerce and electronic signature regimes, Negotiable Instruments, Payment Collection Arrangements, Mergers and Acquisition, Oil and Gas Transactions, Letters of Credit, Performance Bonds and Guarantees, Export Credit Guarantees; Licensing and Franchising; Dispute Resolution with special emphasis on the resolution of disputes involving parties across the developed and developing states divide.

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This module provides an introduction to the law on environmental quality and a preface to regulatory themes that are pursued in other environmental modules. In common language, the module is about the law relating to 'pollution', but, as will be seen, this is a concept that is quite difficult to define with the precision that is needed as a basis for legal rights and duties. 'Environmental quality' is a broader term, encompassing issues as to the degree of contamination that is considered acceptable in relation to the three environmental media of water, air and land. Broadly, the module is organised around the progression of approaches that law has taken towards the regulation of those activities that have been identified as most damaging to the environmental media. Although, this involves careful examination and evaluation of national laws relating to pollution control, attention is increasingly focused upon regulatory requirements drawn from European Union and international law. The module seeks to assess different models and strategies for environmental quality regulation against broader objectives for the environment in reflecting upon what it is that is to be regulated, and why, and whether actual approaches to regulation are the best way of achieving this.

Topics covered

Session 1: Objectives of environmental quality law

Session 2: Environmental quality and private rights

Session 3: Environmental liability and environmental human rights

Session 4: Water quality regulation

Session 5: Air quality law

Session 6: Waste management law

Session 7: The Integration of pollution control

Session 8: Enforcement and the Environment Agency

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There are a number of ways to approach the field of international law. It can be treated doctrinally as a system of rules from various sources – such as treaties, state practices that are seen to have the binding force of law, and general principles shared across domestic jurisdictions – built up over time to regulate interactions between states and other entities. It can be studied as a historical phenomenon, emerging from out of a colonial history with contemporary implications. It can also be studied as an (imperfect) approach to addressing international 'problems', placing international law in broader social, political, and historical contexts as one possible source of 'solutions'. This course highlights international law’s limits and possibilities in relation to a set of contemporary inter- and trans-national concerns, including the use of armed force, responses to emerging security threats, and unresolved territorial disputes. It focuses on key themes of international law, such as sovereignty, statehood, self-determination, and the regulation of armed conflict, drawing upon perspectives from the humanities and the interpretive social sciences. It explores these overlapping themes as they emerge across several issues and case studies, bringing international law into a relationship with contemporary geopolitics, political theory, and the field’s historical inheritance. Along the way, we will address philosophical and theoretical questions such as the binding character of international law, problems of representation and interpretation, and the rhetorical dimensions of customary international law.

Topics covered

The topics covered vary year to year to align with changing circumstances and also according to student interest, but are anticipated to be as follows:

- The use of force and the law of armed conflict

- Reframing sovereignty: ‘the responsibility to protect’

- Regulating the global arms trade

- Targeted killing

- Enforcing the prohibition against torture

- Border conflicts and colonial legacies in international law

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The establishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995 has signalled the beginning of a new era in international economic relations. Unlike the GATT, whose main purpose was the reduction of barriers on trade in goods, the WTO legal regime reach deeper into more areas of policy-making, ranging from the regulation of services and investments to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) the WTO has the capacity to generate case-law on the resolution of disputes under the WTO agreements that it covers. This marks a significant shift from the earlier GATT dispute settlement mechanism as it creates, for the first time on the multilateral level, a binding decision-making apparatus. Thus any serious attempt to understand the nature and development of international economic law requires a careful and detailed study of the WTO and its law and practice. It is the cornerstone of the new global economic order. This module offers a comprehensive overview of this evolving legal and regulatory order.

Topics covered

1. Theoretical and Political Approaches to International Economic Regulation of Trade; the main actors: states, multinational enterprises, civil society and NGOs

2. Free Trade Theory and Practice

3. The Institutional Context: the Bretton Woods System, the GATT and the WTO

4. The WTO and developing countries: GATT preferences and WTO Special and Differential Treatment

5. The Dispute Settlement Understanding

6. Trade in Agriculture

7. Trade in Services

8. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

9. The rise of 'mega-market' trade agreements

10. Alternative trade arrangements

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This module aims to explore how the law is involved in matters to do with death and dying. The curriculum includes an investigation of the dying process and how this impacts on definitions of death. The relationship of medical law and ethics to the criminal law in relation to physician assisted death will be explored and evaluated as it is manifested in various jurisdictions. The appropriate role for autonomy, rights and ethical considerations where making decisions over death is concerned will be related to existing mechanisms such as advance directives.

Topics covered

• legal definitions of death

• ethical, spiritual and medical frameworks underpinning understandings of death and the dying process

• the practical and ethical difficulties associated with death and the dying process

• the care and needs of the dying

• euthanasia and clinically assisted death and their implications

• overview of how different jurisdictions provide ethical and legal regulation of end of life decision making, and the impact this has on those concerned

• the role of living wills, advance directives and clinical judgement

• the role of patient autonomy in relation to death and dying

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The module will explore emerging privacy and data protection issues, including Big Data, CTV surveillance, Internet and cyber surveillance, and cross-border information flows, legal structures and privacy protection measures. Students will be challenged to critically examine how personal, financial, health and transactional data are managed and who has access to this information. It will require students to assess emerging legal, regulatory, data protection and personal privacy issues raised by widespread access to personal information, including genetic data. The module will focus on the legal data protection, human rights, consent, confidentiality, and IT data security questions that arise when personal information is accessed by the state, law enforcement agencies, corporations and business, employers, health clinicians and researchers.

The essential aims and objectives of the module are to equip students to undertake a sustained analysis of privacy and data protection law. Students will be asked to critically examine whether privacy protection, consent and confidentiality measures are proportionate to the legal requirements to protect personal information while balancing the requirements of economic commerce, the state and public administrations to collect, use and share personal information.

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This module provides students with a solid grounding in law and the humanities – a dynamic and rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that offers alternative ways of understanding law by drawing upon humanities disciplines, such as political theory, literature, film studies, history and social theory. In employing this approach, key questions about law can be revisited from new and exciting perspectives and explored through a variety of novel methodologies.

