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Postgraduate Courses 2016

Law - LLM, PDip, PCert

Canterbury

Overview

The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.

Studying for a Master's in Law (LLM) at Kent means having the certainty of gaining an LLM in a specialist area of Law. The Kent LLM gives you the freedom to leave your choice of specialism open until after you arrive, your specialism being determined by the modules you choose.

About Kent Law School

Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.

In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.

The Law School offers its flagship Kent LLM at the University’s Canterbury campus (and two defined LLM programmes at the University’s Brussels centre). Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field.

You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research.

National ratings

In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by Kent Law School was ranked 8th in the UK for research intensity. We were also ranked 7th for research power and in the top 20 for research output, research quality and research impact.

An impressive 99% of our research was judged to be of international quality and the School’s environment was judged to be conducive to supporting the development of world-leading research.

Course structure

You can tailor your studies to your particular needs and interests to obtain an LLM or Diploma in a single specialisation, in two specialisations jointly, or by choosing a broad range of modules in different areas of law to obtain a general LLM or Diploma in Law.

As a student on the LLM at Canterbury, your choice of specialisation will be shaped by the modules you take and your dissertation topic. To be awarded an LLM in a single specialisation, at least three of your six modules must be chosen from those associated with that specialisation with your dissertation also focusing on that area of law. The other three modules can be chosen from any offered in the Law School. All students are also required to take the Legal Research and Writing Skills module. To be awarded a major/minor specialisation you will need to choose three modules associated with one specialisation, and three from another specialisation, with the dissertation determining which is your 'major' specialisation.

For example, a student who completes at least three modules in International Commercial Law and completes a dissertation in this area would graduate with an LLM in International Commercial Law; a student who completes three Criminal Justice modules and three Environmental Law modules and then undertakes a dissertation which engages with Criminal Justice would graduate with an LLM in Criminal Justice and Environmental Law.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

LW919 - Legal Research and Writing Skills (5 credits)

This is a compulsory module for all Masters students and must be completed within one academic year. Both Diploma and Certificate students can opt to take this module in addition to their required modules. It is a non-contributory module which does not count towards your degree, but it will appear on your final transcript with a Pass/Fail result. The module is timetabled from 16:00-18:00 on Wednesdays in Eliot Lecture Theatre 2.



The Autumn Term of this module will provide an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level. The Spring Term will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project, such as their dissertation. Students will be introduced to a range of theoretical frameworks that will enable them to develop their own critical approach to their chosen dissertation topic.



Please see separate programme for further details on each session available from the Kent Law School Postgraduate Office.

Credits: 5 credits (2.5 ECTS credits).

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LW801 - Intellectual Property (20 credits)

Over the past few decades, the scope of intellectual property has grown significantly. The goal of the module is to provide an overview of these areas from different angles in order to be able to assess this expansion. In so doing, it will examine this area of law from historical, theoretical and practical perspectives. The emphasis throughout the module is on reflexive critique. That is, we will study the different modes of justifying intellectual property; the different historical approaches to trace the ways in which we can understand the political economy of intellectual property and we will look at the past to try to find ways of thinking about the present situation of international legal regimes. On a more contemporary level, we will study the interaction between intellectual property and health, the problems posed by biotechnology, as well as the more practical question on the way of producing evidence in intellectual property trials. No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW802 - International Business Transactions (20 credits)

This module will examine the problems that arise in commercial transactions between businesses established in different States. The module will concentrate specifically on the 'transnational' nature of such transactions, and some of the solutions characteristically adopted by different legal systems, with emphasis on International, English or the US systems, or where appropriate legal rules and materials of other jurisdictions by way of illustration. The module will also cover the unique features of current transnational business transactions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, and the importance of information and communication technologies.



Indicative topics covered



Sources of Transnational Commercial Law and the interactions of Lex Mercatoria with public international law, International Conventions, Model Uniform Law, UNCITRAL, Reception and Approximation in National Law, Conflicts of Law, International Commercial Customs and Practice, The Role of International Chamber of Commerce; International Sales of Goods, The Vienna Convention 1980, UNIDROIT Principles; Standard Trade Terms especially INCOTERMS; Commercial Paper and Finance of International Sales, Documents of Title, Bills of Lading, Mates' Receipts, Consignment Notes, Paperless Documents and EDI, UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce, comparative analysis of electronic commerce and electronic signature regimes, Negotiable Instruments, Payment Collection Arrangements, Mergers and Acquisition, Oil and Gas Transactions, Letters of Credit, Performance Bonds and Guarantees, Export Credit Guarantees; Licensing and Franchising; Dispute Resolution with special emphasis on the resolution of disputes involving parties across the developed and developing states divide.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW810 - International Law on Foreign Investment (20 credits)

This module explores the legal implications (practical and theoretical) of foreign direct investment. Attention is paid to the perspectives of states, investors, civil society actors and theorists; and to placing legal implications in their economic, social, political and historical context. Questions considered include:



• What political, economic and legal actors and factors have shaped the international law on foreign investment?

• What are the legal implications of the fact that most foreign investments are made by corporations?

• What roles can host state legal systems play in attracting and regulating foreign investments?

• What international legal mechanisms are used to enable foreign investment?

• What challenges do current concerns with corruption and tax evasion pose to existing international law on foreign investment?

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW814 - Public International Law (20 credits)

The topics covered within this module reflect the orthodox appreciation of Public International Law. It is anticipated that the following subjects will be considered:

1. The history and theory of international law and the problems with definitions

2. Sources of international law with particular emphasis upon treaties, treaty interpretation, and custom

3. Sovereignty and recognition of states

4. International organisations in international law

5. Jurisdiction and immunity from jurisdiction

6. Settlement of disputes between states

7. State responsibility

8. Human rights in international law

9. Current issues concerning the law of the sea and/or the law of air space and outer space

10. The financial institutions and their role in international law

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW815 - EU Constitutional and Institutional Law (20 credits)

This module focuses on the foundational rules, principles and doctrines underpinning the constitutional and institutional legal framework of the European Union. Against the backdrop of Brexit, financial turbulence within the Eurozone and the recent structural reforms to the Union introduced by the 2007 Lisbon Treaty, this core area of EU law has gained heightened political and legal significance in the context of on-going debates on the nature and extent of European legal integration.



The following specific topics will be considered in this module: the respective roles, competencies and powers of the EU's main political and judicial institutions; foundational legal principles underpinning the EU's legal framework including direct effect and supremacy of Union law; the relationship between the EU’s Court of Justice and national courts of the Member States; enforcement mechanisms of EU law; human rights in EU law and the impact of EU Citizenship. In addition, at the end of the module students will have an opportunity to take stock and appraise the 'constitutional’ nature and impact of the Union.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW839 - Environmental Quality Law (20 credits)

This module provides an introduction to the law on environmental quality and a preface to regulatory themes that are pursued in other environmental modules. In common language, the module is about the law relating to 'pollution', but, as will be seen, this is a concept that is quite difficult to define with the precision that is needed as a basis for legal rights and duties. 'Environmental quality' is a broader term, encompassing issues as to the degree of contamination that is considered acceptable in relation to the three environmental media of water, air and land. Broadly, the module is organised around the progression of approaches that law has taken towards the regulation of those activities that have been identified as most damaging to the environmental media. Although, this involves careful examination and evaluation of national laws relating to pollution control, attention is increasingly focused upon regulatory requirements drawn from European Union and international law. The module seeks to assess different models and strategies for environmental quality regulation against broader objectives for the environment in reflecting upon what it is that is to be regulated, and why, and whether actual approaches to regulation are the best way of achieving this.



