Law

Law - PCert, PDip, LLM

The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.

Overview

Kent Law School, at the University of Kent, is a leading UK law school with recognised excellence in teaching and legal research. Our distinctive critical approach views the law within the broader social, political and economic contexts in which it operates. You study full-time or part-time and can begin your studies in either September or January.

The Kent LLM: our innovative Master’s in Law

Students come from all over the world to study our innovative Kent LLM, a taught Master’s in Law degree with an international and contemporary focus. The Kent LLM offers an open choice of modules and pathway enabling you to tailor your LLM study to suit your needs and interests. Your specialism is left open until you arrive and is determined by the modules you choose. You can choose to develop in-depth expertise by studying one or two specialised subject pathways or study for a general Kent LLM with no specialist pathway.

Specialist pathways include:

Our critical, research-led approach

Our critical, research-led approach to teaching makes the study of law more interesting and develops crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice. In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law.

Supportive, cosmopolitan and intellectually stimulating

You learn within a supportive, cosmopolitan, and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. We use critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research.

Our flagship Kent LLM is taught at the University’s Canterbury campus. We also offer two defined LLM programmes at the University’s Brussels centre. Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field

January entry

It is possible to start the Kent LLM at Canterbury in September or in January. January entry allows students the flexibility to begin their studies without the need to wait for entry in September. Students who begin the Kent LLM on a full-time basis in January study over a period of 15 months. You study three taught modules in the first spring term and three taught modules in the autumn term. In your second spring term, you write your dissertation. Dissertation submission will be on the final day of the second spring term (usually in early April).

During the summer vacation, you are:

  • required to participate in an online module (Legal Research and Writing Skills)
  • encouraged to begin researching your dissertation 
  • required to attend the LLM Student Conference (in June)
  • encouraged to explore work experience and internships (where visa conditions permit)

Entry requirements

Smiling female postgraduate student
You are more than your grades

For 2022, in response to the challenges caused by Covid-19 we will consider applicants either holding or projected a 2:2. This response is part of our flexible approach to admissions whereby we consider each student and their personal circumstances. If you have any questions, please get in touch.

Entry requirements

A second class honours degree (2.2 or above) or equivalent in law or a related subject. The School may also take account of relevant work experience when considering applications.

All applicants are considered on an individual basis and additional qualifications, professional qualifications and relevant experience may also be taken into account when considering applications. 

International students

Please see our International Student website for entry requirements by country and other relevant information. Due to visa restrictions, students who require a student visa to study cannot study part-time unless undertaking a distance or blended-learning programme with no on-campus provision.

English language entry requirements

The University requires all non-native speakers of English to reach a minimum standard of proficiency in written and spoken English before beginning a postgraduate degree. Certain subjects require a higher level.

For detailed information see our English language requirements web pages. 

Need help with English?

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

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Course structure

Duration: 1 year full-time, 2 years part-time (September start); 15 months full-time, 28 months part-time (January start)

You can tailor your studies to your particular needs and interests to obtain an LLM or Diploma in a single specialisation, in two specialisations jointly, or by choosing a broad range of modules in different areas of law to obtain a general LLM or Diploma in Law.

As a student on the LLM at Canterbury, your choice of specialisation will be shaped by the modules you take and your dissertation topic. To be awarded an LLM in a single specialisation, at least three of your six modules must be chosen from those associated with that specialisation with your dissertation also focusing on that area of law. The other three modules can be chosen from any offered in the Law School. All students are also required to take the Legal Research and Writing Skills module. To be awarded a major/minor specialisation you will need to choose three modules associated with one specialisation, and three from another specialisation, with the dissertation determining which is your 'major' specialisation.

For example, a student who completes at least three modules in International Commercial Law and completes a dissertation in this area would graduate with an LLM in International Commercial Law; a student who completes three Criminal Justice modules and three Environmental Law modules and then undertakes a dissertation which engages with Criminal Justice would graduate with an LLM in Criminal Justice and Environmental Law.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

Compulsory modules currently include

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law; PG Diploma in (Specialisation) and PG Certificate in Law.

This first extracurricular module provides an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level, bearing in mind the international character of our LLM student body. This may include an introduction to the English Legal System (particularly important for international students); a session on the various traditions of Critical Legal Thinking; a session on researching and writing for an LLM essay (particularly important for international students); plagiarism; oral skills; and workshops on using REFWORKS, OSCOLA and other library resources.

Find out more about LAWS9191

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law and PG Diploma in (Specialisation). Also available optionally to students on the PG Certificate in Law.

This second extracurricular module will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project such as their LLM dissertations, learn about other forms of post-graduate studies and career development. Although the focus will be on research methods and theoretical frameworks, other sessions might include: a workshop on editing scholarly work; an introduction to doctoral research; a workshop on working with long documents; and writing a CV.

Find out more about LAWS9192

Optional modules may include

Over the past few decades, the scope of intellectual property has grown significantly. The goal of the module is to provide an overview of copyright and the law of confidential information from different angles in order to be able to assess this expansion. In so doing, it will examine this area of law from historical, theoretical and practical perspectives. The emphasis throughout the module is on reflexive critique. That is, we will study the different modes of justifying copyright and the protection of confidential information; the different historical approaches to trace the ways in which we can understand the political economy of copyright and confidential information and we will look at the past to try to find ways of thinking about the present situation of international legal regimes. On a more contemporary level, we will study the interaction between copyright and freedom of expression, the problems posed by technological works, as well as the more practical question on the way of producing evidence in copyright and breach of confidence trials. No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

Find out more about LAWS8010

This module will examine the problems that arise in commercial transactions between businesses established in different States. The module will concentrate specifically on the 'transnational' nature of such transactions, and some of the solutions characteristically adopted by different legal systems, with emphasis on International, English or the US systems, or where appropriate legal rules and materials of other jurisdictions by way of illustration. The module will also cover the unique features of current transnational business transactions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, and the importance of information and communication technologies.

Find out more about LAWS8020

This module explores the legal implications (practical and theoretical) of foreign direct investment. Attention is paid to the perspectives of states, investors, civil society actors and theorists; and to placing legal implications in their economic, social, political and historical context. Questions considered include:

• What political, economic and legal actors and factors have shaped the international law on foreign investment?

• What are the legal implications of the fact that most foreign investments are made by corporations?

• What roles can host state legal systems play in attracting and regulating foreign investments?

• What international legal mechanisms are used to enable foreign investment?

• What challenges do current concerns with corruption and tax evasion pose to existing international law on foreign investment?

Find out more about LAWS8100

The aim of the module is to focus on the theoretical, institutional and practical aspects of modern international commercial arbitration. This would involve a close examination of the ad hoc systems and the main institutional structures (e.g., ICC, ICSID, WIPO, Iran-US Claims Tribunal, and PCA). The module covers current issues and developments relating to international commercial arbitration including: arbitral jurisdiction; applicable procedural and substantive laws; the status and role of arbitration agreements; the conduct of arbitral proceedings; the arbitral award; challenge, recognition and enforcement of award; and online arbitration/online dispute resolution (ODR). The English Arbitration Act 1996 and the UNCITRAL Rules as well as the UNCITRAL Model Law will be examined closely. The course will also critically examine the relationship between international commercial arbitration and international development law as well as aspects of the international commercial arbitration concerning sovereign states in oil and gas disputes. Comparative study will be made of the emerging commercial arbitration legislation and international arbitral practice of certain developing states such as Nigeria, India and China. The course also aims to provide an appreciation of the similarities and contrasts between the work of international arbitral institutions and the work of international courts such as the International Court of Justice in commercial and economic matters.

Find out more about LAWS8110

This module explores a range of key issues in contemporary intellectual property, which are subject to contentious and often crudely conducted debates. It identifies and questions intellectual property law's underlying justifications, conceptual assumptions and material practices through the lens of novel modes of biological, cultural and scientific production that challenge the legal regime. Questions in this regard include:

• Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into 'things'?

• Who produces knowledge? Who owns access to knowledge?

• Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?

• Does quoting or paraphrasing in literature or art amount to copying? Is creativity original?

• Is plagiarism theft? Kidnapping? Plain bad manners?

• What is the cultural and political significance of free software?

• Do trade marks commodify language?

The module will introduce students in detail to the most acute and pressing current debates in intellectual property, such as justification for patents and their effects, copyright and piracy, logos & brands. It aims to provide students with a solid understanding of legal internal ways of thinking and arguing about intellectual property, as well as an introduction to wider theoretical resources which will encourage a differentiated and critical assessment of intellectual property law’s effects and limitations. Intellectual property will furthermore be understood to comprise not only intellectual property law, but also proprietary practices and strategies that concern knowledge. Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory.

Find out more about LAWS8130

This module provides a detailed study of the history, rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. It offers a critical analysis of the international legal order and a firm basis upon which to found arguments concerning the political importance of international law. The module pays special attention to the way in which the evolution and operation of the international legal order influence not only international relations, but also daily domestic life.

At the end of the course students will be able to assess, both internally and in context, the main the rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. Students will also develop the necessary tools to reflect critically on some of the most important problems and tensions that define the contemporary global order: from calamities resulting from war, international interventions and surveillance strategies in countries like Afghanistan, Libya and Pakistan, to the everyday effects of increasing socio-economic disparities and environmental decay in both the Global South and the Global North.

The teaching, discussions and readings in the module will equip students both with a doctrinal understanding of public international law, and with an approach to the field that is grounded in a Critical, Socio-Legal and Law and Humanities perspective.

Find out more about LAWS8140

This module focuses on considering Competition Law in a transnational context, particularly, by considering the development of international and regional legal and political developments concerning regulation of competition. Accordingly, it will predominantly focus on European Union Competition Law as the principal source of transboundary legal co-operation in this field. The module will also consider the state of, and implications of, broader international and/or regional legal co-operation in competition policy and, the impact of selected national competition law regimes' extraterritorial reach.

Find out more about LAWS8260

This module provides an introduction to the law on environmental quality and a preface to regulatory themes that are pursued in other modules. In common language, the module is about the law relating to 'pollution', but, as will be seen, this is a concept that is quite difficult to define with the precision that is needed as a basis for legal rights and duties. ‘Environmental quality’ is a broader term, encompassing issues as to the degree of contamination that is considered acceptable in relation to the three environmental media of water, air and land. Broadly, the module is organised around the progression of approaches that law has taken towards the regulation of those activities that have been identified as most damaging to the environmental media. Although, this involves careful examination and evaluation of national laws relating to pollution control, attention is increasingly focused upon regulatory requirements drawn from European Union and international law. The module seeks to assess different models and strategies for environmental quality regulation against broader objectives for the environment in reflecting upon what it is that is to be regulated, and why, and whether actual approaches to regulation are the best way of achieving this.

