Portrait of Dr Heejung Chung

Dr Heejung Chung

Reader in Sociology and Social Policy
Director, Welfare State Research Cluster

About

Dr Heejung Chung is a Reader in Sociology and Social Policy and a member of Kent's Q-Step Centre.

She completed her PhD in Sociology at the ReflecT, Tilburg University and AIAS/HSI, University of Amsterdam, her MSc in Research in Social Policy from Edinburgh University’s School of Social and Political Studies and her MSW major in Social Policy and BA in Social Welfare from Yonsei University.

Dr Chung's research visits and training have included Manchester University, Social Science Research Centre in Berlin (WZB), Germany, Essex University and Aalborg University, Denmark.

Research interests

Dr Chung's research interests are broadly around issues concerning cross-national comparative analysis of welfare states and their labour markets.

Dr Chung is currently researching how working time flexibility impacts an individual's work-life balance, and the role of contexts in moderating that influence and how welfare state institutions and socio-economic factors shape individual's perceived employment insecurity. She is using multilevel modelling, looking at cross-national/European data, and qualitative methods, including interviews and policy analyses, as well as other quantitative methods focusing on the examination of latent factors. 

Dr Chung's key interests include

  • European welfare states and labour markets
  • Subjective employment insecurity
  • Working time flexibility and job autonomy
  • Work-life balance and work-family conflict
  • Gender equality and gender norms
  • Cross-national data and European data 
  • Multi-level modelling and other advance quantitative methods
  • Policy and document analysis.

Current projects

  See Dr Chung's website for full details.  

Teaching

Dr Chung currently convenes undergraduate modules on the welfare state and gender, work and equality. She also lectures on issues around gender and labour markets on social policy and sociology programmes. 

Previously, she convened a postgraduate module on the analysis of quantitative data and ran several methods workshops, including Multilevel modelling workshops at the University of Kent, Tilburg University and University of Hamburg.  

Supervision

Dr Chung is supervising a number of students including undergraduates, MAs and PhDs. Current PhDs include:

  • Jane Hyojin Seo (2018-) - 'Feminization of Outside Labour Market in East Asia' 
  • Alafaka Tobin (2018-) - 'Burn out and migration intention among physicians in Nigeria' 
  • Gianna Maria Eick (2017-) - 'Attitudes towards immigrants among higher educated population'
  • Joe Warriner (2017 -) - 'How do the child care practices of fathers change their understandings of masculinity?'
  • Silvia Girardi (committee member at KU Leuven) (2015 - ) - 'Social assistance in Europe in relation to the different labour markets'
  • Marc Wigley (2013 -) - 'Social capital, welfare and well-being: implications for the social economy'

Professional

Recent Awards and Prizes

  • Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for Excellence in Work/Family Research 2017: top 5 finalist
  • Academic Champion 2015: University of Kent 50th anniversary award
  • Rosemary Crompton Prize 2010: Work Employment Society Conference Best Paper Prize 

Recent editorial

  • Editorial Board member for the journal Journal of Korean Welfare State and Social Policy (11/2016 - current)
  • Co-editor of the Policy Press Book Series ‘Research in Comparative and Global Social Policy’ (2016 - current)
  • Editorial Board member for the journal Social Policy & Administration (2015 - current)

Dr Chung has reviewed papers for several journals including; European Sociological Review, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Social Forces, Journal of European Social Policy, International Journal of Social Welfare.

Board membership

  • Executive board member for the Work and Families Researchers Network (WFRN) (2019 - current) 
  • Executive board member for the European Social Policy Analysis Network (ESPAnet) (2019- current) 
  • Co-lead for the WFRN network special Interest group Economic and Public Policy (2015 - current) 

Recent reviewing work 

  • Grant reviews for the Euopean Commission H2020 (2018) 
  • Grant review for the European Research Council (2017) 
  • Grant reviews for the FWO (Flemish Science Foundation) - March 2014; July 2014 