The module is organized around three main questions. It begins by interrogating what is distinct about thinking of law as a humanities subject and what it means to utilise humanities based research methodologies in its study. We will examine these issues by focusing on the relationship between the legal scholar and the object of his/her inquiry - namely law - setting this relationship in the context of the legal tradition'. The second question explores the notion of "critical" scholarship and looks at how a humanities approach can shape legal critique using as examples key topics relating to politics, ethics and justice. Finally, we ask whether the interaction between the humanities and legal scholarship can provide a distinctive answer to the question of responsibility of the scholar and of scholarship.

In imaginatively engaging with questions of law, critique and responsibility from a humanities perspective this module broadens the horizons of the study of law in an original and creative way. The interdisciplinary insights it offers will cultivate and strengthen students' skills of reading, critical analysis, writing, and argument-making across a range of different texts, cultural media, and legal questions. These skills will help students develop an incisive paradigm for their master dissertation, whatever its subject or disciplinary orientation.

This module will be delivered in Paris as an intensive version comprising of 8 x 2.5 hour seminars during one single week for the academic year 2017/18. However, it is anticipated that this module will be delivered in Canterbury as an intensive for the following academic year 2018/19.

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The module will focus on the law of banking in the UK. This will involve an examination of the banker-customer relationship which will include the following: the rights and obligations of the parties in a banking relationship; the operation of the customer's account; the use of different methods of payment by customers such as cheques and plastic cards; and the challenges that electronic banking poses to the banking relationship. The module will also consider the regulatory roles of the Bank of England, the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority as well as the effect of various EU Directives and international measures on UK law. In the latter half of the module, focus will be given to the provision of credit. This will involve looking at the various types of credit provided by banks, the taking of security by banks and the enforcement of such security. Other ancillary issues such as the impact of insolvency on the banker-customer relationship and anti-money laundering measures will also be examined.

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This module offers a critical study of policing from historical, legal, political and social perspectives. It focuses primarily on policing in the United Kingdom, with other appropriate jurisdictions (including the European Union) being used for comparative purposes.

Topics covered

• History of the structure, organisation and concept of the police

• Ethical and legal principles underlying policing as well as the implications for policing of the European Convention on Human Rights

• The different functions of policing

• Police culture

• Police powers and procedures

• Public order policing

• Police governance and accountability

• Cross-border police co-operation

• Private policing

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In this module we study the main principles, key institutions, policies and politics of transnational criminal law. We explore selected examples of transnational offending and international legal responses thereto in the light of current theoretical, political and doctrinal debates. We consider transnational crimes and the mechanisms by which states cooperate with each other and with international institutions in order to enforce their domestic criminal law. Some of the key debates considered include: the nature of transnational criminal law as an emerging regime; the relationship between human rights and transnational criminal law; the role of the United Nations Security Council in transnational criminal law and critically the role of the individual in the transnational criminal legal system.

Topics covered

• The historical development of transnational criminal law

• The phenomenon of transnational organized crime and jurisdiction over transnational crime

• Money laundering and terrorist financing

• Terrorism

• Drug trafficking

• People trafficking

• Extradition and Abduction

• Mutual Legal Assistance

• International Police Cooperation

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This module offers a survey of international legal principles relating to migration. This module offers an introduction to international law relating to the movement of persons across international frontiers and to some extent, within the boundaries of states. It examines the complex sets of laws and policies that both form and inform the field of migration law. In particular, the course examines the context of international migration control; the concept of state sovereignty and its impact on migration law and practice; and the development of international protection and regulation. It will provide a critical evaluation of international labour migration law, international asylum and refugee law, internal displacement, environmental displacement, forced labour and human smuggling and trafficking. It will also evaluate the rights of human beings who happen to be migrants – what rights are possessed by smuggled migrants, trafficked migrants, asylum seekers, labour migrants and their families, and those who are internally displaced.

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This module is about the regulatory regimes that govern financial sectors of the economy. It focuses on the very recent history of regulation in this field and it examines domestic and international aspects of how states and societies enact and perform regulation of financial firms and transactions. The module is built around three inter-related elements:

• Development of the New International Financial Architecture (NIFA), a set of institutions, standards and processes that have been established during the last ten years to increase the stability of financial sectors globally, particularly in the so-called "emerging economies", and to expand markets for the services and products of financial firms. This element of the module will entail study of (a) the construction of economic crises of the 1990s as a threat to the global economic order; (b) the creation of new international groupings and institutions, (eg., the Financial Stability Forum and the G-20) and new roles for older institutions (e.g. surveillance by the IMF and the World Bank Group through the Financial System Assessment Program) to address the threat, (c) regulatory technique in the international arena, including standard setting, harmonization and compliance, and other dimensions of governance through soft law.

• Relationships between the NIFA and the changing modes of governing domestic financial sectors: This element of the module will entail study of (a) the emergence of integrated financial sector regulators in many jurisdictions; (b) interaction between the domestic / regional and the international spheres in response to concerns about financial instability, risk and 'contagion'. (Relevant responses include implementation of Basel II, the Lender of Last Resort, and the development of international standards of insurance supervision); and (c) comparative analysis of the market governance regimes established by integrated regulators in terms of their capacities to protect domestic consumers of financial services.

• Critical analysis of scholarly and policy literature on regulation of the financial sectors. This element of the module will entail reflective assessment of how authors of literature on financial sector regulation execute the craft of research by reference to factors such as linkages to relevant literatures, originality of authors' claims, strength of argument and analysis of data.

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This module is designed to examine and assess the core foundational legal principles and regulatory structures underpinning international environmental law (IEL) and policy. Specifically, it considers the various core sources of IEL, the principal international institutions involved in its development as well as legal issues involved relating to its implementation and enforcement.

Whilst specific topic areas may vary according to the pedagogical preferences of the Module Convenor, indicatively the module may be expected to cover all or most of the following topic areas which address key aspects of the legal foundations of IEL:

• Historical context and development of international environmental law

• Legal sources: (1) sources and structures of public international law; legal instrumentation; (2) general principles of international environmental law; (3) international human rights and the environment

• Institutional issues: the role of international organisations, states and non-governmental actors in international environmental law's development, the legal relations between the EU and the international community in the environmental sector

• Implementation and enforcement (1): the role of public institutions at international level (responsibilities of states and the role of international institutions); (2) the role of private persons and access to environmental justice under international environmental law

• Selected case study on application of foundational principles of IEL (eg climate change)

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This module focuses on citizens of the EU and their family members who have chosen to exercise free movement and residence rights and thereby seek to rely on their 'rights' as EU citizens in the territory of another Member State. Students will investigate the idea of free movement and citizenship of the EU, including the foundational rules, principles, doctrines and their scope, through the prism of Clinical Legal Practice. The Clinical Option provides an opportunity for students to develop their knowledge of this contested and rapidly developing area of law by conducting, under the supervision of a Kent Law Clinic solicitor, a 'real' case where the law or rules said to derive from EU law are the subject of ‘live’ as opposed to ‘academic’ dispute/contestation. Each student will be allocated a case where a Clinic client is seeking to rely on free movement or citizenship rights in an appeal against a decision by the Department for Work and Pensions, the UK Border Agency or a local authority that s/he does not have a right to reside in the UK under EU law.