Find out more about LAWS8390

The law relating to international trade and the environment represents a key element in the national and international legal response to the need to protect the environment and to secure broader environmental policy objectives, notably sustainable development. This module is structured to provide a broad coverage of and opportunity for critical appraisal of various key international rules and institutions which address the relationship between freedom of trade between states and environmental protection. Within this structure, illustrations are provided of many of the key areas in case studies on topical and contentious issues.

Find out more about LAWS8410

This module is designed to enable postgraduate students to obtain both essential knowledge of and critical insight into, issues relating to international human rights law. Human rights occupy an extremely important place in contemporary discussions about law, justice and politics at both the domestic and the international level. Across all spheres of government, bodies of law and, pretty much, in every single social mobilization, human rights are invoked and debated.

This module approaches the key place occupied by human rights in the contemporary world from an international perspective. In placing a focus at the international level, the module aims to link the international origins of human rights and the main human rights systems, with the actual practice of human rights. Particular attention is paid in the module to the value, as well as the limits of human rights when they approach, or try to address the problems and the aspirations of five important 'subjects': the Citizen, the Army, the Migrant, the Worker, and the Woman.

Find out more about LAWS8430

There are a number of ways to study the field of international law. It can be treated doctrinally as a system of rules from various sources – such as treaties, state practices that are seen to have the binding force of law, and general principles shared across domestic jurisdictions – built up over time to regulate interactions between states and other entities. It can be studied as a historical phenomenon, emerging out of a colonial history with contemporary implications. It can also be studied as an (imperfect) approach to addressing international 'problems', placing international law in broader social, political, and historical contexts as one possible source of ‘solutions’. This course starts from international law as an approach, highlighting the field’s limits and possibilities in relation to a set of contemporary inter- and trans-national concerns, which may include the use of armed force, responses to emerging security threats, and unresolved territorial disputes. The course focuses on a changing set of key themes in international law, such as sovereignty, statehood, self-determination, and the regulation of armed conflict. It explores these overlapping themes as they emerge across several issues and case studies, bringing international law into a relationship with contemporary geopolitics and the field’s historical inheritance.

Find out more about LAWS8440

This module provides a critical examination of the principles and institutions and theory and practice of international criminal law. The module introduces the aims and objectives of international criminal law and examines the establishment and operation of international criminal justice institutions, and the substantive law of international crimes. It explores key theoretical and doctrinal debates in international criminal law. In particular, it seeks to locate the work of international criminal courts and tribunals in their broader political and contextual contexts. Case studies and special topics in international criminal law, form an important part of the module.

Find out more about LAWS8460

The establishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995 has signalled the beginning of a new era in international economic relations. Unlike the GATT, whose main purpose was the reduction of barriers on trade in goods, the WTO legal regime reach deeper into more areas of policy-making, ranging from the regulation of services and investments to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) the WTO has the capacity to generate case-law on the resolution of disputes under the WTO agreements that it covers. This marks a significant shift from the earlier GATT dispute settlement mechanism as it creates, for the first time on the multilateral level, a binding decision-making apparatus. Thus any serious attempt to understand the nature and development of international economic law requires a careful and detailed study of the WTO and its emergent law and practice. It is the cornerstone of the new global economic order. This module offers a comprehensive overview of this evolving legal and regulatory order.

Find out more about LAWS8470

This module offers a critical study of policing from historical, legal, political and social perspectives. It focuses primarily on policing in the United Kingdom, with other appropriate jurisdictions (including the European Union) being used for comparative purposes.

Find out more about LAWS8710

In this module we study the main principles, key institutions, policies and politics of transnational criminal law. We explore selected examples of transnational offending and international legal responses thereto in the light of current theoretical, political and doctrinal debates. We consider transnational crimes and the mechanisms by which states cooperate with each other and with international institutions in order to enforce their domestic criminal law. Some of the key debates considered include: the nature of transnational criminal law as an emerging regime; the relationship between human rights and transnational criminal law; the role of the United Nations Security Council in transnational criminal law and critically the role of the individual in the transnational criminal legal system.

Find out more about LAWS8860

This module examines a range of topics which illustrate the role of law in relation to the social, political, economic and environmental challenges arising from anthropogenic climate change and the need to move to a low carbon economy, including through the promotion of renewable and other alternative forms of energy generation and conservation. This includes the operation of regulatory and governance frameworks at an international, regional and national level and the role of litigation.

The module requires introductory coverage of the international context, and explores some of the specific ethical and policy questions to be addressed in tackling climate change., The module does not cover those aspects of the international legal regulation of climate change that are covered in LW906 International Environmental Law: Legal Foundations or any coverage that there may be in LW884 International Environmental Law: Substantive Legal Aspects. The focus is on the EU and national level, and comparative analysis.

Find out more about LAWS8880

In recent years corporate governance - meaning the governance of the large corporations which dominate modern economic life - has emerged as a major area of political and academic interest. Increasing attention has come to be focused, in particular, on the comparative aspects of corporate governance and on the different legal regimes found in different parts of the world, with policy makers striving to determine which regimes are most likely to deliver (so-called) `efficiency' and competitive success. In this context much has been made of the differences between shareholder-oriented, Anglo-American governance regimes and the more inclusive (more stakeholder-oriented) regimes to be found in certain parts of continental Europe and Japan. One result is that the increasing interest in corporate governance has re-opened old questions about the nature of corporations, about the role and duties of corporate managers and about the goal of corporate activities and the interests in which corporations should be run.

This module will explore these debates. More generally, the question of corporate governance has become entangled with other important debates, most notably that surrounding the merits (or otherwise) of different models of capitalism: Anglo-American regimes are associated with stock market-based versions of capitalism, while European regimes are associated with so-called welfare-based versions of capitalism.

The question of corporate governance has, therefore, become embroiled with debates about the morality and efficiency of different models of capitalism. These too will be explored in this module.

Find out more about LAWS8990

The module examines the complex sets of laws and policies that inform the varied field of migration law with regard to the variety of its subjects. In particular, the module examines the context and history of controlling migration internationally; the role of the concept and practices of state sovereignty in conjunction with the development of international protections and regulations; the critical evaluation of international labour migration law, international asylum and refugee law, forced labour and human trafficking. In addition, the module offers, each year, a series of case studies on particularly prevalent contemporary issues such as environmental displacement, internal displacement, extraterritoriality and indefinite detention.

Find out more about LAWS9000

This module focuses on the international regime of financial services regulation. It is concerned with critical perspectives on the international financial regulatory framework, assessing its strengths and weaknesses. With the recent Global Financial Crisis there is a lot to explore in this module, including questions as to the relationship between states and markets in regulation, the rationales for regulation, theories of regulation, understanding the international finance system and its challenges and the adequacy of the international financial regulatory regime.

Find out more about LAWS9050

This module is designed to examine and assess the core foundational legal principles and regulatory structures underpinning international environmental law and policy. Specifically, it considers the various core sources of international law relating to the environment, the principal international institutions involved in its development as well as legal issues involved relating to its implementation and enforcement.

Find out more about LAWS9060

Credit is the lifeblood of capitalism. The law that regulates household and commercial credit is of significant, economic, and social importance in developed and developing economies. The 2008 world financial crisis was triggered by failures in debt-markets associated with household financing. This module explores central ideas about the role of credit in the economy and its contribution to economic, social, political and cultural development.

This module focuses on how law facilitates, shapes and determines the flow of credit to households and businesses domestically as well as internationally. It primarily explores the rationales that underpin the creation, production and supply of credit. It traces these to mainstream, economic thought and understandings of credit. The module critically examines and evaluates how these rationales take into consideration (or, indeed, fails to consider) principles of social justice and equality. Importantly, the module introduces historical, gendered, cultural, and sociological approaches to credit as viable alternatives to the dominant, mainstream understanding of consumer and commercial credit.

Find out more about LAWS9070

The focus of the module will be on understanding some of the processes of production and contestation of science and technologies, and will question what this newly articulated understanding of science tells us about how to regulate science and how to regulate with science. The module will be based, theoretically and methodologically, on some of the key texts of Science and Technology Studies (STS), familiarising students with this particular branch of sociology and its emphasis on the need to question common understandings of science as objective, neutral, and occupying a space distinct from "social" or “political” spheres. This will enable students to reflect on the idea that science, law and politics can be seen as co-produced, interrelated, and co-dependent, and that reliance on scientific “facts” or scientific experts in the making of regulation is not a neutrally informed process. These issues will be illustrated by case studies on contemporary and contested issues that have been of interest to lawyers and STS scholars – and, importantly, explored by scholars working at the interface of these disciplines. The case studies envisaged (which will include: climate change; GM products; pharmaceutical development and access to health; traditional medicine and global regulation) will provide a focal point for exploring the key questions and themes of the module: what is the role of science in law and policy/politics? How objective is science, and how do scientific methods and devices participate in building the image of science as an independent, a-political, discipline? What is/should be the role of scientific experts in democratic states? How far does global science, and its institutions, challenge the role and approaches of regulators? What are/should be the relationships between regulation, citizens and science?

Find out more about LAWS9140

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law; PG Diploma in (Specialisation) and PG Certificate in Law.

This first extracurricular module provides an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level, bearing in mind the international character of our LLM student body. This may include an introduction to the English Legal System (particularly important for international students); a session on the various traditions of Critical Legal Thinking; a session on researching and writing for an LLM essay (particularly important for international students); plagiarism; oral skills; and workshops on using REFWORKS, OSCOLA and other library resources.

Find out more about LAWS9191

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law and PG Diploma in (Specialisation). Also available optionally to students on the PG Certificate in Law.

This second extracurricular module will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project such as their LLM dissertations, learn about other forms of post-graduate studies and career development. Although the focus will be on research methods and theoretical frameworks, other sessions might include: a workshop on editing scholarly work; an introduction to doctoral research; a workshop on working with long documents; and writing a CV.

Find out more about LAWS9192

The module will explore emerging privacy and data protection issues. Students will be challenged to critically examine how e.g. personal, financial, health and transactional data are managed and who has access to this information. It will require students to assess emerging legal, regulatory, data protection and personal privacy issues raised by widespread access to personal information, including genetic data.

The essential aims and objectives of the proposed LLM module are to equip students to undertake a sustained analysis of privacy and data protection law. Students will be asked to critically examine whether privacy protection, consent and confidentiality measures are proportionate to the legal requirements to protect personal information while balancing the requirements of economic commerce, the state and public administrations to collect, use and share personal information.

Find out more about LAWS9210

The 'new global economy' (global integration of production and increased migration, digital and informational technologies, transformations in work and production processes, the shift to services, and the informalisation of work) has undermined the pillars upon which labour law was constructed after World War II in developed capitalist economies. Moreover, contrary to expectation, informal work has not diminished in emerging and developing economies, and has, in fact, increased. In this context, a new strategy for achieving labour standards and protecting workers has emerged. Labour rights are now conceptualised as a species of human rights and they are asserted before various international, transnational, and domestic human rights bodies and courts. The focus of this module will be on international and transnational norms and institutions, and their interaction with national/domestic labour regimes. We will consider changing forms (from labour standard to labour rights and hard to soft law) and scales (national to transnational and international) of regulation, the changing 'subjects' of labour law (women, migrant workers, 'solo' self-employed), and the changing goals of labour law (flexibility and competiveness versus security and protection). Labour rights will be placed in their social, economic, and political context.