Topics covered



Session 1: Objectives of environmental quality law

Session 2: Environmental quality and private rights

Session 3: Environmental liability and environmental human rights

Session 4: Water quality regulation

Session 5: Air quality law

Session 6: Waste management law

Session 7: The Integration of pollution control

Session 8: Enforcement and the Environment Agency

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW844 - Legal Aspects of Contemporary International Problems (20 credits)

International Law (IL) is consumed by crisis from both within and without. As a discipline and vocation, IL is grappling to (re)define its identity and purposes in the light of how the project can no longer be equated solely with the traditional nation-states system. IL, today, is increasingly spoken of with reference to 'networks' as opposed to 'nations', and more nuanced shades of legal personality appear manifest as illustrated by a bricolage of states, aspiring states, international organisations, international courts/tribunals, transnational corporations, nongovernmental organisations and "terrorists". What once appeared to be a consolidated discipline with a common vocabulary has now transformed into a dense web of specialised, overlapping and sometimes competing 'legal' prescriptions, e.g.: international human rights; global administrative law; and international trade. Looking outward, IL must also confront its greatest challenge of social relevance in face of the increasing 'global' as opposed to 'international' nature of political, economic and social life. The complexity of interconnections in contemporary legal practice which have emerged now prompt questions over once constitutive axioms for international legal thought and order, i.e., public versus private, international versus domestic and 'hard' versus 'soft' law. In sum, this module takes the view that law does not stand apart and simply mediate world affairs; law is in fact a constitutive element of the defined problems of our time. Thus, the aim will be to examine how (international) law, whether explicitly or implicitly, is involved in structuring inequalities of international power and welfare. In this way, the module focuses less on adjudicated cases and more on the systemic aspects of global law which work to influence political, economic and social outcomes (e.g. contested problems) in contemporary global life.



The topics covered will change from year to year as contemporary disputes evolve and will also depend upon the express interests of the class. As of now it is anticipated that the following contemporary international problems will be assessed with respect to their constitutive legal dynamics:-

1. The Judicialisation of International Law

2. International Blacklisting

3. The Rise of Transnational Law and Regulation

4. The Right to self-determination with special reference to Kosovo

5. Targeted Killing

6. Biological, Chemical and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

7. Military Lawyers in the Battlefield

8. Global Corporations and International Law

9. The Law and Politics of the International Investment Regime

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW847 - World Trade Organisation (WTO) Law and Practice I (20 credits)

The establishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995 has signalled the beginning of a new era in international economic relations. Unlike the GATT, whose main purpose was the reduction of barriers on trade in goods, the WTO legal regime reach deeper into more areas of policy-making, ranging from the regulation of services and investments to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) the WTO has the capacity to generate case-law on the resolution of disputes under the WTO agreements that it covers. This marks a significant shift from the earlier GATT dispute settlement mechanism as it creates, for the first time on the multilateral level, a binding decision-making apparatus. Thus any serious attempt to understand the nature and development of international economic law requires a careful and detailed study of the WTO and its law and practice. It is the cornerstone of the new global economic order. This module offers a comprehensive overview of this evolving legal and regulatory order.



Topics covered



1. Theoretical and Political Approaches to International Economic Regulation of Trade; the main actors: states, multinational enterprises, civil society and NGOs

2. Free Trade Theory and Practice

3. The Institutional Context: the Bretton Woods System, the GATT and the WTO

4. The WTO and developing countries: GATT preferences and WTO Special and Differential Treatment

5. The Dispute Settlement Understanding

6. Trade in Agriculture

7. Trade in Services

8. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

9. The rise of 'mega-market' trade agreements

10. Alternative trade arrangements

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW852 - European Environmental Law and Policy (20 credits)

This module provides an overview of the policy and legislation of the European Union in relation to the environment and ecological protection, with particular sectors considered in more detail in other environmental modules. The overall purpose of the module is to appreciate the significance of European Union law as a system of regional international law seeking to harmonize the national laws of the Member States according to common principles of environmental regulation. An initial focus is upon foundational issues including the nature of the European Union, basic principles of European Union environmental policy and law, and problematic issues such as the tension between free trade and environmental protection. Attention is also given to particular examples of environmental measures, with some discussion of how these are implemented in national law. Finally, discussion is provided as to recent and forthcoming developments at European Union level, including critical issues of participation, implementation and enforcement, at European Union and national levels.



Topics covered



• introductory session: a scan of the module

• the evolution of European Union environmental competence

• fundamental environmental objectives of the European Union

• the basis for substantive environmental legislation

• reconciling environmental protection and trade

• substantive European Union legislation on waste regulation

• environmental information and participation

• alternative strategies in environmental regulation

• the implementation and enforcement of environmental legislation

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW862 - Death and Dying (20 credits)

This module aims to explore how the law is involved in matters to do with death and dying. The curriculum includes an investigation of the dying process and how this impacts on definitions of death. The relationship of medical law and ethics to the criminal law in relation to physician assisted death will be explored and evaluated as it is manifested in various jurisdictions. The appropriate role for autonomy, rights and ethical considerations where making decisions over death is concerned will be related to existing mechanisms such as advance directives.



Topics covered



• legal definitions of death

• ethical, spiritual and medical frameworks underpinning understandings of death and the dying process

• the practical and ethical difficulties associated with death and the dying process

• the care and needs of the dying

• euthanasia and clinically assisted death and their implications

• overview of how different jurisdictions provide ethical and legal regulation of end of life decision making, and the impact this has on those concerned

• the role of living wills, advance directives and clinical judgement

• the role of patient autonomy in relation to death and dying

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW921 - Privacy and Data Protection Law (20 credits)

The module will explore emerging privacy and data protection issues, including Big Data, CTV surveillance, Internet and cyber surveillance, and cross-border information flows, legal structures and privacy protection measures. Students will be challenged to critically examine how personal, financial, health and transactional data are managed and who has access to this information. It will require students to assess emerging legal, regulatory, data protection and personal privacy issues raised by widespread access to personal information, including genetic data. The module will focus on the legal data protection, human rights, consent, confidentiality, and IT data security questions that arise when personal information is accessed by the state, law enforcement agencies, corporations and business, employers, health clinicians and researchers.



The essential aims and objectives of the proposed LLM module are to equip students to undertake a sustained analysis of privacy and data protection law. Students will be asked to critically examine whether privacy protection, consent and confidentiality measures are proportionate to the legal requirements to protect personal information while balancing the requirements of economic commerce, the state and public administrations to collect, use and share personal information.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW908 - International and Comparative Consumer Law and Policy (20 credits)

Consumer law is a significant area of business regulation in many parts of the world. The EU has developed an ambitious programme of harmonization, provides intriguing approaches to transnational governance of markets, and competes as an international model of consumer law with models such as the US. Standards for consumer products and services are increasingly established at the international level through "private" bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO)

The module is structured as follows:

• An introduction to the rationales for and explanations for the growth of consumer law and policy at the national and international level. An introduction to transnational, comparative and international dimensions of consumer regulation and relevant institutional structures.

• Contemporary EU consumer law and policy. This section provides an analysis of the nature and structure of consumer policy and consumer law in the EU through an analysis of selected areas which may include unfair commercial practices; product safety; internet regulation; unfair contract terms: and consumer credit. We consider central ideas institutional structures, and implementation mechanisms set against the background of contemporary approaches to regulation in the EU.