The module will explore topics such as: the legal, political, social and economic theories of citizenship; whether and how EU citizenship either meets or diverges from these theories; what legal, economic, political and/or social entitlements flow from EU citizenship and as opposed to freedom of movement; the extent to which citizens of the Union use or understand these ‘rights’; the reception and interpretation of EU citizenship and residence rights by the institutions of the EU; and, the extent to which their reception and interpretation is different or divergent within Member States with a particular emphasis on the UK and its domestic welfare benefit and immigration law as interpreted by in the jurisprudence of UK’s tribunal and court system.

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This module studies intellectual property law "in action" by focusing on distinct commercial and industrial practices in which intellectual property rights are transacted, valued, evaluated and litigated in specific ways depending on the trade or industry.

Differently from the other intellectual law courses which study the role of law in the making of a property right, this module focuses on what happens with the intellectual property rights after their creation. We will study the complex interplay between law, commerce, culture and communications and identify how these connections make intellectual property licensing and transactions possible.

Students will examine intellectual property practices in, for example, newspapers, music, merchandising and toys, tobacco, biopharma, finance, museums, universities and knowledge industries, to embrace a different way of studying copyright, design, trade mark and patent rights (please note that the list of topics is indicative and may be subject to change).

No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required, however students may benefit from knowledge gained in the other IP modules which are complementary to this module.

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The 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 and ensuing 'war on terror' has enabled the global spread of counterterrorism laws, norms and practices aimed at pre-empting future threats. The trans-boundary nature of global terrorism has also prompted novel alignments of national, regional and international actors and fostered greater enmeshment between these legal orders. As authority is delinked from national and regional oversight mechanisms and becoming more reliant on expertise, serious accountability problems are arising. From targeted killing by drones to the global criminalisation of terrorist financing, and from ISIL and the problem of 'foreign terrorist fighters' to novel surveillance networks and practices, the global war on terror stretches existing legal categories, challenges fundamental rights and provokes urgent questions about the legitimate scope of transnational security governance.

This module immerses students in these contemporary problems and debates by introducing the emergent domain of global security law and governance. Particular emphasis is placed on the post-9/11 transformation of the UN Security Council into a global legislator and norm-setter in the counterterrorism field and the accountability challenges that new pre-emptive security governance practices pose. Students are exposed to a broad repertoire of theoretical approaches (including global constitutionalism, legal pluralism, international fragmentation, and transnational law) and legal mechanisms (including soft law techniques, targeted sanctions and forms algorithmic governance) and pushed to analyse an array of cross-cutting legal problems. Topics covered may include:

• Collective Security and the post-9/11 Transformation of the UN Security Council

• The Fragmentation of International Law and the Politics of Expertise

• Asymmetric Warfare and the Logic of Pre-emptive Security

• Terrorist Financing, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and trans-governmental networks

• Cybersecurity: the Tallinn Manual on Cyber-warfare and the Politics of Expertise

• Counterterrorism Lists (I) – the UN Al Qaeda list and the Kadi case (ECJ)

• Counterterrorism Lists (II) – Material Support, Peacebuilding and the Holder v Humanitarian Law Project case (U.S)

• Drone Warfare (I): Challenging Targeted Killing in the Courts (US, UK, Pakistan)

• Drone Warfare (II): Metadata and the Politics of Algorithmic Governance

• ISIL, Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTFs) and the Governance of Global Mobilities

• Transnational Surveillance: the Snowden Revelations and the Right to Privacy

• Informal Counterterrorism Law – the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF)

• Secret Justice and the problems of using intelligence as evidence.

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The goal of the module is to provide an in-depth introduction to the laws of patents and trademarks (including passing off). Particular emphasis is placed on the political, socio-historical, cultural and economic contexts in which these laws operate, as well as on the implications of legal concepts on proprietary strategies.

The module will take a distinctive approach towards the study of intellectual properties by focusing on concepts and their practical effects: the module will focus on key concepts in patents, trademarks and passing off and critically examine their implications for political economy, culture and science. Such key concepts will include: in patents, novelty and invention; in trademarks and passing off: brands, sign and goodwill.

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Credit is the lifeblood of capitalism. The law that regulates household and commercial credit is of significant, economic, and social importance in developed and developing economies. The 2008 world financial crisis was triggered by failures in debt-markets associated with household financing. This module explores central ideas about the role of credit in the economy and its contribution to economic, social, political and cultural development.

This module focuses on how law facilitates, shapes and determines the flow of credit to households and businesses domestically as well as internationally. It primarily explores the rationales that underpin the creation, production and supply of credit. It traces these to mainstream, economic thought and understandings of credit. The module critically examines and evaluates how these rationales take into consideration (or, indeed, fails to consider) principles of social justice and equality. Importantly, the module introduces historical, gendered, cultural, and sociological approaches to credit as viable alternatives to the dominant, mainstream understanding of consumer and commercial credit.

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This module examines a range of topics which illustrate the role of law in relation to the social, political, economic and environmental challenges arising from anthropogenic climate change and the need to move to a low carbon economy, including through the promotion of renewable and other alternative forms of energy generation and conservation.

This includes the operation of regulatory and governance frameworks at an international, regional and national level and the role of litigation.

The module requires introductory coverage of the international context, and explores some of the specific ethical and policy questions to be addressed in tackling climate change., The module does not cover those aspects of the international legal regulation of climate change that are covered in LW906 International Environmental Law: Legal Foundations or any coverage that there may be in LW884 International Environmental Law: Substantive Legal Aspects. The focus is on the EU and national level, and comparative analysis.