Find out more about LAWS9220

What causes us to forget that 'the economy' and 'the law' are made up of interacting human beings? Why does it matter? These are questions that are relevant to every person in every country. They are the questions that motivate the emergent field of Economic Sociology of Law (ESL), which takes sociologically-inspired approaches to relationships between the 'economic' (the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services) and the ‘legal’ (the use, abuse and avoidance of legal rules and institutions). In this module we systematically (that is, addressing the analytical, empirical and normative components) explore the limitations of orthodox legal and economic approaches, and examine how Economic Sociology of Law might compensate for them. There is a strong practical and empirical emphasis, and examples are drawn from current events and policy from all over the world. Questions considered include:

• Where do the concepts of ‘economy’, ‘law’ and ‘society’ come from?

• What do they signify?

• Are they uniformly accepted?

• Mutually exclusive?

• What are the substantive focus of legal, sociological and economic approaches to law and economy?

• How do these disciplines (conceptually and empirically) approach legal rules, institutions and practices?

• Why – in pursuit of what values and interests – is it useful to take any of these approaches to law?

Emphasis is likely to be placed on the property rights and ‘transaction costs’, formality and informality, markets and ‘market failure’, state intervention and regulation and corruption.

Find out more about LAWS9230

Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which started with the protection of historical monuments in the 19th century and now includes intangible values.

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. Academic research now aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property. It aims to give coherence to practices shaped by art dealers, collectors, museums, communities and States, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law. Those different interactions have developed a less than coherent legal framework that will be comparatively analyzed by reference to French, English and American Law

Find out more about LAWS9250

The module will focus on the law of banking in the UK. This will involve an examination of the banker-customer relationship which will include the following: the rights and obligations of the parties in a banking relationship; the operation of the customer's account; the use of different methods of payment by customers such as cheques and plastic cards; and the challenges that electronic banking poses to the banking relationship. The module will also consider the regulatory roles of the Bank of England, the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority as well as the effect of various EU Directives and international measures on UK law. In the latter half of the module, focus will be given to the provision of credit. This will involve looking at the various types of credit provided by banks, the taking of security by banks and the enforcement of such security. Other ancillary issues such as the impact of insolvency on the banker-customer relationship and anti-money laundering measures will also be examined.

Find out more about LAWS9300

The module spans environmental and ecological legal issues arising from contexts where land development and conservation are at issue.

Land development places considerable stress upon wildlife conservation, natural resources and environmental quality. As an initial matter, development might contravene common law restrictions upon land use arising in the law of nuisance. However, in most legal systems the decision to grant planning permission is critical in determining whether a development goes ahead. The land use planning system and policy guidance give an opportunity for planning authorities to scrutinise the likely environmental and ecological impacts of a development proposal, before a development is authorised. The anticipatory approach is taken a step further when a proposed development is likely to have a significant effect upon the environment and where Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required before granting permission for development. The methodology of environmental assessment is also applied where Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is required of plans and policies, rather than individual developments. The need to implement requirements from European Union environmental law, with regard to EIA and SEA, is of critical importance.

The conservation and sustainable use of living natural resources is a key element in securing the overarching environmental policy objective of sustainable development. In part, the land development system, referred to above may be used to prevent developments which are excessively damaging to flora, fauna and their habitats or ecosystems. However, conservation or ecological law goes beyond this in attaching a special legal status to non-human living resources and their environment. In part, the laws which provide this special status are of national origin and prevent the destruction of wildlife or require the designation of land for wildlife conservation purposes (such as Sites of Special Scientific Interest). Beyond the national measures for direct protection of wildlife and the protection of ecologically important habitats, important ecological laws from arise from European Union and global international sources. Specifically, the EU Wild Birds and Habitats Directives, and the Biodiversity Convention are used to illustrate some of the key legal features in regional biodiversity conservation law. A concluding session examines the international trade dimension of wildlife conservation law.

Find out more about LAWS9310

This module will cover the legal framework in which the entertainment and knowledge industries operate. The objective is to introduce the key features of the music, film, pharmaceutical, finance and toy industries to embrace a different way of studying copyright, design, trade mark and patent rights. It is an attempt to study law "in action", and to provide students with a capacity to understand how intellectual property rights are transacted, evaluated and litigated differently depending on the trade/industry. The module will study the complex interplay between law, commerce, culture and communications and identify how these connections make intellectual property licensing possible.

Find out more about LAWS9330

The goal of the module is to provide an in-depth introduction to the laws of patents and trademarks (including passing off). Particular emphasis is placed on the political, socio-historical, cultural and economic contexts in which these laws operate, as well as on the implications of legal concepts on proprietary strategies.

The module will take a distinctive approach towards the study of intellectual properties by focusing on concepts and their practical effects: the module will focus on key concepts in patents, trademarks and passing off and critically examine their implications for political economy, culture and science. Such key concepts may include: patents, novelty and invention; in trademarks and passing off: brands, sign and goodwill.

No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

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The curriculum will offer an introduction to major schools of ethical reasoning within the western tradition (including deontology, consequentialism, and principle based moral reasoning) and significant concepts in bioethics (including autonomy, welfare, and justice). The concepts will be explored through application to a number of legal case studies including the regulation of death and dying and organ transplantation.

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The module will explore some of the most significant issues in the legal regulation of healthcare, including medical malpractice; duty of care; capacity; consent; best interests; refusal of treatment; public health; and resource allocation.

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The curriculum will focus on the issues of reproductive rights, reproductive justice and the appropriate limits on reproductive autonomy. Topics covered will include moral and legal status of the embryo and fetus and the 'right to life' as it applies in this context; the regulation of embryo research and assisted reproductive technologies; surrogacy; contraception, abortion, sterilisation and the legal regulation of pregnancy

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This module will examine the scope and nature of a 'right to health' and how it has been put into effect. It will also study the manner in which law and other forms of regulation facilitate or impedes the achievement of health objectives in areas such as access to essential medicines, control of infectious diseases, cross-border medical research and treatment, reduction of tobacco usage, promotion of breastfeeding and so on. It will also explore the issues raised by 'health tourism', including for access to treatment which would be illegal or unavailable in the home country, e.g. for surrogacy, abortion and assisted reproductive technologies.

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This course is designed for graduate students in Political Science and will serve as an introduction to quantitative methods for social science research. Given that a great deal of the research in Political Science is conducted in the language of quantitative methodology, students will learn the use of quantitative research methods as a tool to further their research and participation in social scientific debates. Students can further expect to be introduced to not only the means for conducting rigorous, empirical, and quantitative research in social science fields but also how this methodology adheres to the scientific accumulation of knowledge about these phenomena. The course is intended to develop core competencies in quantitative research. These competencies include methodological literacy (the ability to read, understand, and critically assess quantitative research); statistical abilities (the ability to determine, apply, and use the appropriate statistical techniques to inform and/or support an argument as well as understand the limitations of statistical techniques); and research skills (the ability to use and present quantitative methodology to address a research question).

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The module is designed to provide students with an advanced understanding of politics in the Middle East. The module covers various social (e.g. identities), economic (e.g. role of natural resources) and religious (e.g. role of Islam) themes, and thus provides students with a wide-ranging perspective from which to analyse the political life of the region. Particular emphasis is placed on the nature and causes of conflict and political violence, and on the role of the state. The module also focuses on the historical development of the region as a way of helping students to understand the nature and causes of its contemporary political situation.

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This module provides an overview of the degree to which cyberspace continues to revolutionise the operations of both state and non-state actors, and the challenges of governing this 'fifth sphere' of power projection. Whilst this module is not entrenched in International Relations or Security Studies theory, students will have the opportunity to apply both traditional and non-traditional approaches to the politics of cyberspace. Key themes include: 21st century technology, cyber warfare, espionage, surveillance, deterrence theory, cyberterrorism, and representation of threatening cyber-entities. Students will develop a toolkit to critique the existing state and NGO-based governance regime for cyberspace, and will convey arguments both for and against a ‘Geneva Convention’ for cyberspace.

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Whenever we make a statement about international affairs, and world politics we rely on certain (often implicit) theoretical assumptions: about power, interests, identities, norms and how they relate to the behaviour of international actors. Whether we like it or not, we are 'doomed' to rely on theories. The starting-point of this course is not that theories are the only possible and all-encompassing approach to the study of international affairs, but that they are helpful to understand, compare and critically evaluate interpretations of international issues: if we all use theoretical assumptions, we better make them explicit and understood, to make sure what exactly we are claiming.

International Relations theories are not approached as strict categories with clear boundaries, but rather as a continuously evolving debate. The course does not attempt to give an encyclopaedic overview of all theories of International Relations, but rather to confront different views. The main objective is to understand the core differences between different theoretical approaches.

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This module will examine how conflict research has evolved within the field of political science and International Relations. It will initially investigate competing theories on conflict and violence highlighting specific case studies and new security concerns. The theoretical reflections will focus on the understanding of modern nationalism in world politics as well as different aspects of conflict ranging from inter-state to intra-state conflict. Moreover, students will be exposed to a detailed and critical analysis of the political and constitutional options in societies beset by violent ethnic conflict, with particular emphasis being given to mechanisms directed at the achievement of political accommodation.

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This module focuses on the position of Europe and the EU in particular - what it does and how it does it - in the world, through the perceptions of the other. The first challenge of this broad approach is to tackle the question 'what is Europe?', by way of situating Europe between the regional and global change, and understanding its multifaceted, multi-actor and multi-level environment and associated with it challenges, in the increasingly inter-dependent and inter-polar world. As part of the exercise we will focus more specifically on EU actorness reiterated through the changing modes of governance – from disciplinary and hierarchical, to more adaptable and from a distance – and democracy promotion policies, to understand how it behaves vis-à-vis the outside world. Premised on this, we will examine EU actorness in practical terms by referring to EU interactions with ‘the other’ – from the neighbourhood, BRICS, to US, and Russia. The objective is to cross-compare ‘what the EU is’ and ‘what it does’ to enable wider generalisations of ‘what kind of transformative power the EU is?’ today, in this increasingly globalising world.

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Canterbury:

The course provides an overview and a framework for considering the field of international conflict resolution. The students have the opportunity to explore conflict resolution methods such as mediation, negotiation, collaborative problem solving, and alternative dispute resolution. The approach is interdisciplinary and juxtaposes traditional approaches in conflict management with the scientific study of conflict and cooperation. Across the term students will be exposed to a range of different theories and approaches to conflict management and be required to practically apply the course content in a number of simulations.