Most recent/important impact work

  • April 2019: Advising the BEIS team on the development of the new wave of the WERS/WLB employee survey focusing issues around flexible working. 
  • March 2019: The Government Equalities Office published a series of action notes for employers on how to tackle the gender pay gap, for which Dr Chung provided assistance. She has also sat in the panel discussion to launch the advice in the City of London. 
  • December 2018: Working with the BEIS team regarding the on going review of the right to request flexible working.
  • November 2018: Invited by the UK Cabinet Office to join the Shared Parental Leave evaluation academic advisory panel. 
  • October 2018: Invited by the UK Department for Business and Energy & Industrial Strategies (BEIS) as an adviser for redeveloping the new wage of the Maternity & Paternity Leave Survey 2019. 
  • December 2017: The final report of Dr Chung's ESRC project is used as evidence for the European Economic and Social Committee's opinion supporting the European Commission's proposal on the directive on Work-life balance of working parents and care givers: Read it here 
  • 2016: Dr Chung's paper on flexible working with Yvonne Lott has been cited in the White paper of the German Ministry of Labour and Social Affair on Future of Work (Arbeit 4.0). 


Media

Work-life balance - Dr Chung talks about the gender pay gap (2018)

Flexible working - a ThinkKent video lecture (2016)

Dr Chung's frequent media appearances are listed on her website.

Publications

Showing 50 of 71 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.

Article

  • Chung, H. (2019). Why Flexible Working Alone Will Not Fix Pressing Issues of Work-Life Balance and Gender Equality / 일·생활 균형 및 성평등 현안과 유연근로제의 한계. Global Social Security Review 국제사회보장리뷰 [Online] 8:49-60. Available at: https://www.kihasa.re.kr/english/publications/eng_review/list.do?menuId=109&tid=96&bid=99.
    한국 정부를 포함한 많은 정부가 근로자의 일·생활 균형을 강화하고 노동시장의 성평등을 촉진하기 위한 방안으
    로 유연근로제(flexible working)를 검토하고 있다. 그러나 유연근로제는 제도가 도입될 곳의 근로 문화와 성
    규범 환경에 따라 오히려 전통적인 성역할을 굳히거나 일과 가족 간의 갈등을 심화시킬 수도 있다. 이 글에서는
    유럽과 미국의 자료들을 인용해 왜 이런 일이 일어날 수 있는지를 설명한다. 또한 근로시간을 축소하고 할당제
    부성휴가(ear-marked paternity leave)와 같은 가족정책을 도입하는 것이 유연근로제의 원래 목적을 달성하
    는 데 왜 필수적인지를 밝히고자 한다.