Topics covered

• Climate Change as a Policy Problem: the international law and policy context

• EU Climate Change I: an overview of the law and policy of the EU

• EU Climate Change II: controlling emissions through traditional regulatory forms

• Emissions trading schemes and comparative economic incentive approaches and other flexibility mechanisms

• UK Climate Change I: Legal obligations under the UK Climate Change Act 2008

• UK Climate Change II: The institutional dimension: the UK Committee on Climate Change

• Climate Change Litigation: Liability mechanisms in comparative perspective, including case studies

• Carbon Capture and Storage: International, EU and national legal issues

• Promoting Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation: General legal and policy issues including case studies

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In recent years corporate governance - meaning the governance of the large corporations which dominate modern economic life - has emerged as a major area of political and academic interest. Increasing attention has come to be focused, in particular, on the comparative aspects of corporate governance and on the different legal regimes found in different parts of the world, with policy makers striving to determine which regimes are most likely to deliver (so-called) `efficiency' and competitive success. In this context much has been made of the differences between shareholder-oriented, Anglo-American governance regimes and the more inclusive (more stakeholder-oriented) regimes to be found in certain parts of continental Europe and Japan. One result is that the increasing interest in corporate governance has re-opened old questions about the nature of corporations, about the role and duties of corporate managers and about the goal of corporate activities and the interests in which corporations should be run.

This module will explore these debates. More generally, the question of corporate governance has become entangled with other important debates, most notably that surrounding the merits (or otherwise) of different models of capitalism: Anglo-American regimes are associated with stock market-based versions of capitalism, while European regimes are associated with so-called welfare-based versions of capitalism.

The question of corporate governance has, therefore, become embroiled with debates about the morality and efficiency of different models of capitalism. These too will be explored in this module.

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The development of land places considerable stress upon on wildlife conservation, natural resources and environmental quality, and may infringe common law restrictions upon land use arising in the law of nuisance. The land use planning system gives an opportunity for planning authorities to scrutinise the likely environmental and ecological impacts of a development proposal, before a development is determined. The anticipatory approach to authorisation of developments is taken a step further when a proposed development is likely to have a significant effect upon the environment and where environmental impact assessment (EIA) is required before granting permission for development. The methodology of environmental assessment is also applied where strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is required of plans and policies, rather than individual developments. The need to implement requirements from European Union environmental law, with regard to EIA and SEA, is of critical importance.

The conservation and sustainable use of living natural resources is a key element in securing the overarching environmental policy objective of sustainable development. Conservation, ecological or biodiversity laws provide a special status for wildlife and require the national designation of land for wildlife protection purposes. Beyond the national measures for direct protection of wildlife and the protection of ecologically important habitats, important obligations from arise from the European Union and global international sources. Specifically, the EU Wild Birds and Habitats Directives, and the Biodiversity Convention are used to illustrate some of the key legal features in regional biodiversity conservation law. A concluding discussion examines the international trade dimension of wildlife conservation law and the proper utilisation of natural resources.

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This module offers a critical study of the origins, principles, concepts and practices of European Union criminal law and procedure from historical, constitutional, legal, political and social perspectives. It also addresses how national criminal law and procedure (especially that in the United Kingdom) are being shaped by developments at EU level, and explores the emergence of a distinct EU criminal process.

Topics covered

• Origins and development of criminal law and procedure;

• Law and policy making processes;

• Europol and cross-border police cooperation;

• Cross-border evidence gathering;

• European arrest warrant;

• European Public Prosecutor;

• EU criminal law measures in areas such as: money-laundering, organised crime and terrorism;

• Protection of human rights;

• Relationship with developments in international criminal law; and

• Historical, political, legal, cultural, social and criminological forces driving and shaping developments in EU criminal law and procedure.

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Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which was, historically, defined as historical monuments and has now widened to include intangible values.

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. This module aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property and it aims to give coherence to practices shaped by stakeholders, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law.

Lectures will first introduce the definition of heritage, then discuss the five UNESCO Conventions on cultural heritage as well as the restitution of trafficked objects and alternative dispute mechanisms. The last lecture will draw on the different topics studied to discuss the development of cultural rights, in particular the right to participate in cultural life and the right to access cultural heritage. Each lecture will focus on an object of cultural importance that reflects the theme of study (e.g. the Parthenon marbles, Palmyra in Syria, The Euphronios Krater …)

This module will look at the different conventions and the existing legal framework protecting cultural heritage in order to enable students to:

• Understand the key concepts, policy issues and principles underlying cultural heritage law

• Analyse the theoretical and academic debates that underlie the substantive law of cultural heritage protection

• Evaluate the role of international and national institutions as well as other stakeholders in the protection of the cultural heritage

• Understand the practical context in which cultural heritage law operates

• Compare existing legal regimes of the protection of the cultural heritage in England, the United States, and continental Europe

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This module aims to explore the legal principles which underpin the need for consent to medical treatment.

Topics covered

• salient principles such as the respect for autonomy

• the entitlement to informed consent

• the criteria for competence and capacity

• the consequences of incapacity for minors and those adjudged to be incompetent

• the criminal and tortuous consequences of treatment without consent

• limitations on consent

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This module seeks to provide the student with an understanding of the legal, ethical and practical issues involved in medical practice and malpractice. Those issues will be explored from the ground up and will provide all students a full opportunity, regardless of their knowledge of law, to get to grips with the fundamental principles of practical legal analysis from a fault-based perspective. In so doing, the legal and institutional contexts within which the many duties of medicine operate will be subjected to a detailed critical analysis.

Essentially, this module will link the multifarious medical legal theories to the realities of medical negligence and litigation; thereby affording the student a practitioner based insight into how modern medicine interacts within current legal practice.

Topics Covered

• the legal relationship between the practitioner, the patient and the NHS

• analysis of the legal and evidential burdens in medical negligence

• complaints and discipline procedures for healthcare professionals

• courts and tribunal processes in medical negligence litigation

• resource allocation constraints

• legal concepts of risk and recklessness in medical practice

• the role of money and litigation

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This module aims to explore legal and ethical issues in medicine relating to human reproduction and the beginning of life.

Topics covered

• the moral status of the embryo/foetus

• abortion

• the regulation of pregnancy, including liability for antenatal harm

• childbirth

• human fertilization and embryology, including embryo research, cloning, human admixed embryos (animal/human 'hybrids'), artificial gametes etc

• the 'designer baby' debates and selecting the characteristics of future children via pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (including sex selection, selecting for/against disability, saviour siblings).