Brussels:

The course provides an overview and framework for considering the evolving field of international conflict resolution with an emphasis on negotiation and mediation. The module will focus primarily on the practical as well as on the theoretical aspects of negotiation and mediation, or more broadly third party intervention in conflicts. Its aims are to give the students an overview of the main problems involved in negotiation and mediation (broadly defined), but also to give them a chance to work individually and in groups on case studies and material related to the resolution of conflicts. The course is designed to introduce the students to theories of negotiation and bargaining, discuss the applicability of various tools and techniques in problem solving real cases of international conflict, and allow them to make use of such techniques in role playing and simulations.

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This module focuses on the evolution of security studies as a discipline and its implications for practice. We examine a variety of theoretical and empirical materials that provide students with the basis for analysing pressing questions related to issues of war, security and peace in the world today. This module thus provides a good grounding for understanding contemporary security challenges (such as the environmental degradation, conflict, gender-based insecurity, terrorism, mass surveillance and arms proliferation among others) and our responses to them. It will engage with debates around the 'broadening' and ‘deepening’ agenda of security studies, which has extended the scope of security studies beyond the nation-state, and the role of new security actors.

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The purpose of the module is to develop an understanding of the complex relationships between terrorism, counter-terrorism efforts, and human rights, both at home and abroad. Central to the module is the role of the state in responding to terrorism, in attempting to prevent terrorism, and in itself using and sponsoring terrorism. In this regard students are encouraged to re-evaluate assumptions about the state and its place in domestic and international politics, focusing particularly on crimes by the state. Students will be introduced to competing approaches to the study of terrorism, many of which are grounded in wider theories and approaches common to International

Relations and Security Studies. One of the challenges of the module is to think critically about the implications and consequences of those various approaches. The module will begin by looking at the various methodological, theoretical, and definitional challenges associated with the study of terrorism. Building on this grounding, students will then begin analysing terrorism, counter-terrorism and the role of the state through a number of case studies drawn from the 20th and early 21st Centuries. They will be encouraged to relate each of the case studies to the broader methodological and theoretical debates explored in the first few weeks of the module.

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The module draws from comparative politics, international relations, and political thought to analyse the past, present, and future of the democratic national state, the dominant form of political system in today's world. It addresses questions such as: Why are some states federal and others unitary? What explains the resilience of nationalism? Does economic integration leads to political disintegration? Why has regional integration gone much further in Europe than elsewhere? Is multi-national democracy possible? The module first charts the emergence of the modern state and its transformation into a national and democratic form of political system. Subsequently, it explores some key aspects of the formation, structuring, restructuring, and termination of states such as the unitary/federal dichotomy, processes of devolution, the challenge of secession, the question of the connections between the economic environment and the number and size of states, the phenomenon of supra-state regional integration, and the connections between nationality and democracy. It concludes by assessing the challenges facing the democratic national state in the 21st century and their likely trajectory in the foreseeable future.

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This module complements the core programme module ('Political Psychology') by providing students with a detailed introduction to the nature and study of public opinion. Opinion and attitudes are central to the choices that citizens make and to the way they behave, which in turn are core outcomes in politics. Yet the nature and formation of those attitudes are complex, and shaped by a range of individual and contextual factors, which are central subjects within psychology. This module therefore brings together perspectives from both political science and psychology, in helping students to understand how citizens form attitudes and opinions, the processes and considerations that underpin attitude formation, the factors and actors that influence these formative processes and the effect that citizens’ attitudes have on their behaviour. The module will also consider the principal ways in which we identify and measure public opinion, notably through surveys. Underpinning the module will be the central question of whether the nature of citizens’ opinions are consistent with the assumptions and demands of modern democratic states.

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This module will examine the ways in which violence is understood in social science research, and will provide advanced discussion of the major theoretical and research themes involved in the analysis of violence. It will critically examine data on the prevalence, nature and effects of violent crime, and will consider issues of violence, aggression and masculinity. This will be done with particular reference to examples, such as racist crime, homophobic crime and domestic violence. The module will approach violence from both interpersonal and societal perspectives and will include consideration of collective violence and genocide. It will further examine solutions to solutions to violence and conflict resolution, the effects of intervention strategies and non-juridical responses to violence.

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This module explores key issues, debates and controversies in the cross-disciplinary study of terrorism and political violence. Since 9/11, terrorism and jihadist violence in particular has become one of the most contentious and politically charged issues of our time. Yet it remains poorly understood, in part because of the contention and consequent polarization surrounding it, but also because of the methodological challenges in researching the individuals and groups involved in terrorist activity. One of the core aims of the module is to help shed a light on the challenges - methodological, practical and ethical - of researching an issue saturated in danger, secrecy and stigma.

What is terrorism and how should it best be defined? Why does the term "terrorism" carry such a potent stigma? What are the master cultural and intellectual narratives for thinking about terrorism and terrorists?

Does it make sense to talk of "the terrorist" as a category of person, and what are the problems inherent in efforts to "profile" those who engage in terrorism? What do terrorists and terrorist groups want? Is terrorism rational? What is suicide bombing and what explains it? How do terrorist rhetorically frame the use of violence against civilians? What is ISIS and is it Islamic? What is radicalization and how should it be conceptualized? Can terrorism ever be morally justified?

The purpose of this module is to provide a framework for thinking about these and other crucial questions about terrorism and political violence.

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This module examines gender and crime in a globalised world. Several core themes inform the international exploration of crime, victimisation and justice, including 'race', class, age, sexuality, locality, economics, politics, power and discourse. The module offers students the opportunity to engage with a broad range of internationally classical and influential bodies of literature spanning feminist and critical criminology, masculinities theories, victimology, queer theory and globalisation. Men and women as victims and offenders will be examined through a gendered lens to assess how culture, discourse and identity function to enhance or diminish vulnerability to criminalisation, victimisation and injustice. Underpinning these analyses are notions of power, which prove central to considerations of the extent to which globalisation informs patterns of gendered offending, victimisation and access to justice.

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Critical criminology constitutes a broad and multi-disciplinary tradition that studies the complex relationships between crime, control and power. The module will aim to acquaint students with the richness of writings in this field, the variety of political positions and the development of different traditions in the UK, US and the European continent. Critical criminology has also taken a recent interest in the processes associated with globalisation, thus giving rise to an emerging sub-discipline, global criminology. The module will also examine how this allows new understandings of crime, power and control, which link the global to the local. Various theoretical perspectives will be encountered, including those of new deviancy theory, Marxism, Foucauldian thought, left realism, abolitionism, social harm perspectives and, more recently, cultural criminology.

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In the late modern period we are presented with an extraordinary wealth of criminological theory. Past and present paradigms proliferate and prosper. This course examines these theories, placing them in the context of the massive social transformations that have taken place in the last thirty years. It is not concerned so much with abstract theory as criminological ideas, which arise in particular contexts. It aims, therefore, to situate theories in contemporary debates and controversies and allows students to fully utilize theoretical insights in their criminological work. In particular we will introduce the current debates surrounding cultural criminology, the debate over quantitative methods and the emergence of a critical criminology.

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This module will examine the emergence and development of the modern prison in the light of the major social and economic changes that have taken place over the last two hundred years. It will examine the changing functions of the prison over that period and will look at the development of community based sanctions and alternatives to custody. It will then examine the reasons for the growth of imprisonment in the post war period and in particular its rapid increase on both sides of the Atlantic over the past two decades. It will examine the issues of gender and race in relation to prisons and penal policy and examine the key debates concerning the changing composition of the prison population. It will then go on to look at penal reform and in particular the impact of privatisation on the prison system.

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Compulsory modules currently include

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law; PG Diploma in (Specialisation) and PG Certificate in Law.

This first extracurricular module provides an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level, bearing in mind the international character of our LLM student body. This may include an introduction to the English Legal System (particularly important for international students); a session on the various traditions of Critical Legal Thinking; a session on researching and writing for an LLM essay (particularly important for international students); plagiarism; oral skills; and workshops on using REFWORKS, OSCOLA and other library resources.

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Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law and PG Diploma in (Specialisation). Also available optionally to students on the PG Certificate in Law.

This second extracurricular module will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project such as their LLM dissertations, learn about other forms of post-graduate studies and career development. Although the focus will be on research methods and theoretical frameworks, other sessions might include: a workshop on editing scholarly work; an introduction to doctoral research; a workshop on working with long documents; and writing a CV.

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Optional modules may include

Over the past few decades, the scope of intellectual property has grown significantly. The goal of the module is to provide an overview of copyright and the law of confidential information from different angles in order to be able to assess this expansion. In so doing, it will examine this area of law from historical, theoretical and practical perspectives. The emphasis throughout the module is on reflexive critique. That is, we will study the different modes of justifying copyright and the protection of confidential information; the different historical approaches to trace the ways in which we can understand the political economy of copyright and confidential information and we will look at the past to try to find ways of thinking about the present situation of international legal regimes. On a more contemporary level, we will study the interaction between copyright and freedom of expression, the problems posed by technological works, as well as the more practical question on the way of producing evidence in copyright and breach of confidence trials. No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

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This module will examine the problems that arise in commercial transactions between businesses established in different States. The module will concentrate specifically on the 'transnational' nature of such transactions, and some of the solutions characteristically adopted by different legal systems, with emphasis on International, English or the US systems, or where appropriate legal rules and materials of other jurisdictions by way of illustration. The module will also cover the unique features of current transnational business transactions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, and the importance of information and communication technologies.

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This module explores the legal implications (practical and theoretical) of foreign direct investment. Attention is paid to the perspectives of states, investors, civil society actors and theorists; and to placing legal implications in their economic, social, political and historical context. Questions considered include:

• What political, economic and legal actors and factors have shaped the international law on foreign investment?

• What are the legal implications of the fact that most foreign investments are made by corporations?

• What roles can host state legal systems play in attracting and regulating foreign investments?

• What international legal mechanisms are used to enable foreign investment?

• What challenges do current concerns with corruption and tax evasion pose to existing international law on foreign investment?

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The aim of the module is to focus on the theoretical, institutional and practical aspects of modern international commercial arbitration. This would involve a close examination of the ad hoc systems and the main institutional structures (e.g., ICC, ICSID, WIPO, Iran-US Claims Tribunal, and PCA). The module covers current issues and developments relating to international commercial arbitration including: arbitral jurisdiction; applicable procedural and substantive laws; the status and role of arbitration agreements; the conduct of arbitral proceedings; the arbitral award; challenge, recognition and enforcement of award; and online arbitration/online dispute resolution (ODR). The English Arbitration Act 1996 and the UNCITRAL Rules as well as the UNCITRAL Model Law will be examined closely. The course will also critically examine the relationship between international commercial arbitration and international development law as well as aspects of the international commercial arbitration concerning sovereign states in oil and gas disputes. Comparative study will be made of the emerging commercial arbitration legislation and international arbitral practice of certain developing states such as Nigeria, India and China. The course also aims to provide an appreciation of the similarities and contrasts between the work of international arbitral institutions and the work of international courts such as the International Court of Justice in commercial and economic matters.