• Critical analysis of international, regional and national regulation of consumer credit and debt.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW923 - Economic Sociology of Law (20 credits)

What causes us to forget that 'the economy' and 'the law' are made up of interacting human beings? Why does it matter? These are questions that are relevant to every person in every country. They are the questions that motivate the emergent field of Economic Sociology of Law (ESL), which takes sociologically-inspired approaches to relationships between the 'economic' (the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services) and the ‘legal’ (the use, abuse and avoidance of legal rules and institutions). In this module we systematically (that is, addressing the analytical, empirical and normative components) explore the limitations of orthodox legal and economic approaches, and examine how Economic Sociology of Law might compensate for them. There is a strong practical and empirical emphasis, and examples are drawn from current events and policy from all over the world. Questions considered include:



• Where do the concepts of ‘economy’, ‘law’ and ‘society’ come from?

• What do they signify?

• Are they uniformly accepted?

• Mutually exclusive?

• What are the substantive focus of legal, sociological and economic approaches to law and economy?

• How do these disciplines (conceptually and empirically) approach legal rules, institutions and practices?

• Why – in pursuit of what values and interests – is it useful to take any of these approaches to law?



Emphasis is likely to be placed on the property rights and ‘transaction costs’, formality and informality, markets and ‘market failure’, state intervention and regulation and corruption.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW927 - Law and the Humanities 1: Ethos and Scholarship (Intensive Delivery) (20 credits)

This module provides students with a solid grounding in law and the humanities, a distinct approach to law that draws upon disciplines like political theory, literature, film studies, history and social theory. The module familiarises students with key questions in the field, provides training in humanities methods in relation to law, and equips students with a clear and rigorous approach to all their present and future academic work. No special knowledge or experience of any particular discipline is required to undertake the module.

The module is organized around three main questions;

Part one interrogates what is distinctive about law and humanities research methodology by considering the relation between the scholar and their object of study. We ask how the humanities consider this problem, with attention to the special case of law and the legal tradition. Students will find this helpful in thinking through their own relationship with topics of interest in their research.



Part two will consider the notion of "critical" scholarship, by asking the question of what legal scholarship can do, or what it is for. Students will have the opportunity to reflect on critical scholarship's function in relation to key questions of politics, ethics, and justice.



Part three takes up the theme of responsibility. What options does current scholarship offer for thinking about the responsibility of the scholar? Can humanities-based approaches to law offer a distinctive answer to the question of the scholar's responsibility, or to whom (or what) they might be responsible?

Considering law in relation to the textual tradition broadly understood, this module emphasizes the skills of reading, critical analysis, writing and argument-making across a range of different texts, cultural media, and legal questions.

There will be a practical focus on producing well-crafted and supported arguments. The module will help students to develop an incisive paradigm for their dissertation in the final stage of their masters programme, whatever its disciplinary orientation might be. Where possible, the module will encourage students who are interested in further academic study to produce assessment that could be shaped for publication with a suitable journal in the field of law and the humanities.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW871 - Policing (20 credits)

This module offers a critical study of policing from historical, legal, political and social perspectives. It focuses primarily on policing in the United Kingdom, with other appropriate jurisdictions (including the European Union) being used for comparative purposes.



Topics covered



• History of the structure, organisation and concept of the police

• Ethical and legal principles underlying policing as well as the implications for policing of the European Convention on Human Rights

• The different functions of policing

• Police culture

• Police powers and procedures

• Public order policing

• Police governance and accountability

• Cross-border police co-operation

• Private policing

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW864 - Foundations of the English Legal System (20 credits)

This module is intended to provide a deep grounding in the prerequisites for understanding a body of law in its theoretical, legal, ethical and practical contexts in order to provide them with the skills required for postgraduate legal study. The socio-legal, ethical, and professional aspects of medical law and ethics in context will be drawn upon as a focus to demonstrate how to acquire and apply the requisite skills. Students will be provided with research training tailored to the requirements of postgraduate legal scholarship. They will gain practice in evaluating theoretical frameworks presented to them in scholarly commentary in order to use them as analytic tools in their own written work. Students will be challenged to critically examine legal texts such as sources of English common law, together with scholarly commentary, in order to hone their abilities to construct reasoned arguments and to choose appropriate theoretical frameworks in their written assessments at postgraduate level.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW905 - International Financial Services Regulation (20 credits)

This module is about the regulatory regimes that govern financial sectors of the economy. It focuses on the very recent history of regulation in this field and it examines domestic and international aspects of how states and societies enact and perform regulation of financial firms and transactions. The module is built around three inter-related elements:



• Development of the New International Financial Architecture (NIFA), a set of institutions, standards and processes that have been established during the last ten years to increase the stability of financial sectors globally, particularly in the so-called "emerging economies", and to expand markets for the services and products of financial firms. This element of the module will entail study of (a) the construction of economic crises of the 1990s as a threat to the global economic order; (b) the creation of new international groupings and institutions, (eg., the Financial Stability Forum and the G-20) and new roles for older institutions (e.g. surveillance by the IMF and the World Bank Group through the Financial System Assessment Program) to address the threat, (c) regulatory technique in the international arena, including standard setting, harmonization and compliance, and other dimensions of governance through soft law.

• Relationships between the NIFA and the changing modes of governing domestic financial sectors: This element of the module will entail study of (a) the emergence of integrated financial sector regulators in many jurisdictions; (b) interaction between the domestic / regional and the international spheres in response to concerns about financial instability, risk and 'contagion'. (Relevant responses include implementation of Basel II, the Lender of Last Resort, and the development of international standards of insurance supervision); and (c) comparative analysis of the market governance regimes established by integrated regulators in terms of their capacities to protect domestic consumers of financial services.

• Critical analysis of scholarly and policy literature on regulation of the financial sectors. This element of the module will entail reflective assessment of how authors of literature on financial sector regulation execute the craft of research by reference to factors such as linkages to relevant literatures, originality of authors' claims, strength of argument and analysis of data.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW906 - International Enviromental Law - Legal Foundations (20 credits)

This module is designed to examine and assess the core foundational legal principles and regulatory structures underpinning international environmental law and policy. Specifically, it considers the various core sources of international law relating to the environment, the principal international institutions involved in its development as well as legal issues involved relating to its implementation and enforcement.



Whilst specific topic areas may vary according to the pedagogical preferences of the module convenor, indicatively the module may be expected to cover all or most of the following topic areas which address key aspects of the legal foundations of international environmental law:



• Historical context and development of international environmental law

• Legal sources: (1) sources and structures of public international law; legal instrumentation; (2) general principles of international environmental law; (3) international human rights and the environment

• Institutional issues: the role of international organisations, states and non-governmental actors in international environmental law's development, the legal relations between the EU and the international community in the environmental sector

• Implementation and enforcement (1): the role of public institutions at international level (responsibilities of states and the role of international institutions); (2) the role of private persons and access to environmental justice under international environmental law

• Selected case study: eg, international law on climate change or waste shipment.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW907 - Commercial Credit (20 credits)

Credit and financing are the lifeblood of capitalism. Commercial credit and the taking of security is an area of law that is of significant economic and social importance in developed and developing economies. The most recent world financial crisis was triggered by failures in debt markets associated with household financing. This module explores central ideas about the role of commercial financing in the economy, its contribution to economic development, different international approaches to legal regulation, international competition between models and the role of legal transplantation.



We focus initially in this module on the economic and social role of commercial credit law, its role in economic development and international initiatives to promote reform and harmonisation. The module then considers the central role of security in commercial credit and discusses both English and North American approaches to the regulation of security interests and their treatment in insolvency. The module highlights the fundamental ideas, principles and policies in these contrasting systems. The module then considers the role of Islamic Finance and outlines its basic principles and assumptions and structures of financing. It considers finally the role of microfinance as a case study of the role of credit in development.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW866 - Medical Practice and Malpractice (20 credits)

This module seeks to provide the student with an understanding of the legal, ethical and practical issues involved in medical practice and malpractice. Those issues will be explored from the ground up and will provide all students a full opportunity, regardless of their knowledge of law, to get to grips with the fundamental principles of practical legal analysis from a fault-based perspective. In so doing, the legal and institutional contexts within which the many duties of medicine operate will be subjected to a detailed critical analysis.