• surrogacy

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This module provides a critical examination of the principles and institutions and theory and practice of international criminal law. The module introduces the aims and objectives of international criminal law and examines the establishment and operation of international criminal justice institutions, and the substantive law of international crimes. It explores key theoretical and doctrinal debates in international criminal law. In particular, it seeks to locate the work of international criminal courts and tribunals in their broader political and contextual contexts. Case studies and special topics in international criminal law, form an important part of the module.

Topics covered

• Introduction to International Criminal Law

• International Criminal Institutions

• Jurisdictional Issues

• The Defence, Witnesses and Victims

• International Criminal Court

• Crimes against Humanity

• Genocide

• War Crimes

• Aggression

• Modes of Liability

• Political and Contextual Considerations

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The law relating to international trade and the environment represents a key element in the legal response to the need to protect the environment and to secure broader environmental policy objectives such as sustainable development. Whilst these are central elements in the Environmental Law and Policy Programme, they are also of considerable relevance to students following Programmes in International Commercial Law, Public International Law and European Law given the importance of environmental regulation in different areas of international law. The module has been structured to provide a balanced coverage of the international rules and institutions which address the relationship between freedom of trade and environmental protection. Within this structure, illustrations are provided of many of the key areas in case studies on topical and contentious issues.

Topics Covered

• introduction to the law and economics of environmental protection and economic liberalization

• introduction to the law and institutions of the World Trade Organisation

• GATT 1994 and the protection of the environment

• the SPS Agreement, the TBT Agreement and the protection of human, animal and plant life and health

• TRIPS, biotechnology and biological diversity

• GATS and the environment

• MEAS and the WTO

• Doha negotiations on trade and environment

• case studies: tuna/dolphins, shrimp/turtles, asbestos, beef/hormones, genetically modified products

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This module is designed to enable postgraduate students to obtain both essential knowledge of and critical insight into, issues relating to international human rights law. Human rights occupy an extremely important place in contemporary discussions about law, justice and politics at both the domestic and the international level. Across all spheres of government, bodies of law and, pretty much, in every single social mobilization, human rights are invoked and debated.

This module approaches the key place occupied by human rights in the contemporary world from an international perspective. The module aims to link the international origins of human rights and the main human rights systems, with the actual practice of human rights. Particular attention is paid in the module to the value, as well as the limits of human rights when they approach, or try to address the problems and the aspirations of five important 'subjects': the Citizen, the Refugee, the Cultural Subject, the Woman and the Poor.

The module is organized around lectures and seminars delivered by the convenor, as well as lectures given by invited guests speaker. Guest speakers will explore in their lectures how they have approached in their research and practice the five 'subjects' mentioned above (ie, the Citizen, the Refugee, the Cultural Subject, the Women and the Poor).

Emphasis is placed on maximum student participation during seminar discussions for which students will need to prepare. Students are encouraged to develop a critical perspective in light of historical and socio-economic backgrounds.

Similar to the module public international law, the teaching, discussions and readings in the module will equip students both with a doctrinal understanding of international human rights law, and with an approach to the field that is grounded in a Critical, Socio-Legal and Law and Humanities perspective.

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This module explores the legal implications (practical and theoretical) of foreign direct investment. Attention is paid to the perspectives of states, investors, civil society actors and theorists; and to placing legal implications in their economic, social, political and historical context. Questions considered include:

• What political, economic and legal actors and factors have shaped the international law on foreign investment?

• What are the legal implications of the fact that most foreign investments are made by corporations?

• What roles can host state legal systems play in attracting and regulating foreign investments?

• What international legal mechanisms are used to enable foreign investment?

• What challenges do current concerns with corruption and tax evasion pose to existing international law on foreign investment?

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The aim of the module is to focus on the theoretical, institutional and practical aspects of modern international commercial arbitration. This would involve a close examination of the ad hoc systems and the main institutional structures (eg, ICC, ICSID, WIPO, Iran-US Claims Tribunal, and PCA). The module covers current issues and developments relating to international commercial arbitration including: arbitral jurisdiction; applicable procedural and substantive laws; the status and role of arbitration agreements; the conduct of arbitral proceedings; the arbitral award; challenge, recognition and enforcement of award; and online arbitration/online dispute resolution (ODR). The English Arbitration Act 1996 and the UNCITRAL Rules as well as the UNCITRAL Model Law will be examined closely. The course will also critically examine the relationship between international commercial arbitration and international development law as well as aspects of the international commercial arbitration concerning sovereign states in oil and gas disputes. Comparative study will be made of the emerging commercial arbitration legislation and international arbitral practice of certain developing states such as Nigeria, India and China. The course also aims to provide an appreciation of the similarities and contrasts between the work of international arbitral institutions and the work of international courts such as the International Court of Justice in commercial and economic matters.

Topics covered

• The Concept of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and International Commercial Arbitration

• The Applicable Procedural and Substantive Law of Arbitration/ Arbitration Clauses and Submission Agreements

• Arbitration in the resolution of Oil and Gas and Energy Disputes

• Establishment and Organization of Arbitral Tribunal

• Powers, Duties and Jurisdiction of an Arbitral Tribunal

• Public Policy in International Commercial Arbitration

• Trends and Developments in the International Arbitral and Adjudicatory Practice of Energy Disputes

• The Arbitral Award and Its Drafting

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This module introduces in detail some of the most acute and pressing current problems in intellectual property, such as copyright and piracy in visual arts and music, justification for patents and their effects on scientific knowledge production, and the effects of logos and brands in capitalist symbolic economy. Offering a different way into the study of intellectual properties than by statues and case law, this course aims to provide students with a deep and nuanced understanding of intellectual properties both as social practices and cultural phenomena in today's 'knowledge economy'. Students will be introduced to the latest theoretical debates in humanities and social sciences about intellectual properties, which will complement a doctrinal study of intellectual property forms and allow for a differentiated assessment of law’s effects and limitations. Topics to be explored may include:

• What is original? Why is there so much value attached to 'originality’?

• Does free knowledge go hand in hand with precarious labour in creative industries?

• What are the modes of intellectual credit? Are there other forms of credit than property?

• What is the ‘intellectual’ in intellectual properties? How do you draw contours around intangible knowledge?

• Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into things?

• Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?

• Do trademarks commodify language?

Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory. Prior attendance of LW 801 Intellectual Property Law in autumn term is welcome, but not a prerequisite. No prior knowledge of study of patent, copyright or trademarks law is required. Interested students from various disciplines are welcome, subject to prior agreement.

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This module will place European Union Competition Law in the context of the process of European integration, in both its conceptual contents and its institutional development. For decades, competition law was regarded essentially as a necessary complement to the Treaty of Rome's free movement provisions in the process of market integration, and was implemented centrally by the European Commission subject to review by the Court of Justice of the EU. However, over time it has been steadily transformed and expanded into a distinct set of norms regulating economic relations, implemented by a network of regulatory authorities and courts. This transformation will provide the backdrop to the module which will appraise the following core substantive and procedural topics of EU Competition Law:

• introduction: Competition Law and European Integration

• prohibition on anti-competitive agreements (Article 81 EC)

• prohibition of abuse of a dominant position (Article 82 EC)

• enforcement of Articles 81-82 EC

• EU regulation of mergers and acquisitions

• state undertakings (Article 86 EC)

• international dimensions to EU competition law and policy

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This module requires students to submit a dissertation of no more than 15,000 words on a topic relevant to one of the subject specialisations of the degree programme and approved by the academic staff. It is conceived as that part of the degree programme where students have considerable leeway to follow their own particular interests, with guidance from staff. Students are assigned a supervisor upon submission of the dissertation proposal according to topic and staff expertise. Supervision of work on the dissertation is concentrated in the second half of the academic year and appropriate help will be given to the student. Original research is likely to be rewarded with high grades, but it is not a requirement at this level.

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Teaching and Assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules are normally assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

  • provide a postgraduate qualification of value to those intending to play a leading role in any field of law
  • provide a detailed knowledge and high level of understanding of a range of specialised subject areas
  • provide more broadly-based communication skills of general value to those seeking postgraduate employment
  • provide a sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and particular contexts in which law operates
  • provide a degree of specialisation in areas of public international law of individual interest from among the wide range of LLM/PDip options that are available and which require you to engage with academic work which is at the frontiers of scholarship
  • encourage you to develop a critical awareness of the operation of public international law, particularly in contexts which are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution
  • provide you with the skills to undertake supervised research on an agreed topic in law and to encourage the production of original and evaluative commentary that meets high standards of scholarship (applies to LLM only)
  • encourage you to develop critical, analytical and problem-solving skills which can be applied to a wide range of contexts
  • develop your skills of academic legal research, particularly by the written presentation of arguments in a manner which meets relevant academic conventions
  • assist those students who are minded to pursue academic research at a higher level in acquiring a sophisticated grounding in the essential techniques involved by following a specialised module in research methods (applies to LLM only)
  • contribute to widening participation in higher education by taking account of the past experience of applicants in determining admissions whilst ensuring that all students that are admitted possess the potential to complete the programme successfully.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the institutions and structures of public international law and the inter-relationships between them
  • the key concepts, policy issues, principles and relevant sources of law and policy
  • the substantive law relevant to a range of key areas of law and policy
  • the theoretical, social and academic debates which underlie the substantive areas of law
  • the practical contexts in which the law operates
  • the importance of evaluating public international law alongside its theoretical and practical contexts

Intellectual skills

You develop intellectual skills in:

  • effectively applying the knowledge of law and policy to a wide range of situations where relevant practical or theoretical issues are under consideration
  • evaluating issues according to their context, relevance and importance
  • gathering relevant information and accessing key sources by electronic or other means
  • formulating arguments on central issues and areas of controversy, and the ability to present a reasoned opinion based upon relevant materials
  • recognising potential alternative arguments, and contrary evidence, to your own opinion and presenting a reasoned justification for preference
  • demonstrating an independence of mind and the ability to offer critical challenge to received understanding on particular issues
  • an ability to reflect constructively on your learning progression.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in:

  • an awareness of the limitations of present knowledge and matters needing to be resolved by further research
  • the ability to identify and characterise issues of law which arise in practical situations
  • the ability to research and access the main sources of law and policy which are relevant
  • the ability to appreciate and evaluate the main theoretical and political perspectives that underlie the legal provisions
  • the ability to provide a reasoned and justified opinion as to the possible legal consequences in particular circumstances
  • the ability to utilise research skills, at least, to commence further research into unresolved issues.

Transferable skills

You gain the following transferable skills:

  • the ability to identify relevant issues from potentially complex factual situations
  • the ability to undertake research from a diverse range of sources
  • the ability to summarise detailed and complex bodies of information concisely and accurately
  • the ability to formulate arguments in verbal presentations and defend these against opposing views
  • the ability to present information and arguments in written form, in accordance with academic conventions, and appropriately to the intended readership
  • the ability to evaluate personal performance.


Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School’s Employability Blog.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country’s diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a ‘stage’ at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: of Kent graduate students who graduated in 2016, 98% of those who responded to a national survey were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog.

Study support

Friendly and supportive environment

Kent Law School has a lively and active postgraduate community, bought about in part by our strong research culture and by the close interaction between our staff and students. Staff publish regularly and widely in journals, conference proceedings and books and embed their research in their teaching. Taught students have regular contact with their programme and module conveners with staff on hand to answer any questions and to provide helpful and constructive feedback on submitted work. The Law School has an active and inclusive extra-curricular academic and social scene with regular guest lectures, talks and workshops organised by our research centres (which include the Centre for Critical International Law and the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality).

Award-winning Law Library

Our Law Library has long been a leader in the development of electronic resources for legal teaching and research. The extensive and up-to-date law collection in the University’s Templeman Library is particularly strong on electronic material, and the Electronic Law Library includes numerous legal databases, which are increasingly invaluable tools for research. In addition, you can access the text of thousands of law journals online. Our law librarian is available to train you to use these resources and runs regular legal research classes with postgraduate students.


We have a dedicated postgraduate office, offering support from application to graduation. Postgraduate students at Kent Law School have access to a postgraduate computing room, study area and common room with wireless internet access.

Global Skills Award

All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme. The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability.  

Entry requirements

A first or 2.1 honours degree or equivalent, in law or a related subject. Students who achieve a high 2.2 standard may also be considered at the discretion of Kent Law School (KLS). The School may also take account of relevant work experience when considering applications.

All applicants are considered on an individual basis and additional qualifications, and professional qualifications and experience will also be taken into account when considering applications. 