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This module explores a range of key issues in contemporary intellectual property, which are subject to contentious and often crudely conducted debates. It identifies and questions intellectual property law's underlying justifications, conceptual assumptions and material practices through the lens of novel modes of biological, cultural and scientific production that challenge the legal regime. Questions in this regard include:

• Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into 'things'?

• Who produces knowledge? Who owns access to knowledge?

• Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?

• Does quoting or paraphrasing in literature or art amount to copying? Is creativity original?

• Is plagiarism theft? Kidnapping? Plain bad manners?

• What is the cultural and political significance of free software?

• Do trade marks commodify language?

The module will introduce students in detail to the most acute and pressing current debates in intellectual property, such as justification for patents and their effects, copyright and piracy, logos & brands. It aims to provide students with a solid understanding of legal internal ways of thinking and arguing about intellectual property, as well as an introduction to wider theoretical resources which will encourage a differentiated and critical assessment of intellectual property law’s effects and limitations. Intellectual property will furthermore be understood to comprise not only intellectual property law, but also proprietary practices and strategies that concern knowledge. Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory.

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This module provides a detailed study of the history, rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. It offers a critical analysis of the international legal order and a firm basis upon which to found arguments concerning the political importance of international law. The module pays special attention to the way in which the evolution and operation of the international legal order influence not only international relations, but also daily domestic life.

At the end of the course students will be able to assess, both internally and in context, the main the rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. Students will also develop the necessary tools to reflect critically on some of the most important problems and tensions that define the contemporary global order: from calamities resulting from war, international interventions and surveillance strategies in countries like Afghanistan, Libya and Pakistan, to the everyday effects of increasing socio-economic disparities and environmental decay in both the Global South and the Global North.

The teaching, discussions and readings in the module will equip students both with a doctrinal understanding of public international law, and with an approach to the field that is grounded in a Critical, Socio-Legal and Law and Humanities perspective.

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This module focuses on considering Competition Law in a transnational context, particularly, by considering the development of international and regional legal and political developments concerning regulation of competition. Accordingly, it will predominantly focus on European Union Competition Law as the principal source of transboundary legal co-operation in this field. The module will also consider the state of, and implications of, broader international and/or regional legal co-operation in competition policy and, the impact of selected national competition law regimes' extraterritorial reach.

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This module provides an introduction to the law on environmental quality and a preface to regulatory themes that are pursued in other modules. In common language, the module is about the law relating to 'pollution', but, as will be seen, this is a concept that is quite difficult to define with the precision that is needed as a basis for legal rights and duties. ‘Environmental quality’ is a broader term, encompassing issues as to the degree of contamination that is considered acceptable in relation to the three environmental media of water, air and land. Broadly, the module is organised around the progression of approaches that law has taken towards the regulation of those activities that have been identified as most damaging to the environmental media. Although, this involves careful examination and evaluation of national laws relating to pollution control, attention is increasingly focused upon regulatory requirements drawn from European Union and international law. The module seeks to assess different models and strategies for environmental quality regulation against broader objectives for the environment in reflecting upon what it is that is to be regulated, and why, and whether actual approaches to regulation are the best way of achieving this.

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The law relating to international trade and the environment represents a key element in the national and international legal response to the need to protect the environment and to secure broader environmental policy objectives, notably sustainable development. This module is structured to provide a broad coverage of and opportunity for critical appraisal of various key international rules and institutions which address the relationship between freedom of trade between states and environmental protection. Within this structure, illustrations are provided of many of the key areas in case studies on topical and contentious issues.

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This module is designed to enable postgraduate students to obtain both essential knowledge of and critical insight into, issues relating to international human rights law. Human rights occupy an extremely important place in contemporary discussions about law, justice and politics at both the domestic and the international level. Across all spheres of government, bodies of law and, pretty much, in every single social mobilization, human rights are invoked and debated.

This module approaches the key place occupied by human rights in the contemporary world from an international perspective. In placing a focus at the international level, the module aims to link the international origins of human rights and the main human rights systems, with the actual practice of human rights. Particular attention is paid in the module to the value, as well as the limits of human rights when they approach, or try to address the problems and the aspirations of five important 'subjects': the Citizen, the Army, the Migrant, the Worker, and the Woman.

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There are a number of ways to study the field of international law. It can be treated doctrinally as a system of rules from various sources – such as treaties, state practices that are seen to have the binding force of law, and general principles shared across domestic jurisdictions – built up over time to regulate interactions between states and other entities. It can be studied as a historical phenomenon, emerging out of a colonial history with contemporary implications. It can also be studied as an (imperfect) approach to addressing international 'problems', placing international law in broader social, political, and historical contexts as one possible source of ‘solutions’. This course starts from international law as an approach, highlighting the field’s limits and possibilities in relation to a set of contemporary inter- and trans-national concerns, which may include the use of armed force, responses to emerging security threats, and unresolved territorial disputes. The course focuses on a changing set of key themes in international law, such as sovereignty, statehood, self-determination, and the regulation of armed conflict. It explores these overlapping themes as they emerge across several issues and case studies, bringing international law into a relationship with contemporary geopolitics and the field’s historical inheritance.

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This module provides a critical examination of the principles and institutions and theory and practice of international criminal law. The module introduces the aims and objectives of international criminal law and examines the establishment and operation of international criminal justice institutions, and the substantive law of international crimes. It explores key theoretical and doctrinal debates in international criminal law. In particular, it seeks to locate the work of international criminal courts and tribunals in their broader political and contextual contexts. Case studies and special topics in international criminal law, form an important part of the module.

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The establishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995 has signalled the beginning of a new era in international economic relations. Unlike the GATT, whose main purpose was the reduction of barriers on trade in goods, the WTO legal regime reach deeper into more areas of policy-making, ranging from the regulation of services and investments to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) the WTO has the capacity to generate case-law on the resolution of disputes under the WTO agreements that it covers. This marks a significant shift from the earlier GATT dispute settlement mechanism as it creates, for the first time on the multilateral level, a binding decision-making apparatus. Thus any serious attempt to understand the nature and development of international economic law requires a careful and detailed study of the WTO and its emergent law and practice. It is the cornerstone of the new global economic order. This module offers a comprehensive overview of this evolving legal and regulatory order.

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This module offers a critical study of policing from historical, legal, political and social perspectives. It focuses primarily on policing in the United Kingdom, with other appropriate jurisdictions (including the European Union) being used for comparative purposes.

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In this module we study the main principles, key institutions, policies and politics of transnational criminal law. We explore selected examples of transnational offending and international legal responses thereto in the light of current theoretical, political and doctrinal debates. We consider transnational crimes and the mechanisms by which states cooperate with each other and with international institutions in order to enforce their domestic criminal law. Some of the key debates considered include: the nature of transnational criminal law as an emerging regime; the relationship between human rights and transnational criminal law; the role of the United Nations Security Council in transnational criminal law and critically the role of the individual in the transnational criminal legal system.

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This module examines a range of topics which illustrate the role of law in relation to the social, political, economic and environmental challenges arising from anthropogenic climate change and the need to move to a low carbon economy, including through the promotion of renewable and other alternative forms of energy generation and conservation. This includes the operation of regulatory and governance frameworks at an international, regional and national level and the role of litigation.

The module requires introductory coverage of the international context, and explores some of the specific ethical and policy questions to be addressed in tackling climate change., The module does not cover those aspects of the international legal regulation of climate change that are covered in LW906 International Environmental Law: Legal Foundations or any coverage that there may be in LW884 International Environmental Law: Substantive Legal Aspects. The focus is on the EU and national level, and comparative analysis.

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In recent years corporate governance - meaning the governance of the large corporations which dominate modern economic life - has emerged as a major area of political and academic interest. Increasing attention has come to be focused, in particular, on the comparative aspects of corporate governance and on the different legal regimes found in different parts of the world, with policy makers striving to determine which regimes are most likely to deliver (so-called) `efficiency' and competitive success. In this context much has been made of the differences between shareholder-oriented, Anglo-American governance regimes and the more inclusive (more stakeholder-oriented) regimes to be found in certain parts of continental Europe and Japan. One result is that the increasing interest in corporate governance has re-opened old questions about the nature of corporations, about the role and duties of corporate managers and about the goal of corporate activities and the interests in which corporations should be run.

This module will explore these debates. More generally, the question of corporate governance has become entangled with other important debates, most notably that surrounding the merits (or otherwise) of different models of capitalism: Anglo-American regimes are associated with stock market-based versions of capitalism, while European regimes are associated with so-called welfare-based versions of capitalism.

The question of corporate governance has, therefore, become embroiled with debates about the morality and efficiency of different models of capitalism. These too will be explored in this module.

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The module examines the complex sets of laws and policies that inform the varied field of migration law with regard to the variety of its subjects. In particular, the module examines the context and history of controlling migration internationally; the role of the concept and practices of state sovereignty in conjunction with the development of international protections and regulations; the critical evaluation of international labour migration law, international asylum and refugee law, forced labour and human trafficking. In addition, the module offers, each year, a series of case studies on particularly prevalent contemporary issues such as environmental displacement, internal displacement, extraterritoriality and indefinite detention.

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This module focuses on the international regime of financial services regulation. It is concerned with critical perspectives on the international financial regulatory framework, assessing its strengths and weaknesses. With the recent Global Financial Crisis there is a lot to explore in this module, including questions as to the relationship between states and markets in regulation, the rationales for regulation, theories of regulation, understanding the international finance system and its challenges and the adequacy of the international financial regulatory regime.

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This module is designed to examine and assess the core foundational legal principles and regulatory structures underpinning international environmental law and policy. Specifically, it considers the various core sources of international law relating to the environment, the principal international institutions involved in its development as well as legal issues involved relating to its implementation and enforcement.

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Credit is the lifeblood of capitalism. The law that regulates household and commercial credit is of significant, economic, and social importance in developed and developing economies. The 2008 world financial crisis was triggered by failures in debt-markets associated with household financing. This module explores central ideas about the role of credit in the economy and its contribution to economic, social, political and cultural development.

This module focuses on how law facilitates, shapes and determines the flow of credit to households and businesses domestically as well as internationally. It primarily explores the rationales that underpin the creation, production and supply of credit. It traces these to mainstream, economic thought and understandings of credit. The module critically examines and evaluates how these rationales take into consideration (or, indeed, fails to consider) principles of social justice and equality. Importantly, the module introduces historical, gendered, cultural, and sociological approaches to credit as viable alternatives to the dominant, mainstream understanding of consumer and commercial credit.