Essentially, this module will link the multifarious medical legal theories to the realities of medical negligence and litigation; thereby affording the student a practitioner based insight into how modern medicine interacts within current legal practice.



Topics Covered



• the legal relationship between the practitioner, the patient and the NHS

• analysis of the legal and evidential burdens in medical negligence

• complaints and discipline procedures for healthcare professionals

• courts and tribunal processes in medical negligence litigation

• resource allocation constraints

• legal concepts of risk and recklessness in medical practice

• the role of money and litigation

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW867 - Reproduction and the Beginnings of Life (20 credits)

This module aims to explore legal and ethical issues in medicine relating to human reproduction and the beginning of life.



Topics covered



• the moral status of the embryo/foetus

• abortion

• the regulation of pregnancy, including liability for antenatal harm

• childbirth

• human fertilization and embryology, including embryo research, cloning, human admixed embryos (animal/human 'hybrids'), artificial gametes etc

• the 'designer baby' debates and selecting the characteristics of future children via pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (including sex selection, selecting for/against disability, saviour siblings).

• surrogacy

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW884 - International Environmental Law - SubstantiveLegal Aspects (20 credits)

This module is designed to examine and assess selected substantive legal aspects of International Environmental Law. For this purpose, the module is divided into two main parts. The first part considers particular sectors of environmental policy that are the subject of international legal regulation and obligations. This will involve an appraisal of how international legal regulation has developed in these areas, taking into account various challenges, legal and political, that have been influential in shaping their respective evolution. The second part of the module focuses on selected legal topics concerning the implementation of international environmental law. In particular, it will consider various relatively recent developments in international environmental that have served to broaden out participation beyond the level of the nation state as regards the monitoring and enforcement of international environmental protection obligations.



Topics covered



The module will cover a range of substantive legal aspects of international environmental law (the list of topics may change over time to accommodate legal developments and/or teaching and learning considerations). Indicatively, the module may be expected to cover all/some of the following topic areas:



A. Selected substantive sectors of International Environmental Law

• Atmospheric pollution (1): Air pollution

• Atmospheric pollution (2): Climate change

• Water (1) : marine environment

• Water (2): freshwater resources

• Waste management



B. Selected aspects of implementation of International Environmental Law

• Civil society and implementation of International Environmental Law: the impact of the 1998 Århus Convention

• Civil liability and International Environmental Law

• Criminal liability and International Environmental Law

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW886 - Transnational Criminal Law (20 credits)

In this module we study the main principles, key institutions, policies and politics of transnational criminal law. We explore selected examples of transnational offending and international legal responses thereto in the light of current theoretical, political and doctrinal debates. We consider transnational crimes and the mechanisms by which states cooperate with each other and with international institutions in order to enforce their domestic criminal law. Some of the key debates considered include: the nature of transnational criminal law as an emerging regime; the relationship between human rights and transnational criminal law; the role of the United Nations Security Council in transnational criminal law and critically the role of the individual in the transnational criminal legal system.



Topics covered



• The historical development of transnational criminal law

• The phenomenon of transnational organized crime and jurisdiction over transnational crime

• Money laundering and terrorist financing

• Terrorism

• Drug trafficking

• People trafficking

• Extradition and Abduction

• Mutual Legal Assistance

• International Police Cooperation

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW888 - Climate Change and Renewable Energy Law (20 credits)

This module examines a range of topics relating to the legal regulation of anthropogenic climate change and the promotion of renewable and other alternative forms of energy generation and conservation.



While the module requires introductory coverage of the international context, and explores some of the specific ethical and policy questions that tackling climate change engages, the module does not cover those aspects of the international legal regulation of climate change that are covered in LW906 International Environmental Law: Legal Foundations or any coverage that there may be in LW884 International Environmental Law: Substantive Legal Aspects. The focus is on the EU and national level, and comparative analysis.



Topics covered



• Climate Change as a Policy Problem: the International Law and Policy Context

• EU Climate Change I: an Overview of the Law and Policy of the EU

• EU Climate Change II: Controlling Emissions through Traditional Regulatory Forms

• EU Climate Change III: The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme and comparative economic incentive approaches

• UK Climate Change I: Legal Obligations under the UK Climate Change Act 2008

• UK Climate Change II: The Institutional Dimension: the UK Committee on Climate Change

• Comparative Climate Change Reduction Duties and Proposals: Canada as a case study

• Carbon Capture and Sequestration: International, EU and national legal Issues

• Flexibility mechanisms

• Climate Change Litigation: Liability mechanisms in comparative perspective

• Promoting Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation: General Legal and Policy Issues, and case study

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW899 - Corporate Governance (20 credits)

The module's core covers three approaches to corporate governance: historical, conceptual and comparative. It will thus cover:

- The historical development of the separate legal identity of the corporation;

- The historical development of the corporate share as an autonomous piece of financial property;

- The separation of ownership and control and its consequences for law and policy;

- Property-based and contract-based theories of corporate governance;

- The concept of shareholder value and its contradictions;

- The practical legal significance of 'shareholder primacy' or the lack thereof;

- Shareholder and stakeholder-based theories of corporate governance in the context of varieties of capitalism;

- The 'legal origins' school, its impact and its implications.

- The spread of shareholder-primacy as the dominant model of corporate governance through different methods (competitive pressure, conditionality and international financial institutions, FDI based pressures).



The module will further cover various issues of particular contemporary salience and relevance as they come to light. Prominent examples of these might be national and/or international efforts towards corporate governance reform in reaction to either individual corporate scandals or global financial crises and economic downturns, and the interplay of tort litigation and Corporate Social Responsibility.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW928 - Law and the Humanities 2: Current Issues (Intensive Delivery) (20 credits)

This module presents students with a selection of the most important contemporary debates in the field of law and the humanities. Drawing in any one year from a range of current issues in the field, the module addresses a larger set of themes situated at the intersection between the humanities and law. These themes include: textuality, performativity, representation, memory, iconography, tradition, the archive, rhetoric, aesthetics, and affect. The module therefore encourages a deeper understanding of law's relationship to humanities disciplines such as literature, visual culture, history, language, and political and social theory.

In synthesizing the intellectual heritage of law's traditions, institutions and pragmatics with the theoretical and methodological richness of the humanities, the module provides students with both a critical appreciation of the impact of humanities scholarship on law and a clear sense of what the study of law contributes to the humanities. By emphasizing this cross-fertilisation, the module strengthens students’ intellectual, analytical, critical and imaginative capabilities, whilst cultivating specific learning skills including critical reading, effective writing and argument-development. This training will help students to create an effective framework for their final dissertation, whatever its disciplinary orientation. Where possible, the module will encourage students who are interested in further academic study to produce assessment that could be shaped for publication with a suitable journal in the field of law and the humanities.

The module provides an intellectual space in which students will become acquainted with a range of theoretical perspectives and methodologies, and nurtures a more rigorous approach to their present and future academic engagement and research. However, no special knowledge or experience of any particular discipline is required in order to take this module.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW924 - EU Criminal Law and Procedure (20 credits)

This module offers a critical study of the origins, principles, concepts and practices of European Union criminal law and procedure from historical, constitutional, legal, political and social perspectives. It also addresses how national criminal law and procedure (especially that in the United Kingdom) are being shaped by developments at EU level, and explores the emergence of a distinct EU criminal process.