    Many governments, including the Korean government, are considering flexible work arrangements as a way to enhance work-life balance and promote gender equality in the labor market. However, depending on the working culture and the sex education environment where the system is to be introduced, the flexible working system may strengthen the traditional sex role or deepen the conflict between work and family. This article cites European and American sources to explain why this can happen. We also want to clarify why it is essential to reduce the working hours and to introduce family policies such as quota-leave, to achieve the original purpose of the flexible work system.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Heuer, J., Chung, H., Leruth, B., Mau, S. and Zimmermann, K. (2019). Regimes, Social Risks and the Welfare Mix: Unpacking Attitudes to Pensions and Childcare in Germany and the UK through De-liberative Forums. Journal of Social Policy [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S004727941800079X.
    Modern welfare regimes rest on a range of actors – state, market, family/households, em-ployers and charities – but austerity programmes diminish the contribution of the state. While changes in this ‘welfare mix’ require support from the population, attitude studies have focused mainly on people’s views on state responsibilities, using welfare regime the-ory to explain differences. This paper contributes to our understanding of the welfare mix by including other providers such as the market, the family or employers, and also intro-duces social risk theories, contrasting new and old risks. Regime theory implies differences will persist over time, whereas risk theory suggests that growing similarities in certain risks may tend to promote international convergence. This article examines attitudes to the roles of state, market, family, charity/community and employer for pension and childcare in Ger-many and the UK. For data collection we used deliberative forums, a new method in social policy research that allows citizens space to pursue extended lightly moderated discussion and permits researchers to analyse people’s justifications for their attitudes. Our results show that there are patterns of convergence especially in preferences for childcare, but that regime predominates in people’s justifications for their attitudes: regime differences in atti-tudes are resilient.
  • Chung, H. and Van der Lippe, T. (2018). Flexible working, work life balance, and gender equality. Social Indicators Research [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-2025-x.
    This special brings together innovative and multidisciplinary research (sociology, economics,
    and social work) using data from across Europe and the US to address the issue of the
    potential flexible working has on the gender division of labour and workers’ work-life
    balance. Despite numerous studies on the gendered outcomes of flexible working, it is limited
    in that majority is based on qualitative studies based in the US. The papers of this special
    issue overcome some of the limitations by examining the importance of context, namely,
    family, organisational and country context, examining the intersection between gender and
    class, and finally examining the outcomes for different types of flexible working
    arrangements. The introduction to this special issue provides a review of the existing
    literature on the gendered outcomes of flexible working on work life balance and other work
    and family outcomes, before presenting the key findings of the articles of this special issue.
    The results of the studies show that gender matters in understanding the outcomes of flexible
    working, but also it matters differently in different contexts. The introduction provides further
    policy implications drawn from the conclusions of the studies as well as to provide some
    thoughts for future studies to consider.
  • Chung, H. and van der Horst, M. (2018). Flexible working and unpaid overtime in the UK: The role of gender, parental and occupational status. Social Indicators Research [Online]. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-018-2028-7.
    Recent studies have shown that flexible boundaries between work and family may make employees
    work harder and longer. Yet most studies were not able to show whether there are differences across
    different types of flexible working arrangements, and whether this relationship may only hold for
    certain groups of workers. We examine how three different types of flexible working arrangements,
    that is schedule control, flexitime, and teleworking, are associated with an increase in unpaid overtime
    hours of workers in the UK using the Understanding Society data from 2010-2015 and fixed effects
    panel regression models. Results show that the flexible arrangements that were introduced primarily for
    work-life balance purposes, i.e., flexitime and teleworking, do not necessarily increase unpaid overtime
    hours significantly. On the other hand, workers’ control over their schedule, mainly introduced as a part
    of high-performance strategies, leads to increased unpaid overtime hours. This is especially true for
    professional men, and women without children, especially those working full-time, and surprisingly
    part-time working mothers. The results of this study point to the importance of distinguishing between
    different groups of workers as well as between different types of arrangements when examining
    outcomes of flexible working. Furthermore, the results of the study contribute to the argument that
    performance enhancing flexible working arrangements can potentially exacerbate gender inequalities
    in the labour market by enabling men to commit more time to their jobs, while for women, especially
    full-time working mothers, this may be less possible.
  • Chung, H. (2018). Gender, flexibility stigma, and the perceived negative consequences of flexible working in the UK. Social Indicators Research [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-2036-7.
    This study examines the prevalence and the gender differences in the perceptions and experiences of
    flexibility stigma – i.e., the belief that workers who use flexible working arrangements for care
    purposes are less productive and less committed to the workplace. This is done by using the 4th wave
    of the Work-Life Balance Survey conducted in 2011 in the UK. The results show that 35% of all
    workers agree to the statement that those who work flexibly generate more work for others and 32%
    believe that those who work flexibly have lower chances for promotion. Men are more likely to agree
    to the former, while women especially mothers are more likely to agree to the latter. Similarly, men
    are more likely to say they experienced negative outcomes due to co-workers working flexibly, while
    again mothers are more likely to say they experienced negative career consequences due to their own
    flexible working. The use of working time reducing arrangements such as part-time is a major reason
    why people experience negative career outcomes, and can partially explain why mothers are more
    likely to suffer from such outcomes when working flexibly. However, this relationship could be
    reverse, namely, the stigma towards part-time workers may be due to negative perceptions society
    hold towards mothers’ commitment to work and their productivity. In sum, this paper shows that