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The focus of the module will be on understanding some of the processes of production and contestation of science and technologies, and will question what this newly articulated understanding of science tells us about how to regulate science and how to regulate with science. The module will be based, theoretically and methodologically, on some of the key texts of Science and Technology Studies (STS), familiarising students with this particular branch of sociology and its emphasis on the need to question common understandings of science as objective, neutral, and occupying a space distinct from "social" or “political” spheres. This will enable students to reflect on the idea that science, law and politics can be seen as co-produced, interrelated, and co-dependent, and that reliance on scientific “facts” or scientific experts in the making of regulation is not a neutrally informed process. These issues will be illustrated by case studies on contemporary and contested issues that have been of interest to lawyers and STS scholars – and, importantly, explored by scholars working at the interface of these disciplines. The case studies envisaged (which will include: climate change; GM products; pharmaceutical development and access to health; traditional medicine and global regulation) will provide a focal point for exploring the key questions and themes of the module: what is the role of science in law and policy/politics? How objective is science, and how do scientific methods and devices participate in building the image of science as an independent, a-political, discipline? What is/should be the role of scientific experts in democratic states? How far does global science, and its institutions, challenge the role and approaches of regulators? What are/should be the relationships between regulation, citizens and science?

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Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law; PG Diploma in (Specialisation) and PG Certificate in Law.

This first extracurricular module provides an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level, bearing in mind the international character of our LLM student body. This may include an introduction to the English Legal System (particularly important for international students); a session on the various traditions of Critical Legal Thinking; a session on researching and writing for an LLM essay (particularly important for international students); plagiarism; oral skills; and workshops on using REFWORKS, OSCOLA and other library resources.

Find out more about LAWS9191

Compulsory for students on the LLM in (Specialisation); LLM in Law and PG Diploma in (Specialisation). Also available optionally to students on the PG Certificate in Law.

This second extracurricular module will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project such as their LLM dissertations, learn about other forms of post-graduate studies and career development. Although the focus will be on research methods and theoretical frameworks, other sessions might include: a workshop on editing scholarly work; an introduction to doctoral research; a workshop on working with long documents; and writing a CV.

Find out more about LAWS9192

The module will explore emerging privacy and data protection issues. Students will be challenged to critically examine how e.g. personal, financial, health and transactional data are managed and who has access to this information. It will require students to assess emerging legal, regulatory, data protection and personal privacy issues raised by widespread access to personal information, including genetic data.

The essential aims and objectives of the proposed LLM module are to equip students to undertake a sustained analysis of privacy and data protection law. Students will be asked to critically examine whether privacy protection, consent and confidentiality measures are proportionate to the legal requirements to protect personal information while balancing the requirements of economic commerce, the state and public administrations to collect, use and share personal information.

Find out more about LAWS9210

The 'new global economy' (global integration of production and increased migration, digital and informational technologies, transformations in work and production processes, the shift to services, and the informalisation of work) has undermined the pillars upon which labour law was constructed after World War II in developed capitalist economies. Moreover, contrary to expectation, informal work has not diminished in emerging and developing economies, and has, in fact, increased. In this context, a new strategy for achieving labour standards and protecting workers has emerged. Labour rights are now conceptualised as a species of human rights and they are asserted before various international, transnational, and domestic human rights bodies and courts. The focus of this module will be on international and transnational norms and institutions, and their interaction with national/domestic labour regimes. We will consider changing forms (from labour standard to labour rights and hard to soft law) and scales (national to transnational and international) of regulation, the changing 'subjects' of labour law (women, migrant workers, 'solo' self-employed), and the changing goals of labour law (flexibility and competiveness versus security and protection). Labour rights will be placed in their social, economic, and political context.

Find out more about LAWS9220

What causes us to forget that 'the economy' and 'the law' are made up of interacting human beings? Why does it matter? These are questions that are relevant to every person in every country. They are the questions that motivate the emergent field of Economic Sociology of Law (ESL), which takes sociologically-inspired approaches to relationships between the 'economic' (the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services) and the ‘legal’ (the use, abuse and avoidance of legal rules and institutions). In this module we systematically (that is, addressing the analytical, empirical and normative components) explore the limitations of orthodox legal and economic approaches, and examine how Economic Sociology of Law might compensate for them. There is a strong practical and empirical emphasis, and examples are drawn from current events and policy from all over the world. Questions considered include:

• Where do the concepts of ‘economy’, ‘law’ and ‘society’ come from?

• What do they signify?

• Are they uniformly accepted?

• Mutually exclusive?

• What are the substantive focus of legal, sociological and economic approaches to law and economy?

• How do these disciplines (conceptually and empirically) approach legal rules, institutions and practices?

• Why – in pursuit of what values and interests – is it useful to take any of these approaches to law?

Emphasis is likely to be placed on the property rights and ‘transaction costs’, formality and informality, markets and ‘market failure’, state intervention and regulation and corruption.

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Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which started with the protection of historical monuments in the 19th century and now includes intangible values.

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. Academic research now aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property. It aims to give coherence to practices shaped by art dealers, collectors, museums, communities and States, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law. Those different interactions have developed a less than coherent legal framework that will be comparatively analyzed by reference to French, English and American Law

Find out more about LAWS9250

The module will focus on the law of banking in the UK. This will involve an examination of the banker-customer relationship which will include the following: the rights and obligations of the parties in a banking relationship; the operation of the customer's account; the use of different methods of payment by customers such as cheques and plastic cards; and the challenges that electronic banking poses to the banking relationship. The module will also consider the regulatory roles of the Bank of England, the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority as well as the effect of various EU Directives and international measures on UK law. In the latter half of the module, focus will be given to the provision of credit. This will involve looking at the various types of credit provided by banks, the taking of security by banks and the enforcement of such security. Other ancillary issues such as the impact of insolvency on the banker-customer relationship and anti-money laundering measures will also be examined.

Find out more about LAWS9300

The module spans environmental and ecological legal issues arising from contexts where land development and conservation are at issue.

Land development places considerable stress upon wildlife conservation, natural resources and environmental quality. As an initial matter, development might contravene common law restrictions upon land use arising in the law of nuisance. However, in most legal systems the decision to grant planning permission is critical in determining whether a development goes ahead. The land use planning system and policy guidance give an opportunity for planning authorities to scrutinise the likely environmental and ecological impacts of a development proposal, before a development is authorised. The anticipatory approach is taken a step further when a proposed development is likely to have a significant effect upon the environment and where Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required before granting permission for development. The methodology of environmental assessment is also applied where Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is required of plans and policies, rather than individual developments. The need to implement requirements from European Union environmental law, with regard to EIA and SEA, is of critical importance.

The conservation and sustainable use of living natural resources is a key element in securing the overarching environmental policy objective of sustainable development. In part, the land development system, referred to above may be used to prevent developments which are excessively damaging to flora, fauna and their habitats or ecosystems. However, conservation or ecological law goes beyond this in attaching a special legal status to non-human living resources and their environment. In part, the laws which provide this special status are of national origin and prevent the destruction of wildlife or require the designation of land for wildlife conservation purposes (such as Sites of Special Scientific Interest). Beyond the national measures for direct protection of wildlife and the protection of ecologically important habitats, important ecological laws from arise from European Union and global international sources. Specifically, the EU Wild Birds and Habitats Directives, and the Biodiversity Convention are used to illustrate some of the key legal features in regional biodiversity conservation law. A concluding session examines the international trade dimension of wildlife conservation law.

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This module will cover the legal framework in which the entertainment and knowledge industries operate. The objective is to introduce the key features of the music, film, pharmaceutical, finance and toy industries to embrace a different way of studying copyright, design, trade mark and patent rights. It is an attempt to study law "in action", and to provide students with a capacity to understand how intellectual property rights are transacted, evaluated and litigated differently depending on the trade/industry. The module will study the complex interplay between law, commerce, culture and communications and identify how these connections make intellectual property licensing possible.

Find out more about LAWS9330

The goal of the module is to provide an in-depth introduction to the laws of patents and trademarks (including passing off). Particular emphasis is placed on the political, socio-historical, cultural and economic contexts in which these laws operate, as well as on the implications of legal concepts on proprietary strategies.

The module will take a distinctive approach towards the study of intellectual properties by focusing on concepts and their practical effects: the module will focus on key concepts in patents, trademarks and passing off and critically examine their implications for political economy, culture and science. Such key concepts may include: patents, novelty and invention; in trademarks and passing off: brands, sign and goodwill.

No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

Find out more about LAWS9340

The curriculum will offer an introduction to major schools of ethical reasoning within the western tradition (including deontology, consequentialism, and principle based moral reasoning) and significant concepts in bioethics (including autonomy, welfare, and justice). The concepts will be explored through application to a number of legal case studies including the regulation of death and dying and organ transplantation.

Find out more about LAWS9400

The module will explore some of the most significant issues in the legal regulation of healthcare, including medical malpractice; duty of care; capacity; consent; best interests; refusal of treatment; public health; and resource allocation.

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The curriculum will focus on the issues of reproductive rights, reproductive justice and the appropriate limits on reproductive autonomy. Topics covered will include moral and legal status of the embryo and fetus and the 'right to life' as it applies in this context; the regulation of embryo research and assisted reproductive technologies; surrogacy; contraception, abortion, sterilisation and the legal regulation of pregnancy

Find out more about LAWS9420

This module will examine the scope and nature of a 'right to health' and how it has been put into effect. It will also study the manner in which law and other forms of regulation facilitate or impedes the achievement of health objectives in areas such as access to essential medicines, control of infectious diseases, cross-border medical research and treatment, reduction of tobacco usage, promotion of breastfeeding and so on. It will also explore the issues raised by 'health tourism', including for access to treatment which would be illegal or unavailable in the home country, e.g. for surrogacy, abortion and assisted reproductive technologies.

Find out more about LAWS9431

This course is designed for graduate students in Political Science and will serve as an introduction to quantitative methods for social science research. Given that a great deal of the research in Political Science is conducted in the language of quantitative methodology, students will learn the use of quantitative research methods as a tool to further their research and participation in social scientific debates. Students can further expect to be introduced to not only the means for conducting rigorous, empirical, and quantitative research in social science fields but also how this methodology adheres to the scientific accumulation of knowledge about these phenomena. The course is intended to develop core competencies in quantitative research. These competencies include methodological literacy (the ability to read, understand, and critically assess quantitative research); statistical abilities (the ability to determine, apply, and use the appropriate statistical techniques to inform and/or support an argument as well as understand the limitations of statistical techniques); and research skills (the ability to use and present quantitative methodology to address a research question).

Find out more about POLI8100

The module is designed to provide students with an advanced understanding of politics in the Middle East. The module covers various social (e.g. identities), economic (e.g. role of natural resources) and religious (e.g. role of Islam) themes, and thus provides students with a wide-ranging perspective from which to analyse the political life of the region. Particular emphasis is placed on the nature and causes of conflict and political violence, and on the role of the state. The module also focuses on the historical development of the region as a way of helping students to understand the nature and causes of its contemporary political situation.