Topics covered



• Origins and development of criminal law and procedure;

• Law and policy making processes;

• Europol and cross-border police cooperation;

• Cross-border evidence gathering;

• European arrest warrant;

• European Public Prosecutor;

• EU criminal law measures in areas such as: money-laundering, organised crime and terrorism;

• Protection of human rights;

• Relationship with developments in international criminal law; and

• Historical, political, legal, cultural, social and criminological forces driving and shaping developments in EU criminal law and procedure.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW925 - Cultural Heritage Law (20 credits)

Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which started with the protection of historical monuments in the 19th century and now includes intangible values.



This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. Academic research now aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property. It aims to give coherence to practices shaped by art dealers, collectors, museums, communities and States, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law. Those different interactions have developed a less than coherent legal framework that will be comparatively analyzed by reference to French, English and American Law.



The different topics studies include (but are not limited to):



• The origins of cultural property and the definitions of cultural heritage

• The development of a national and international framework of cultural heritage law (with an emphasis on the role of the European Union and of UNESCO), including the protection of cultural heritage in time of war as well as the international trade of cultural property in time of peace (private international law and International conventions on the transfer of ownership of stolen art and illegally exported items)

• Dealing with the past: the reversal of historic wrongs (including human remains and World War II spoliation)

• The role of Alternative Dispute Resolution in cultural heritage disputes

• The role of the State and of Museums in the creation/implementation of cultural policies

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW916 - European Union International Relations Law (20 credits)

This module explores the external relations law of the European Union with third countries and international organisations. This is an increasingly important area given that the EU has evolved into the largest regional trading and political bloc on the world stage. Having focused initially on developing a common trading policy with the international community, since the early 1990s the EU has steadily broadened the range of its powers to be able to engage in political as well as military issues on the international scene. A significant milestone was the formal establishment of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy by the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. More recently, the Lisbon Treaty 2007 further enhanced the EU's role in foreign affairs through a series of institutional changes and innovations, notably including the introduction of the 'External Action Service', which is the EU counterpart to national diplomatic services, and the Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.



The module will critically explore three broader areas:

- the institutional and legal framework of EU external relations law, including the division of competences between the EU and the Member States and the expansion of the EU powers over time;

- selected specific policy areas, such as the Common Commercial Policy, the Common Foreign and Security Policy, and EU development policy, along with their different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives and underlying political perspectives; and

- the different types of instruments and policies employed vis-à-vis third countries or groups of countries, such as association agreements, accession conditionality for current and prospective candidate countries, and the European Neighbourhood Policy.



While the literature in the field has typically focused on the legal and institutional issues surrounding EU external relations, this module will offer a contextual, interdisciplinary and critical approach. For example, the module will include political science literature on the effects of EU external policies e.g. in the field of development law, as well as assessing critically the EU's external conditionality and the broader phenomenon of 'EU external governance'.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW918 - International and Comparative Bankruptcy and Insolvency Law & Policy (20 credits)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency law has become a central aspect of commercial law. The restructuring of capitalism since the 1970s, the growth of neo-liberalism, the increased use of debt financing by both firms and individuals, and the volatility of the international economy have contributed to its international importance. The World Bank views a 'modern' insolvency law as central to the development infrastructure, it is linked to fostering entrepreneurialism as well as providing a safety net for individuals in a high debt economy. This course provides a critical introduction to central issues in business and personal insolvency.



Topics covered



1. Theories of insolvency law.

2. The English model: Central issues in insolvency law: The role of secured credit in bankruptcy law. Liquidation and reorganization.

3. The North American model: Chapter 11

4. Personal Insolvency

5. Cross-border and international insolvency

6. The future of bankruptcy in an age of austerity

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW922 - Labour Rights in a Global Economy (20 credits)

The 'new global economy' (global integration of production and increased migration, digital and informational technologies, transformations in work and production processes, the shift to services, and the informalisation of work) has undermined the pillars upon which labour law was constructed after World War II in developed capitalist economies. Moreover, contrary to expectation, informal work has not diminished in emerging and developing economies, and has, in fact, increased. In this context, a new strategy for achieving labour standards and protecting workers has emerged. Labour rights are now conceptualised as a species of human rights and they are asserted before various international, transnational, and domestic human rights bodies and courts. The focus of this module will be on international and transnational norms and institutions, and their interaction with national/domestic labour regimes. We will consider changing forms (from labour standard to labour rights and hard to soft law) and scales (national to transnational and international) of regulation, the changing 'subjects' of labour law (women, migrant workers, 'solo' self-employed), and the changing goals of labour law (flexibility and competiveness versus security and protection). Labour rights will be placed in their social, economic, and political context.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW863 - Consent to Treatment (20 credits)

This module aims to explore the legal principles which underpin the need for consent to medical treatment.



Topics covered



• salient principles such as the respect for autonomy

• the entitlement to informed consent

• the criteria for competence and capacity

• the consequences of incapacity for minors and those adjudged to be incompetent

• the criminal and tortuous consequences of treatment without consent

• limitations on consent

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW846 - International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law (20 credits)

This module provides a critical examination of the principles and institutions and theory and practice of international criminal law. The module introduces the aims and objectives of international criminal law and examines the establishment and operation of international criminal justice institutions, and the substantive law of international crimes. It explores key theoretical and doctrinal debates in international criminal law. In particular, it seeks to locate the work of international criminal courts and tribunals in their broader political and contextual contexts. Case studies and special topics in international criminal law, form an important part of the module.



Topics covered



• Introduction to International Criminal Law

• International Criminal Institutions

• Jurisdictional Issues

• The Defence, Witnesses and Victims

• International Criminal Court

• Crimes against Humanity

• Genocide

• War Crimes

• Aggression

• Modes of Liability

• Political and Contextual Considerations

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW843 - International Human Rights Law (20 credits)

• Historical Development of Human Rights in the International Society;

• The Idea of Human Rights in Western Traditions;

• Universality of Human Rights and the Asian and African Perspectives;

• The United Nations and Human Rights: Standard-Setting and Institutions;

• The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the Human Rights Committee;

• The Council of Europe and the European Convention on Human Rights (The Admissibility Criteria and Procedural Requirements under the ECHR);

• The Organization of American States (OAS) and the American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) & The Organization for African Unity (OAU) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR);

• The Theory and Practice of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;

• The Freedom from Torture and Ill-treatment;

• Limitations and Derogation;

• Women's Rights: CEDAW;

• Development, Democracy and Human Rights: Theoretical Appraisal

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW837 - Conservation and Natural Resources Law (20 credits)

The conservation and sustainable use of living natural resources or biodiversity represents a key element in securing the overarching environmental policy objective of sustainable development. Globally, the protection of the world's endangered species, habitats and ecosystems is becoming an ever more urgent task. The module traces the historical progression from approaches based on property rights, welfare based legislation to more genuinely conservation oriented laws. From early national legislation concerned with the direct protection of wildlife and the protection of ecologically important habitats the module turns to look at ecological law from broader European Union and global international perspectives. Discussions of the EU Wild Birds and Habitats Directives, and the Biodiversity Convention are used to illustrate some of the key legal features in biodiversity conservation law. Concluding sessions examine the international trade dimension of conservation law and the protection of fishery resources. The module explores some of the challenges of regulating and managing dynamic ecosystems and the implications of regulation for landholders and those engaged in wildlife exploitation.