International students

Please see our International Student website for entry requirements by country and other relevant information for your country. 

English language entry requirements

The University requires all non-native speakers of English to reach a minimum standard of proficiency in written and spoken English before beginning a postgraduate degree. Certain subjects require a higher level.

For detailed information see our English language requirements web pages. 

Need help with English?

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

Research areas

Criminal Justice

Much of the School's research activity in criminal justice takes place in co-operation with the School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research and under the auspices of the Kent Criminal Justice Centre. Established in 1996, the Centre co-ordinates and encourages research in the field of criminal justice, and develops teaching and education initiatives, especially in co-operation with local criminal justice agencies.

Critical Commercial Law and Business Law and Regulation

Kent Law School has established a rich tradition of critical scholarship on the legal regulation of the business practices and commercial relations of market economies. Our experts inform research-led teaching in such fields as consumer debt and bankruptcy, secured credit, intellectual property, International Financial Institutions, economic development, international trade and business transactions, commercial arbitration, international labour regulation, corporate governance, regulation of personal financial services, e-commerce, and the law relating to banking and information technology.

Critical Obligations

Our expertise in the area of obligations shares a commitment to challenging the apparently coherent and common-sense rules of contract and tort. We do this by identifying the conflicts in the world outside of the textbook that shape and destabilise the operation of these rules, and by revealing the ideological, political, and distributive biases that the rules of contract and tort help to perpetuate.

Environmental Law

The Law School has long been established as a recognised centre of excellence in research and graduate teaching in environmental law, spanning international, EC and national law and policy. Current research interests include climate change, the aquatic environment, biodiversity conservation, regulation and enforcement, and trade.

European and Comparative Law

European and Comparative Law is being conducted both at an individual level as well as at the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law, which was established in 2004 with a view to providing a framework for the further development of the Law School’s research and teaching activities in this area. Research and teaching reaches from general areas of comparative and European public and private law to more specialised areas and specific projects.

Gender and Sexuality

Home to the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, Kent Law School makes a significant contribution to the development of feminist perspectives on law, nationally and internationally. The Centre produces wide-ranging interdisciplinary work, drawing on a broad range of intellectual trajectories in addition to legal studies, including political theory, philosophy, sociology, political economy, cultural studies, geography, history, and drama. The Centre explores how sexuality is produced through political categories of difference and how it is governed. The research carried out by the Centre demonstrates a shared preoccupation with inequality and social change.

Governance and Regulation

Legal research involves studying processes of regulation and governance. This research cluster focuses on the character of regulation and governance to critically understand the different modes through which governing takes place such as the conditions, relations of power and effects of governance and regulation. Work within this area is methodologically diverse. Intellectually, it draws on a range of areas including socio-legal studies; Foucauldian perspectives on power and governmentality; Actor Network Theory; feminist political theory and political economy; postcolonial studies; continental political philosophy; and cultural and utopian studies.

Healthcare Law and Ethics

A number of Kent Law School (KLS) staff have interests in the area of Health Care Law and Ethics, focusing in particular on issues relating to human reproduction. Much of the research carried out by scholars in this area is critical and theoretical and has a strong interdisciplinary flavour. In addition to conducting their own research projects, staff have developed strong and fruitful collaborations with ethicists and medical professionals.

International Law

The starting point for research in international law at Kent Law School is that international law is not apolitical and that its political ideology reflects the interests of powerful states and transnational economic actors. In both research and teaching, staff situate international law in the context of histories of colonialism to analyse critically its development, doctrines and ramifications. Critical International Law at KLS engages with theories of political economy, international relations and gender and sexuality to contribute to scholarly and policy debates across the spectrum of international law, which includes public, economic, human rights, criminal and commercial law. Scholars at the Centre for Critical International Law engage in the practical application of international law through litigation, training, research and consultancies for international organisations, NGOs and states.

Law and Political Economy & Law and Development

Law and its relation to political economy are addressed from a variety of angles, including the exploration of the micro and macrolevel of economic regulations as well as theoretical aspects of law and political economy.

Legal Theories and Philosophy

Identifying the fact that several academics do work in cultural theory and political theory (including on normative concepts, religion and the state). While feminist and critical legal theories are focal points at Kent Law School, the departmental expertise also covers more essential aspects such as classical jurisprudence and the application of philosophy to law.

Property Law

Kent Law School's property lawyers have a range of overlapping interests in both global and local property issues. Their work covers indigenous people’s rights, the environment, housing, community land, social enterprise, cultural heritage law and urban design, as well as the question of intellectual property. They have links with anthropologists working at the University and have run a very successful series of workshops exploring common interests. Their research draws on a multiplicity of theoretical perspectives including postcolonialism, feminism, and Foucault.

Other research areas within KLS include:

  • human rights
  • labour law
  • law and culture
  • law, science and technology
  • legal methods and epistemology
  • public law
  • race, religion and the law.

Staff research interests

Full details of staff research interests can be found on the School's website.

Professor Anneli Albi: Professor

Comparative constitutional law; EU constitutional law; EU enlargements; European Neighbourhood Policy.

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Professor Donatella Alessandrini: Co Director of Postgraduate Research

International trade theory and practice; neoliberalism; international political economy; development studies.

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Professor Yutaka Arai: Professor in Law

International humanitarian law (including part of international criminal law); the relationship between international humanitarian law and international human rights law.

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Dr Nicola Barker: Reader in Law

Marriage and civil partnerships; welfare; human rights.

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Dr Kate Bedford: Reader

Gender, sexuality and international political economy; critical development studies; the World Bank; Latin America, heteronormativity and social policy; gambling regulation and economic regeneration, especially bingo; UK equalities law and policy.

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Dr Ruth Cain: Senior Lecturer

Regulation and representation of reproduction and parenting, especially maternity, tracking relationships between law, literature, popular culture and the media, and how these shape perceptions of gender, sexuality and embodiment, health care law, including mental health law; the gendering of capitalism, neo-imperialism and post 9/11 trauma.

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Professor Helen Carr: Director of Learning & Teaching

Housing law and social welfare, with particular interests in regulation of the poor and with the gendered and racialised dimensions of that regulation.

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Donal Casey: Lecturer

Food governance and regulation; the issues of legitimacy and accountability.