Find out more about POLI8109

This module provides an overview of the degree to which cyberspace continues to revolutionise the operations of both state and non-state actors, and the challenges of governing this 'fifth sphere' of power projection. Whilst this module is not entrenched in International Relations or Security Studies theory, students will have the opportunity to apply both traditional and non-traditional approaches to the politics of cyberspace. Key themes include: 21st century technology, cyber warfare, espionage, surveillance, deterrence theory, cyberterrorism, and representation of threatening cyber-entities. Students will develop a toolkit to critique the existing state and NGO-based governance regime for cyberspace, and will convey arguments both for and against a ‘Geneva Convention’ for cyberspace.

Find out more about POLI8114

Whenever we make a statement about international affairs, and world politics we rely on certain (often implicit) theoretical assumptions: about power, interests, identities, norms and how they relate to the behaviour of international actors. Whether we like it or not, we are 'doomed' to rely on theories. The starting-point of this course is not that theories are the only possible and all-encompassing approach to the study of international affairs, but that they are helpful to understand, compare and critically evaluate interpretations of international issues: if we all use theoretical assumptions, we better make them explicit and understood, to make sure what exactly we are claiming.

International Relations theories are not approached as strict categories with clear boundaries, but rather as a continuously evolving debate. The course does not attempt to give an encyclopaedic overview of all theories of International Relations, but rather to confront different views. The main objective is to understand the core differences between different theoretical approaches.

Find out more about POLI8240

This module will examine how conflict research has evolved within the field of political science and International Relations. It will initially investigate competing theories on conflict and violence highlighting specific case studies and new security concerns. The theoretical reflections will focus on the understanding of modern nationalism in world politics as well as different aspects of conflict ranging from inter-state to intra-state conflict. Moreover, students will be exposed to a detailed and critical analysis of the political and constitutional options in societies beset by violent ethnic conflict, with particular emphasis being given to mechanisms directed at the achievement of political accommodation.

Find out more about POLI8280

This module focuses on the position of Europe and the EU in particular - what it does and how it does it - in the world, through the perceptions of the other. The first challenge of this broad approach is to tackle the question 'what is Europe?', by way of situating Europe between the regional and global change, and understanding its multifaceted, multi-actor and multi-level environment and associated with it challenges, in the increasingly inter-dependent and inter-polar world. As part of the exercise we will focus more specifically on EU actorness reiterated through the changing modes of governance – from disciplinary and hierarchical, to more adaptable and from a distance – and democracy promotion policies, to understand how it behaves vis-à-vis the outside world. Premised on this, we will examine EU actorness in practical terms by referring to EU interactions with ‘the other’ – from the neighbourhood, BRICS, to US, and Russia. The objective is to cross-compare ‘what the EU is’ and ‘what it does’ to enable wider generalisations of ‘what kind of transformative power the EU is?’ today, in this increasingly globalising world.

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Canterbury:

The course provides an overview and a framework for considering the field of international conflict resolution. The students have the opportunity to explore conflict resolution methods such as mediation, negotiation, collaborative problem solving, and alternative dispute resolution. The approach is interdisciplinary and juxtaposes traditional approaches in conflict management with the scientific study of conflict and cooperation. Across the term students will be exposed to a range of different theories and approaches to conflict management and be required to practically apply the course content in a number of simulations.

Brussels:

The course provides an overview and framework for considering the evolving field of international conflict resolution with an emphasis on negotiation and mediation. The module will focus primarily on the practical as well as on the theoretical aspects of negotiation and mediation, or more broadly third party intervention in conflicts. Its aims are to give the students an overview of the main problems involved in negotiation and mediation (broadly defined), but also to give them a chance to work individually and in groups on case studies and material related to the resolution of conflicts. The course is designed to introduce the students to theories of negotiation and bargaining, discuss the applicability of various tools and techniques in problem solving real cases of international conflict, and allow them to make use of such techniques in role playing and simulations.

Find out more about POLI8480

This module focuses on the evolution of security studies as a discipline and its implications for practice. We examine a variety of theoretical and empirical materials that provide students with the basis for analysing pressing questions related to issues of war, security and peace in the world today. This module thus provides a good grounding for understanding contemporary security challenges (such as the environmental degradation, conflict, gender-based insecurity, terrorism, mass surveillance and arms proliferation among others) and our responses to them. It will engage with debates around the 'broadening' and ‘deepening’ agenda of security studies, which has extended the scope of security studies beyond the nation-state, and the role of new security actors.

Find out more about POLI9160

The purpose of the module is to develop an understanding of the complex relationships between terrorism, counter-terrorism efforts, and human rights, both at home and abroad. Central to the module is the role of the state in responding to terrorism, in attempting to prevent terrorism, and in itself using and sponsoring terrorism. In this regard students are encouraged to re-evaluate assumptions about the state and its place in domestic and international politics, focusing particularly on crimes by the state. Students will be introduced to competing approaches to the study of terrorism, many of which are grounded in wider theories and approaches common to International

Relations and Security Studies. One of the challenges of the module is to think critically about the implications and consequences of those various approaches. The module will begin by looking at the various methodological, theoretical, and definitional challenges associated with the study of terrorism. Building on this grounding, students will then begin analysing terrorism, counter-terrorism and the role of the state through a number of case studies drawn from the 20th and early 21st Centuries. They will be encouraged to relate each of the case studies to the broader methodological and theoretical debates explored in the first few weeks of the module.

Find out more about POLI9170

The module draws from comparative politics, international relations, and political thought to analyse the past, present, and future of the democratic national state, the dominant form of political system in today's world. It addresses questions such as: Why are some states federal and others unitary? What explains the resilience of nationalism? Does economic integration leads to political disintegration? Why has regional integration gone much further in Europe than elsewhere? Is multi-national democracy possible? The module first charts the emergence of the modern state and its transformation into a national and democratic form of political system. Subsequently, it explores some key aspects of the formation, structuring, restructuring, and termination of states such as the unitary/federal dichotomy, processes of devolution, the challenge of secession, the question of the connections between the economic environment and the number and size of states, the phenomenon of supra-state regional integration, and the connections between nationality and democracy. It concludes by assessing the challenges facing the democratic national state in the 21st century and their likely trajectory in the foreseeable future.

Find out more about POLI9510

This module complements the core programme module ('Political Psychology') by providing students with a detailed introduction to the nature and study of public opinion. Opinion and attitudes are central to the choices that citizens make and to the way they behave, which in turn are core outcomes in politics. Yet the nature and formation of those attitudes are complex, and shaped by a range of individual and contextual factors, which are central subjects within psychology. This module therefore brings together perspectives from both political science and psychology, in helping students to understand how citizens form attitudes and opinions, the processes and considerations that underpin attitude formation, the factors and actors that influence these formative processes and the effect that citizens’ attitudes have on their behaviour. The module will also consider the principal ways in which we identify and measure public opinion, notably through surveys. Underpinning the module will be the central question of whether the nature of citizens’ opinions are consistent with the assumptions and demands of modern democratic states.

Find out more about POLI9560

This module will examine the ways in which violence is understood in social science research, and will provide advanced discussion of the major theoretical and research themes involved in the analysis of violence. It will critically examine data on the prevalence, nature and effects of violent crime, and will consider issues of violence, aggression and masculinity. This will be done with particular reference to examples, such as racist crime, homophobic crime and domestic violence. The module will approach violence from both interpersonal and societal perspectives and will include consideration of collective violence and genocide. It will further examine solutions to solutions to violence and conflict resolution, the effects of intervention strategies and non-juridical responses to violence.

Find out more about SOCI8240

This module explores key issues, debates and controversies in the cross-disciplinary study of terrorism and political violence. Since 9/11, terrorism and jihadist violence in particular has become one of the most contentious and politically charged issues of our time. Yet it remains poorly understood, in part because of the contention and consequent polarization surrounding it, but also because of the methodological challenges in researching the individuals and groups involved in terrorist activity. One of the core aims of the module is to help shed a light on the challenges - methodological, practical and ethical - of researching an issue saturated in danger, secrecy and stigma.

What is terrorism and how should it best be defined? Why does the term "terrorism" carry such a potent stigma? What are the master cultural and intellectual narratives for thinking about terrorism and terrorists?

Does it make sense to talk of "the terrorist" as a category of person, and what are the problems inherent in efforts to "profile" those who engage in terrorism? What do terrorists and terrorist groups want? Is terrorism rational? What is suicide bombing and what explains it? How do terrorist rhetorically frame the use of violence against civilians? What is ISIS and is it Islamic? What is radicalization and how should it be conceptualized? Can terrorism ever be morally justified?

The purpose of this module is to provide a framework for thinking about these and other crucial questions about terrorism and political violence.

Find out more about SOCI8250

This module examines gender and crime in a globalised world. Several core themes inform the international exploration of crime, victimisation and justice, including 'race', class, age, sexuality, locality, economics, politics, power and discourse. The module offers students the opportunity to engage with a broad range of internationally classical and influential bodies of literature spanning feminist and critical criminology, masculinities theories, victimology, queer theory and globalisation. Men and women as victims and offenders will be examined through a gendered lens to assess how culture, discourse and identity function to enhance or diminish vulnerability to criminalisation, victimisation and injustice. Underpinning these analyses are notions of power, which prove central to considerations of the extent to which globalisation informs patterns of gendered offending, victimisation and access to justice.

Find out more about SOCI8300

Critical criminology constitutes a broad and multi-disciplinary tradition that studies the complex relationships between crime, control and power. The module will aim to acquaint students with the richness of writings in this field, the variety of political positions and the development of different traditions in the UK, US and the European continent. Critical criminology has also taken a recent interest in the processes associated with globalisation, thus giving rise to an emerging sub-discipline, global criminology. The module will also examine how this allows new understandings of crime, power and control, which link the global to the local. Various theoretical perspectives will be encountered, including those of new deviancy theory, Marxism, Foucauldian thought, left realism, abolitionism, social harm perspectives and, more recently, cultural criminology.

Find out more about SOCI8680

In the late modern period we are presented with an extraordinary wealth of criminological theory. Past and present paradigms proliferate and prosper. This course examines these theories, placing them in the context of the massive social transformations that have taken place in the last thirty years. It is not concerned so much with abstract theory as criminological ideas, which arise in particular contexts. It aims, therefore, to situate theories in contemporary debates and controversies and allows students to fully utilize theoretical insights in their criminological work. In particular we will introduce the current debates surrounding cultural criminology, the debate over quantitative methods and the emergence of a critical criminology.

Find out more about SOCI8690

This module will examine the emergence and development of the modern prison in the light of the major social and economic changes that have taken place over the last two hundred years. It will examine the changing functions of the prison over that period and will look at the development of community based sanctions and alternatives to custody. It will then examine the reasons for the growth of imprisonment in the post war period and in particular its rapid increase on both sides of the Atlantic over the past two decades. It will examine the issues of gender and race in relation to prisons and penal policy and examine the key debates concerning the changing composition of the prison population. It will then go on to look at penal reform and in particular the impact of privatisation on the prison system.