Topics Covered



• The Legal Status of Natural Resources

• The Direct Protection of Species and Institutional Responsibilities

• The Protection of Habitats

• The European Union Wild Birds Directive

• The European Union Habitats Directive

• Implementation of European Union Conservation Legislation

• International Trade and Nature Conservation

• The Tragedy of the Commons: Fisheries Resources

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW838 - Land Development Law (20 credits)

The regulation of land development and land use is a key element in the legal response to the need to protect the environment and to secure broader environmental policy objectives such as sustainable development and the enhancement of biodiversity. Development places perhaps the greatest stress on natural resources and environmental quality. In many legal systems the decision to grant development consent is critical. This module considers the role of strategic and specific planning controls in preventing and mitigating environmental harm. This module provides discussion of private law forms of land use control and of current debates in property law about restraining owners' rights because of social constraints such as environmental protection, and also the impact of human rights laws which seek to protect property rights from undue state interference. There is a strong emphasis on those legal forms which are found both internationally and across jurisdictions, in particular environmental assessment. Particular attention is given to the European Union Environmental Impact Assessment Directive and the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive, and the difficulties in implementing these that have arisen in the member states.



Topics Covered



• Private Control of Land Development

• Public Law Origins of Land Use Regulation

• Land Development and Human Rights

• Development Planning

• Development Control

• Planning Conditions and Obligations

• The EU Environmental Impact Assessment Directive

• Implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment

• The EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW811 - International Commercial Arbitration (20 credits)

The aim of the module is to focus on the theoretical, institutional and practical aspects of modern international commercial arbitration. This would involve a close examination of the ad hoc systems and the main institutional structures (eg, ICC, ICSID, WIPO, Iran-US Claims Tribunal, and PCA). The module covers current issues and developments relating to international commercial arbitration including: arbitral jurisdiction; applicable procedural and substantive laws; the status and role of arbitration agreements; the conduct of arbitral proceedings; the arbitral award; challenge, recognition and enforcement of award; and online arbitration/online dispute resolution (ODR). The English Arbitration Act 1996 and the UNCITRAL Rules as well as the UNCITRAL Model Law will be examined closely. The course will also critically examine the relationship between international commercial arbitration and international development law as well as aspects of the international commercial arbitration concerning sovereign states in oil and gas disputes. Comparative study will be made of the emerging commercial arbitration legislation and international arbitral practice of certain developing states such as Nigeria, India and China. The course also aims to provide an appreciation of the similarities and contrasts between the work of international arbitral institutions and the work of international courts such as the International Court of Justice in commercial and economic matters.



Topics covered



• The Concept of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and International Commercial Arbitration

• The Applicable Procedural and Substantive Law of Arbitration/ Arbitration Clauses and Submission Agreements

• Arbitration in the resolution of Oil and Gas and Energy Disputes

• Establishment and Organization of Arbitral Tribunal

• Powers, Duties and Jurisdiction of an Arbitral Tribunal

• Public Policy in International Commercial Arbitration

• Trends and Developments in the International Arbitral and Adjudicatory Practice of Energy Disputes

The Arbitral Award and Its Drafting

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW813 - Contemporary Topics in Intellectual Property Law (20 credits)

This module introduces in detail some of the most acute and pressing current problems in intellectual property, such as copyright and piracy in visual arts and music, justification for patents and their effects on scientific knowledge production, and the effects of logos and brands in capitalist symbolic economy. Steering away from often crudely conducted debates, this course aims to provide students with a deep and nuanced understanding of legal internal ways of thinking about intellectual property by introducing them to wider theoretical debates in humanities and social sciences about intellectual properties. The aim is to enable students to form a differentiated assessment of intellectual property law's effects and limitations. Topics to be explored may include:-



• What is original? Does quoting or paraphrasing in literature or art amount to copying?

• Does free knowledge go hand in hand with precarious labour in knowledge industries?

• What are the modes of intellectual credit? Are there other forms of credit than property?

• What is the 'intellectual' in intellectual properties? How do you draw contours around intangible knowledge?

• Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into things?

• Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?

• Do trademarks commodify language?



Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory.



Prior attendance of LW 801 Intellectual Property Law in autumn term is welcome, but not a prerequisite. No prior knowledge of study of patent, copyright or trademarks law is required. Interested students from various disciplines are welcome, subject to prior agreement.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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Teaching and Assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules normally are assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15-20,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

  • provide a postgraduate qualification of value to those intending to play a leading role in any field of law
  • provide a detailed knowledge and high level of understanding of a range of specialised subject areas
  • provide more broadly-based communication skills of general value to those seeking postgraduate employment
  • provide a sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and particular contexts in which law operates
  • provide a degree of specialisation in areas of public international law of individual interest from among the wide range of LLM/PDip options that are available and which require you to engage with academic work which is at the frontiers of scholarship
  • encourage you to develop a critical awareness of the operation of public international law, particularly in contexts which are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution
  • provide you with the skills to undertake supervised research on an agreed topic in law and to encourage the production of original and evaluative commentary that meets high standards of scholarship (applies to LLM only)
  • encourage you to develop critical, analytical and problem-solving skills which can be applied to a wide range of contexts
  • develop your skills of academic legal research, particularly by the written presentation of arguments in a manner which meets relevant academic conventions
  • assist those students who are minded to pursue academic research at a higher level in acquiring a sophisticated grounding in the essential techniques involved by following a specialised module in research methods (applies to LLM only)
  • contribute to widening participation in higher education by taking account of the past experience of applicants in determining admissions whilst ensuring that all students that are admitted possess the potential to complete the programme successfully.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the institutions and structures of public international law and the inter-relationships between them
  • the key concepts, policy issues, principles and relevant sources of law and policy
  • the substantive law relevant to a range of key areas of law and policy
  • the theoretical, social and academic debates which underlie the substantive areas of law
  • the practical contexts in which the law operates
  • the importance of evaluating public international law alongside its theoretical and practical contexts

Intellectual skills

You develop intellectual skills in:

  • effectively applying the knowledge of law and policy to a wide range of situations where relevant practical or theoretical issues are under consideration
  • evaluating issues according to their context, relevance and importance
  • gathering relevant information and accessing key sources by electronic or other means
  • formulating arguments on central issues and areas of controversy, and the ability to present a reasoned opinion based upon relevant materials
  • recognising potential alternative arguments, and contrary evidence, to your own opinion and presenting a reasoned justification for preference
  • demonstrating an independence of mind and the ability to offer critical challenge to received understanding on particular issues
  • an ability to reflect constructively on your learning progression.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in:

  • an awareness of the limitations of present knowledge and matters needing to be resolved by further research
  • the ability to identify and characterise issues of law which arise in practical situations
  • the ability to research and access the main sources of law and policy which are relevant
  • the ability to appreciate and evaluate the main theoretical and political perspectives that underlie the legal provisions
  • the ability to provide a reasoned and justified opinion as to the possible legal consequences in particular circumstances
  • the ability to utilise research skills, at least, to commence further research into unresolved issues.

Transferable skills

You gain the following transferable skills:

  • the ability to identify relevant issues from potentially complex factual situations
  • the ability to undertake research from a diverse range of sources
  • the ability to summarise detailed and complex bodies of information concisely and accurately
  • the ability to formulate arguments in verbal presentations and defend these against opposing views
  • the ability to present information and arguments in written form, in accordance with academic conventions, and appropriately to the intended readership
  • the ability to evaluate personal performance.

Careers

Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School’s Employability Blog.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country’s diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a ‘stage’ at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: over 94% of our postgraduate students who graduated in 2013 found a job or further study opportunity within six months.

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog.

Study support

Postgraduate resources

Postgraduate students at Kent Law School have access to a postgraduate computing room, study area and common room with wireless internet access. The Law School has an active and inclusive extra-curricular academic and social scene, with weekly graduate seminars, a postgraduate student group for all students, and a regular guest lecture programme organised by our research centres (which include the Centre for Critical International Law, the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, and the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law).