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Dr Emilie Cloatre: Senior Lecturer

The intersection between law and contemporary ‘science and society’ issues, for example patent law and access to health care, and the regulatory networks of climate change. This is particularly (although not exclusively) in the context of developing countries.

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Professor Davina Cooper: Professor

Social and political theory; cultural geography; feminism and sexuality; governance and radical politics; Utopian studies. 

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Eleanor Curran: Senior Lecturer

Hobbes; rights theory and the history of rights theory; political theory; moral theory; jurisprudence.

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Dr Karen Devine: Lecturer

The law of obligations; tortious legal issues, particularly those relating to the collection, storage and use of human tissue; decision-making in health care and the role of informed consent; medical law and ethics generally.

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Lisa Dickson: Senior Lecturer

Forensic science and the law; evidence and the trial process; general areas of criminal justice.

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Maria Drakopoulou: Reader

Feminist theory; feminist jurisprudence; legal theory and philosophy; legal history; Roman law; equity and trusts.

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Professor John Fitzpatrick: Professor; Director of Kent Law Clinic

Human rights law; constitutional law; public legal services; legal process.

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Iain Frame: Lecturer

Legal and economic history, monetary theory, and social and legal theory.

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Dr Simone Glanert: Senior Lecturer

Comparative legal studies; legal translation; statutory interpretation; European law; French law and German law. Recent publications include: De la traductibilité du droit (2011); Comparative Law: Engaging Translation (ed, 2012).

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Professor Emily Grabham: Co Director of Research and Postgraduate Research

Citizenship; belonging and corporeality; feminist and queer theories of embodiment; labour law; welfare reform and its connection to work/family policy.

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Professor Nick Grief: Professor

Public international law, human rights and EU law, with particular reference to the legal status of nuclear weapons.

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Dr Emily Haslam: Lecturer

Public international law; international criminal law; civil society.

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Martin Hedemann-Robinson: Senior Lecturer

European Union and international environmental law, notably in relation to law enforcement.

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Professor Didi Herman: Professor of Law

Gender and sexuality; race, religion and ethnicity; popular culture; social movement; law reform. 

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Dr Kirsty Horsey: Senior Lecturer

Human reproduction and genetics, particularly where these overlap with issues in family law; legal education.

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Professor William Howarth: Professor

Environmental and ecological law, with particular emphasis on the legal protection of the aquatic environment and the ecosystems that it supports.

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Dr Suhraiya Jivraj: Lecturer

Law and religion; equalities, anti-discrimination and human rights law; critical race/postcolonial studies; gender and sexuality; Muslim feminisms and Islamic law. 

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Per Laleng: Lecturer; Director of Mooting

Law of tort – focused on the concept of causation particularly in the context of industrial and other diseases. Other research interests include law and football, and law and photography. 

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Sian Lewis-Anthony: Senior Lecturer in Law and UCU Branch President

International human rights law, in particular, the right to a fair trial and the issue of the independence and impartiality of the judiciary.

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Professor Robin Mackenzie: Professor

Bioscience and law; body modification; constructions of addiction; death and the dying process; enhancement; feminist perspectives; genetics and other new technologies; neuroethics and law; neuroscience; propertisation and biovalue; psychoactive substances; public health governance; reprogenetics; strategic rhetoric in regulation; surrogacy; critical and cultural theory applied to all of the above.

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Dr Alex Magaisa: Senior Lecturer

Financial services regulation, with special focus on international finance centres (offshore finance jurisdictions); the law relating to corporate groups, with special interest in responsibility for corporate torts; intellectual property and developing countries; general interest in the interaction between law and politics in Africa.

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Dr Gbenga Oduntan: Senior Lecturer

Private and public international law; international courts and tribunals; arbitration; international commercial law; land and maritime boundary and territorial disputes; air and space law; international economic law; immigration and asylum law; constitutional law; criminal justice; scientific and technological issues in policing.

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Connal Parsley: Lecturer

Jurisprudence; critical legal theory; political theory; public law; law and aesthetics; law and film; Australian Aboriginal legal issues; legal ethics.

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Sebastian Payne: Lecturer

The Crown; constitutional reform; the royal prerogative; oversight issues relating to the intelligence and security services; decision making and its relation to law.

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Professor Amanda Perry-Kessaris: Professor

Law and development, including econo-socio-legal development; the role of legal indicators and legal systems in development; economic approaches to law and development.

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Dr Stephen Pethick: Senior Lecturer

Jurisprudence, with emphasis on epistemology and metaphysics and the law; philosophy of language and the law; reasoning and the law; the concept of coherence and its use in legal theory and legal reasoning; the legal writings of Francis Bacon; the history of legal ideas from the early modern period onwards; analytic legal theory; legal history; the law of evidence.

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Nick Piska: Lecturer

A critical engagement with private law, particularly in the area of equity and trusts, and a broader interest in the figure of the equitable subject and the ways in which equitable subjects are produced in modernity.

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Professor Iain Ramsay: Co Director of Graduate Studies

Regulation of consumer markets at the national, regional and international level, with a particular interest in issues of credit and insolvency, commercial credit and commercial law, focusing on the role of credit law in development.

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Sinead Ring: Lecturer

The legitimacy of the criminal trial, particularly the substantive implications of the criminal process’ professed commitment to the rule of law.

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Professor Harm Schepel: Professor

Legal sociology; international and European economic law.

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Professor Sally Sheldon: Professor

Medical ethics and law, particularly with reference to reproductive issues; legal regulation of gender and sexuality; fatherhood.

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Dr Sophie Vigneron: Senior Lecturer

French public and private law; English tort law; art law; the Europeanisation of private law; cultural heritage law.

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Professor Dermot Walsh: Professor

Policing and criminal justice; criminal procedure; human rights; European criminal law and procedure.

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John Wightman: Senior Lecturer; Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences

Theory, history, and empirical work relating to private law, especially tort and contract.

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Professor Toni Williams: Professor

Regulation and governance of economic development and market relations; regulation of consumer financial services; the implications of information technology for the regulation of consumer markets.

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Dr Simone Wong: Senior Lecturer

Equity; banking and finance; cohabitation and other domestic relationships.

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The 2018/19 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

Law - Taught LLM at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £7460 £15200
Part-time £3750 £7600
Law - PCrt at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £2487 £5067
Part-time £1250 £2534
Law - Taught PDip at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £4974 £10134
Part-time £2450 £5067

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact

General additional costs

Find out more about general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent. 


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