Find out more about SOCI9400

Compulsory modules currently include

This module requires students to submit a dissertation of no more than 15,000 words on a topic relevant to one of the subject specialisations of the degree programme and approved by the academic staff. It is conceived as that part of the degree programme where students have considerable leeway to follow their own particular interests, with guidance from staff. Students are assigned a supervisor upon submission of the dissertation proposal according to topic and staff expertise. Supervision of work on the dissertation is concentrated in the second half of the academic year and appropriate help will be given to the student. Original research is likely to be rewarded with high grades, but it is not a requirement at this level.

Find out more about LAWS8000

Teaching and assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules are normally assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

  • provide a postgraduate qualification of value to those intending to play a leading role in any field of law
  • provide a detailed knowledge and high level of understanding of a range of specialised subject areas
  • provide more broadly-based communication skills of general value to those seeking postgraduate employment
  • provide a sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and particular contexts in which law operates
  • provide a degree of specialisation in areas of public international law of individual interest from among the wide range of LLM/PDip options that are available and which require you to engage with academic work which is at the frontiers of scholarship
  • encourage you to develop a critical awareness of the operation of public international law, particularly in contexts which are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution
  • provide you with the skills to undertake supervised research on an agreed topic in law and to encourage the production of original and evaluative commentary that meets high standards of scholarship (applies to LLM only)
  • encourage you to develop critical, analytical and problem-solving skills which can be applied to a wide range of contexts
  • develop your skills of academic legal research, particularly by the written presentation of arguments in a manner which meets relevant academic conventions
  • assist those students who are minded to pursue academic research at a higher level in acquiring a sophisticated grounding in the essential techniques involved by following a specialised module in research methods (applies to LLM only)
  • contribute to widening participation in higher education by taking account of the past experience of applicants in determining admissions whilst ensuring that all students that are admitted possess the potential to complete the programme successfully.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the institutions and structures of public international law and the inter-relationships between them
  • the key concepts, policy issues, principles and relevant sources of law and policy
  • the substantive law relevant to a range of key areas of law and policy
  • the theoretical, social and academic debates which underlie the substantive areas of law
  • the practical contexts in which the law operates
  • the importance of evaluating public international law alongside its theoretical and practical contexts

Intellectual skills

You develop intellectual skills in:

  • effectively applying the knowledge of law and policy to a wide range of situations where relevant practical or theoretical issues are under consideration
  • evaluating issues according to their context, relevance and importance
  • gathering relevant information and accessing key sources by electronic or other means
  • formulating arguments on central issues and areas of controversy, and the ability to present a reasoned opinion based upon relevant materials
  • recognising potential alternative arguments, and contrary evidence, to your own opinion and presenting a reasoned justification for preference
  • demonstrating an independence of mind and the ability to offer critical challenge to received understanding on particular issues
  • an ability to reflect constructively on your learning progression.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in:

  • an awareness of the limitations of present knowledge and matters needing to be resolved by further research
  • the ability to identify and characterise issues of law which arise in practical situations
  • the ability to research and access the main sources of law and policy which are relevant
  • the ability to appreciate and evaluate the main theoretical and political perspectives that underlie the legal provisions
  • the ability to provide a reasoned and justified opinion as to the possible legal consequences in particular circumstances
  • the ability to utilise research skills, at least, to commence further research into unresolved issues.

Transferable skills

You gain the following transferable skills:

  • the ability to identify relevant issues from potentially complex factual situations
  • the ability to undertake research from a diverse range of sources
  • the ability to summarise detailed and complex bodies of information concisely and accurately
  • the ability to formulate arguments in verbal presentations and defend these against opposing views
  • the ability to present information and arguments in written form, in accordance with academic conventions, and appropriately to the intended readership
  • the ability to evaluate personal performance.

Fees

The 2022/23 UK fees for this course are:

Law - Taught LLM at Canterbury

  • Home full-time £9300
  • EU full-time £14000
  • International full-time £18600
  • Home part-time £4650
  • EU part-time £7000
  • International part-time £9300

Law - PCert at Canterbury

  • Home full-time £3100
  • EU full-time £4650
  • International full-time £6200
  • Home part-time £1550
  • EU part-time £2325
  • International part-time £3100

Law - Taught PDip at Canterbury

  • Home full-time £6200
  • EU full-time £9300
  • International full-time £12400
  • Home part-time £3100
  • EU part-time £4650
  • International part-time £6200

For details of when and how to pay fees and charges, please see our Student Finance Guide.

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact information@kent.ac.uk.

Your fee status

The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.

Additional costs

General additional costs

Find out more about general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent. 

Funding

Search our scholarships finder for possible funding opportunities. You may find it helpful to look at both:

We have a range of subject-specific awards and scholarships for academic, sporting and musical achievement.

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Independent rankings

In the most recent Research Excellence Framework, Kent Law School was ranked 8th for research intensity in the Times Higher Education.

Research

Research areas

Criminal Justice

Much of the School's research activity in criminal justice takes place in co-operation with the School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research and under the auspices of the Kent Criminal Justice Centre. Established in 1996, the Centre co-ordinates and encourages research in the field of criminal justice, and develops teaching and education initiatives, especially in co-operation with local criminal justice agencies.

Critical Commercial Law and Business Law and Regulation

Kent Law School has established a rich tradition of critical scholarship on the legal regulation of the business practices and commercial relations of market economies. Our experts inform research-led teaching in such fields as consumer debt and bankruptcy, secured credit, intellectual property, International Financial Institutions, economic development, international trade and business transactions, commercial arbitration, international labour regulation, corporate governance, regulation of personal financial services, e-commerce, and the law relating to banking and information technology.

Critical Obligations

Our expertise in the area of obligations shares a commitment to challenging the apparently coherent and common-sense rules of contract and tort. We do this by identifying the conflicts in the world outside of the textbook that shape and destabilise the operation of these rules, and by revealing the ideological, political, and distributive biases that the rules of contract and tort help to perpetuate.

Environmental Law

The Law School has long been established as a recognised centre of excellence in research and graduate teaching in environmental law, spanning international, EC and national law and policy. Current research interests include climate change, the aquatic environment, biodiversity conservation, regulation and enforcement, and trade.

European and Comparative Law

European and Comparative Law is being conducted both at an individual level as well as at the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law, which was established in 2004 with a view to providing a framework for the further development of the Law School’s research and teaching activities in this area. Research and teaching reaches from general areas of comparative and European public and private law to more specialised areas and specific projects.

Gender and Sexuality

Home to the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, Kent Law School makes a significant contribution to the development of feminist perspectives on law, nationally and internationally. The Centre produces wide-ranging interdisciplinary work, drawing on a broad range of intellectual trajectories in addition to legal studies, including political theory, philosophy, sociology, political economy, cultural studies, geography, history, and drama. The Centre explores how sexuality is produced through political categories of difference and how it is governed. The research carried out by the Centre demonstrates a shared preoccupation with inequality and social change.

Governance and Regulation

Legal research involves studying processes of regulation and governance. This research cluster focuses on the character of regulation and governance to critically understand the different modes through which governing takes place such as the conditions, relations of power and effects of governance and regulation. Work within this area is methodologically diverse. Intellectually, it draws on a range of areas including socio-legal studies; Foucauldian perspectives on power and governmentality; Actor Network Theory; feminist political theory and political economy; postcolonial studies; continental political philosophy; and cultural and utopian studies.

Healthcare Law and Ethics

A number of Kent Law School (KLS) staff have interests in the area of Health Care Law and Ethics, focusing in particular on issues relating to human reproduction. Much of the research carried out by scholars in this area is critical and theoretical and has a strong interdisciplinary flavour. In addition to conducting their own research projects, staff have developed strong and fruitful collaborations with ethicists and medical professionals.

International Law

The starting point for research in international law at Kent Law School is that international law is not apolitical and that its political ideology reflects the interests of powerful states and transnational economic actors. In both research and teaching, staff situate international law in the context of histories of colonialism to analyse critically its development, doctrines and ramifications. Critical International Law at KLS engages with theories of political economy, international relations and gender and sexuality to contribute to scholarly and policy debates across the spectrum of international law, which includes public, economic, human rights, criminal and commercial law. Scholars at the Centre for Critical International Law engage in the practical application of international law through litigation, training, research and consultancies for international organisations, NGOs and states.

Law and Political Economy & Law and Development

Law and its relation to political economy are addressed from a variety of angles, including the exploration of the micro and macrolevel of economic regulations as well as theoretical aspects of law and political economy.

Legal Theories and Philosophy

Identifying the fact that several academics do work in cultural theory and political theory (including on normative concepts, religion and the state). While feminist and critical legal theories are focal points at Kent Law School, the departmental expertise also covers more essential aspects such as classical jurisprudence and the application of philosophy to law.

Property Law

Kent Law School's property lawyers have a range of overlapping interests in both global and local property issues. Their work covers indigenous people’s rights, the environment, housing, community land, social enterprise, cultural heritage law and urban design, as well as the question of intellectual property. They have links with anthropologists working at the University and have run a very successful series of workshops exploring common interests. Their research draws on a multiplicity of theoretical perspectives including postcolonialism, feminism, and Foucault.

Other research areas within KLS include:

  • human rights
  • labour law
  • law and culture
  • law, science and technology
  • legal methods and epistemology
  • public law
  • race, religion and the law.

Careers

Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School’s Employability Blog.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country’s diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a ‘stage’ at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog.

Study support

Friendly and supportive environment

Kent Law School has a lively and active postgraduate community, bought about in part by our strong research culture and by the close interaction between our staff and students. Staff publish regularly and widely in journals, conference proceedings and books and embed their research in their teaching. Taught students have regular contact with their programme and module conveners with staff on hand to answer any questions and to provide helpful and constructive feedback on submitted work. The Law School has an active and inclusive extra-curricular academic and social scene with regular guest lectures, talks and workshops organised by our research centres (which include the Centre for Critical International Law and the Centre for Sexuality, Race and Gender Justice (SeRGJ).

Award-winning Law Library

Our Law Library has long been a leader in the development of electronic resources for legal teaching and research. The extensive and up-to-date law collection in the University’s Templeman Library is particularly strong on electronic material, and the Electronic Law Library includes numerous legal databases, which are increasingly invaluable tools for research. In addition, you can access the text of thousands of law journals online. Our law librarian is available to train you to use these resources and runs regular legal research classes with postgraduate students.

Support

We have a dedicated postgraduate office, offering support from application to graduation. Postgraduate students at Kent Law School have access to a postgraduate computing room, study area and common room with wireless internet access.

Global Skills Award

All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme. The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability.  

Apply now

January 2022 start

Please note that for applicants requiring a student visa to study in the UK, all applications for January start programmes must be received no later than Friday 17 December 2021. Any applications received after this date will only be considered for May or September entry (whichever is the earliest available start date for the programme applied for).

Learn more about the applications process or begin your application by clicking on a link below.

Once started, you can save and return to your application at any time.

Apply for entry to:

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