Award-winning Law Library

Our Law Library has long been a leader in the development of electronic resources for legal teaching and research. The extensive and up-todate law collection in the University’s Templeman Library is particularly strong on electronic material, and the Electronic Law Library includes numerous legal databases, which are increasingly invaluable tools for research. In addition, you can access the text of thousands of law journals online. Our law librarian is available to train you to use these resources and runs regular legal research classes with postgraduate students.

Support

We have a dedicated postgraduate office, offering support from application to graduation. Research students benefit from a research training programme in the first year. An academic staff member acts as postgraduate research co-ordinator and runs a weekly postgraduate study group, at which students present and discuss research. The Law School provides research students with an allowance for conferences and other research expenses, and an annual printing allowance.

Dynamic publishing culture

Staff publish regularly and widely in journals, conference proceedings and books. Recent contributions include: Modern Law Review; Social & Legal Studies; The Canadian Journal of Law & Society; Legal Studies; Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society.

Global Skills Award

All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme. The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability.  

Entry requirements

A first or good second class honours degree in law or a related subject. Kent Law School (KLS) may also take account of relevant work experience when considering applications.

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

English language entry requirements

For detailed information see our English language requirements web pages. 

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

Research areas

Criminal Justice

Much of the School's research activity in criminal justice takes place in co-operation with the School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research and under the auspices of the Kent Criminal Justice Centre. Established in 1996, the Centre co-ordinates and encourages research in the field of criminal justice, and develops teaching and education initiatives, especially in co-operation with local criminal justice agencies.

Critical Commercial Law and Business Law and Regulation

Kent Law School has established a rich tradition of critical scholarship on the legal regulation of the business practices and commercial relations of market economies. Our experts inform research-led teaching in such fields as consumer debt and bankruptcy, secured credit, intellectual property, International Financial Institutions, economic development, international trade and business transactions, commercial arbitration, international labour regulation, corporate governance, regulation of personal financial services, e-commerce, and the law relating to banking and information technology.

Critical Obligations

Our expertise in the area of obligations shares a commitment to challenging the apparently coherent and common-sense rules of contract and tort. We do this by identifying the conflicts in the world outside of the textbook that shape and destabilise the operation of these rules, and by revealing the ideological, political, and distributive biases that the rules of contract and tort help to perpetuate.

Environmental Law

The Law School has long been established as a recognised centre of excellence in research and graduate teaching in environmental law, spanning international, EC and national law and policy. Current research interests include climate change, the aquatic environment, biodiversity conservation, regulation and enforcement, and trade.

European and Comparative Law

European and Comparative Law is being conducted both at an individual level as well as at the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law, which was established in 2004 with a view to providing a framework for the further development of the Law School’s research and teaching activities in this area. Research and teaching reaches from general areas of comparative and European public and private law to more specialised areas and specific projects.

Gender and Sexuality

Home to the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, Kent Law School makes a significant contribution to the development of feminist perspectives on law, nationally and internationally. The Centre produces wide-ranging interdisciplinary work, drawing on a broad range of intellectual trajectories in addition to legal studies, including political theory, philosophy, sociology, political economy, cultural studies, geography, history, and drama. The Centre explores how sexuality is produced through political categories of difference and how it is governed. The research carried out by the Centre demonstrates a shared preoccupation with inequality and social change.

Governance and Regulation

Legal research involves studying processes of regulation and governance. This research cluster focuses on the character of regulation and governance to critically understand the different modes through which governing takes place such as the conditions, relations of power and effects of governance and regulation. Work within this area is methodologically diverse. Intellectually, it draws on a range of areas including socio-legal studies; Foucauldian perspectives on power and governmentality; Actor Network Theory; feminist political theory and political economy; postcolonial studies; continental political philosophy; and cultural and utopian studies.

Healthcare Law and Ethics

A number of Kent Law School (KLS) staff have interests in the area of Health Care Law and Ethics, focusing in particular on issues relating to human reproduction. Much of the research carried out by scholars in this area is critical and theoretical and has a strong interdisciplinary flavour. In addition to conducting their own research projects, staff have developed strong and fruitful collaborations with ethicists and medical professionals.

International Law

The starting point for research in international law at Kent Law School is that international law is not apolitical and that its political ideology reflects the interests of powerful states and transnational economic actors. In both research and teaching, staff situate international law in the context of histories of colonialism to analyse critically its development, doctrines and ramifications. Critical International Law at KLS engages with theories of political economy, international relations and gender and sexuality to contribute to scholarly and policy debates across the spectrum of international law, which includes public, economic, human rights, criminal and commercial law. Scholars at the Centre for Critical International Law engage in the practical application of international law through litigation, training, research and consultancies for international organisations, NGOs and states.

Law and Political Economy & Law and Development

Law and its relation to political economy are addressed from a variety of angles, including the exploration of the micro and macrolevel of economic regulations as well as theoretical aspects of law and political economy.

Legal Theories and Philosophy

Identifying the fact that several academics do work in cultural theory and political theory (including on normative concepts, religion and the state). While feminist and critical legal theories are focal points at Kent Law School, the departmental expertise also covers more essential aspects such as classical jurisprudence and the application of philosophy to law.

Property Law

Kent Law School's property lawyers have a range of overlapping interests in both global and local property issues. Their work covers indigenous people’s rights, the environment, housing, community land, social enterprise, cultural heritage law and urban design, as well as the question of intellectual property. They have links with anthropologists working at the University and have run a very successful series of workshops exploring common interests. Their research draws on a multiplicity of theoretical perspectives including postcolonialism, feminism, and Foucault. Additional areas of research interest

Other research areas within KLS include:

  • human rights
  • labour law
  • law and culture
  • law, science and technology
  • legal methods and epistemology
  • public law
  • race, religion and the law.

Staff research interests

Full details of staff research interests can be found on the School's website.

Professor Anneli Albi: Professor

Comparative constitutional law; EU constitutional law; EU enlargements; European Neighbourhood Policy.

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Dr Donatella Alessandrini: Reader

International trade theory and practice; neoliberalism; international political economy; development studies.

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Professor Yutaka Arai: Reader

International humanitarian law (including part of international criminal law); the relationship between international humanitarian law and international human rights law.

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Dr Nicola Barker: Senior Lecturer

Marriage and civil partnerships; welfare; human rights.

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Dr Kate Bedford: Reader

Gender, sexuality and international political economy; critical development studies; the World Bank; Latin America, heteronormativity and social policy; gambling regulation and economic regeneration, especially bingo; UK equalities law and policy.

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Dr Anne Bottomley: Reader

Property practices in relation to urban planning and architecture – drawing from Deleuze and theoretical perspectives emerging in anthropology and social theory. Debates surrounding theoretical perspectives within feminism.

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Dr Ruth Cain: Lecturer

Regulation and representation of reproduction and parenting, especially maternity, tracking relationships between law, literature, popular culture and the media, and how these shape perceptions of gender, sexuality and embodiment, health care law, including mental health law; the gendering of capitalism, neo-imperialism and post 9/11 trauma.

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Dr Helen Carr: Reader

Housing law and social welfare, with particular interests in regulation of the poor and with the gendered and racialised dimensions of that regulation.

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Donal Casey: Lecturer

Food governance and regulation; the issues of legitimacy and accountability.

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Dr Emilie Cloatre: Senior Lecturer

The intersection between law and contemporary ‘science and society’ issues, for example patent law and access to health care, and the regulatory networks of climate change. This is particularly (although not exclusively) in the context of developing countries.

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Dr Vicky Conway: Senior Lecturer

Policing and police accountability; miscarriages of justice and the systems put in place by states to provide remedies in such cases.

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Professor Davina Cooper: Professor

Social and political theory; cultural geography; feminism and sexuality; governance and radical politics; Utopian studies. 

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Eleanor Curran: Senior Lecturer

Hobbes; rights theory and the history of rights theory; political theory; moral theory; jurisprudence.

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Dr Karen Devine: Lecturer

The law of obligations; tortious legal issues, particularly those relating to the collection, storage and use of human tissue; decision-making in health care and the role of informed consent; medical law and ethics generally.

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Lisa Dickson: Senior Lecturer

Forensic science and the law; evidence and the trial process; general areas of criminal justice.

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Maria Drakopoulou: Reader

Feminist theory; feminist jurisprudence; legal theory and philosophy; legal history; Roman law; equity and trusts.

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Mairead Enright: Lecturer

Legal regulation of culture and religion, and particularly the effects of legal engagement with traditionally ‘private’ aspects of religious practice for ‘public’ conceptions of membership.

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Professor John Fitzpatrick: Professor; Director of Kent Law Clinic

Human rights law; constitutional law; public legal services; legal process.

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Iain Frame: Lecturer

Legal and economic history, monetary theory, and social and legal theory.

Profile

Dr Simone Glanert: Senior Lecturer

Comparative legal studies; legal translation; statutory interpretation; European law; French law and German law. Recent publications include: De la traductibilité du droit (2011); Comparative Law: Engaging Translation (ed, 2012).

Profile

Dr Emily Grabham: Senior Lecturer

Citizenship; belonging and corporeality; feminist and queer theories of embodiment; labour law; welfare reform and its connection to work/family policy.

Profile

Professor Nick Grief: Professor

Public international law, human rights and EU law, with particular reference to the legal status of nuclear weapons.

Profile

Dr Emily Haslam: Lecturer

Public international law; international criminal law; civil society.

Profile

Martin Hedemann-Robinson: Senior Lecturer

European Union and international environmental law, notably in relation to law enforcement.

Profile

Professor Didi Herman: Professor; Head of School

Gender and sexuality; race, religion and ethnicity; popular culture; social movement; law reform. 

Profile

Dr Kirsty Horsey: Senior Lecturer

Human reproduction and genetics, particularly where these overlap with issues in family law; legal education.

Profile

Professor William Howarth: Professor

Environmental and ecological law, with particular emphasis on the legal protection of the aquatic environment and the ecosystems that it supports.

Profile

Dr Suhraiya Jivraj: Lecturer

Law and religion; equalities, anti-discrimination and human rights law; critical race/postcolonial studies; gender and sexuality; Muslim feminisms and Islamic law. 

Profile

Per Laleng: Lecturer; Director of Mooting

Law of tort – focused on the concept of causation particularly in the context of industrial and other diseases. Other research interests include law and football, and law and photography. 

Profile

Sian Lewis-Anthony: Lecturer

International human rights law, in particular, the right to a fair trial and the issue of the independence and impartiality of the judiciary.

Profile

Professor Robin Mackenzie: Professor

Bioscience and law; body modification; constructions of addiction; death and the dying process; enhancement; feminist perspectives; genetics and other new technologies; neuroethics and law; neuroscience; propertisation and biovalue; psychoactive substances; public health governance; reprogenetics; strategic rhetoric in regulation; surrogacy; critical and cultural theory applied to all of the above.

Profile

Dr Alex Magaisa: Senior Lecturer

Financial services regulation, with special focus on international finance centres (offshore finance jurisdictions); the law relating to corporate groups, with special interest in responsibility for corporate torts; intellectual property and developing countries; general interest in the interaction between law and politics in Africa.

Profile

Dr Francesco Messineo: Lecturer

Public international law with an emphasis on international human rights law (international refugee law, the use of force and the law of armed conflict, international criminal law, the history and philosophy of public international law) EU refugee and immigration law and Italian immigration, asylum and refugee law.

Profile

Dr Gbenga Oduntan: Senior Lecturer

Private and public international law; international courts and tribunals; arbitration; international commercial law; land and maritime boundary and territorial disputes; air and space law; international economic law; immigration and asylum law; constitutional law; criminal justice; scientific and technological issues in policing.

Profile

Connal Parsley: Lecturer

Jurisprudence; critical legal theory; political theory; public law; law and aesthetics; law and film; Australian Aboriginal legal issues; legal ethics.

Profile

Sebastian Payne: Lecturer

The Crown; constitutional reform; the royal prerogative; oversight issues relating to the intelligence and security services; decision making and its relation to law.

Profile

Professor Amanda Perry-Kessaris: Professor

Law and development, including econo-socio-legal development; the role of legal indicators and legal systems in development; economic approaches to law and development.

Profile

Dr Stephen Pethick: Senior Lecturer

Jurisprudence, with emphasis on epistemology and metaphysics and the law; philosophy of language and the law; reasoning and the law; the concept of coherence and its use in legal theory and legal reasoning; the legal writings of Francis Bacon; the history of legal ideas from the early modern period onwards; analytic legal theory; legal history; the law of evidence.

Profile

Nick Piska: Lecturer

A critical engagement with private law, particularly in the area of equity and trusts, and a broader interest in the figure of the equitable subject and the ways in which equitable subjects are produced in modernity.

Profile

David Radlett: Lecturer

The shift in power from the elected and notionally representative and accountable to the unelected and obviously unrepresentatitive and unaccountable.

Profile

Dr Nikolas M. Rajkovic: Lecturer

Theories of public international law; critical approaches to global law and governance; global constitutionalism; post-national adjudication and judicialisation; transnational law and arbitration; legalisation and juridification; international relations theory; lawfare and international criminal law, European human rights law.

Profile

Professor Iain Ramsay: Professor

Regulation of consumer markets at the national, regional and international level, with a particular interest in issues of credit and insolvency, commercial credit and commercial law, focusing on the role of credit law in development.

Profile

Sinead Ring: Lecturer

The legitimacy of the criminal trial, particularly the substantive implications of the criminal process’ professed commitment to the rule of law.

Profile

Professor Geoffrey Samuel: Professor

Law of obligations (English, Roman and French); comparative law; legal remedies; legal theory; legal epistemology.

Profile

Professor Harm Schepel: Professor

Legal sociology; international and European economic law.

Profile

Professor Sally Sheldon: Professor

Medical ethics and law, particularly with reference to reproductive issues; legal regulation of gender and sexuality; fatherhood.

Profile

Dr Sophie Vigneron: Senior Lecturer

French public and private law; English tort law; art law; the Europeanisation of private law; cultural heritage law.

Profile

Professor Dermot Walsh: Professor

Policing and criminal justice; criminal procedure; human rights; European criminal law and procedure.

Profile

John Wightman: Senior Lecturer; Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences

Theory, history, and empirical work relating to private law, especially tort and contract.

Profile

Professor Toni Williams: Professor

Regulation and governance of economic development and market relations; regulation of consumer financial services; the implications of information technology for the regulation of consumer markets.

Profile

Dr Simone Wong: Senior Lecturer

Equity; banking and finance; cohabitation and other domestic relationships.

Profile

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Resources

Contacts

Admissions enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

E:information@kent.ac.uk

Subject enquiries

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School website

Fees

The 2016/17 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

Law - Taught LLM at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £6040 £13340
Part-time £3030 £6690
Law - PCrt at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £5430 £13340
Part-time £2720 £6690
Law - Taught PDip at Canterbury:
UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £5430 £13340
Part-time £2720 £6690

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact information@kent.ac.uk

The University of Kent makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in its publicity materials is fair and accurate and to provide educational services as described. However, the courses, services and other matters may be subject to change. Full details of our terms and conditions can be found at: www.kent.ac.uk/termsandconditions.

*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills or Research Council UK) they will be increased up to the allowable level.

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