    flexibility stigma is gendered, in that men are more likely to discriminate against flexible workers,
    while women, especially mothers, are more likely to suffer from such discrimination.
  • Chung, H., Taylor-Gooby, P. and Leruth, B. (2018). Political legitimacy and welfare state futures: Introduction. Social Policy & Administration [Online] 52:835-846. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12400.
    Welfare attitudes are pivotal in understanding the preferences and demands of citizens to help
    shape future policy reforms in welfare states. Accordingly, and due to the availability of large
    scale comparative survey data on attitudes, large numbers of studies of welfare attitudes have
    emerged during the past few decades. However, some limitations still exist in the field, such
    as the background assumptions informing the questionnaire design and top down framing of
    issues, the population represented and finally limitations in teasing out the causal mechanisms
    of relationships, especially pertaining to that of policy reform. This regional issue brings
    together papers that address some of these issues and others in welfare attitude research to
    provide some guidance for future studies. This paper first summarises the existing studies on
    welfare attitudes to identify some of the key limitations, and introduces the five articles in this
    special issue. It concludes with some suggestions for future studies in welfare attitudes.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Chung, H. and Leruth, B. (2018). The Contribution of Deliberative Forums to Studying Welfare State Attitudes – a United Kingdom Study. Social Policy & Administration [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12405.
    This article introduces Democratic Forums as a method to study attitudes towards the welfare
    state and sets out briefly its strengths and weaknesses in comparison with existing methods.
    This is done by reporting the findings of United Kingdom based two-day forum in 2015 in
    which the future of the welfare state was discussed by a largely representative sample of
    participants. The results show that participants linked up both moral and economic arguments
    to come to two major frames that could encompass the debates surrounding welfare state
    futures. One focuses on the inefficiencies of the welfare state which found that the welfare
    resources were largely misdirected and unsustainable. The other focuses on the possibilities
    for improving it via social investment, for example providing individuals with better training
    and education opportunities. The democratic forum method is helpful in allowing researchers
    to investigate the conceptual framings people use when thinking about the welfare state and to
    see how people link different concepts and justifications together to argue their position. We
    argue that this framing can be distinct from that used and understood by policy makers and
    academics, and those applied in the more commonly used large scale surveys.
  • Chung, H. (2018). Dualization and the access to occupational family-friendly working-time arrangements across Europe. Social Policy and Administration [Online] 52:491-507. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/spol.12379/full.
    This paper examines outsider’s relative access to occupational level family-friendly policies. I use data from the European Working Condition Survey of 2015 across 30 European countries examining worker’s access to two types of family-friendly working-time arrangements; flexitime, time off work for personal reasons. The paper focuses on women with care responsibilities given that their demands for family-friendly policies, as well as their outcomes have been shown to be distinct from other working population. In addition to the outsider definition used in the labour market dualization and occupational segmentation literature, i.e., low-skilled workers, those without a permanent contract, this paper also defines outsiders as those with job insecurity. The results of the analysis show a segmentation between workers in their access to family-friendly policies. Unlike statutory policies, occupational policies seem to be selectively provided mostly to workers where employers have a vested interest, i.e., insiders, resulting in a dualized system for most countries. However, rather than their contract status, the skill-level of the job/workers, and their perceived insecurity was found to be important. The results further shows that although Northern European and some continental European countries are those where family-friendly working-time arrangements are more readily available, it is here where the division between insiders and outsiders are the largest. The results of the paper contribute to the literature by showing a need to move beyond the national level when examining family-friendly policies, and to examine a more diverse definition of outsiders when examining dualization of working conditions.
  • Chung, H. (2018). ’Women’s work penalty’ in the access to flexible working arrangements across Europe. European Journal of Industrial Relations [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0959680117752829.
    Do women and workers in female dominated workplaces have better access to flexible working arrangements? Given women’s roles in caregiving and due to the ‘flexibility stigma’ that may come with the use of flexible working arrangements, women and workers in female-dominated workplaces are expected to have greater access. However, flexible working arrangements are also used for performance enhancing purposes, hence, following the gendered rewards/organisation literature, men and workers in male-dominated workplaces may actually have greater access. I examine workers’ access to schedule control across 27 European countries using the European Working Conditions Survey of 2010 to examine this question. I find that there are no discernible differences between men and women in their access to schedule control when individual and company level characteristics are taken into account. Men are less likely to have access to schedule control in male-dominated sectors/jobs, but for both men and women, especially for the latter, female-dominated jobs/sectors provided the least access. This 'women’s work penalty' found in female dominated sectors varies across European countries to a certain degree but in no country was the access better compared to sectors where both genders are equally represented. This raises concerns regarding the provision of good working conditions in disadvantaged workplaces, as well as the prevalence in gender gap in favourable working conditions in addition what is found for pay.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2018). Identifying Attitudes to Welfare through Deliberative Forums – The Emergence of Reluctant Individualism. Policy and Politics [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1332/030557318X15155868234361.
    This article uses deliberative forums to examine attitudes to UK welfare futures. It makes methodological, empirical and theoretical contributions to the field. We demonstrate the value of the approach, provide insights into attitudes, in particular about priorities and how people link ideas together, and show how the UK’s neo-liberal market-centredness fits with enthusiasm for state health care and pensions, desire to close national labour market to immigrants and approval of government interventions to expand opportunities for those who make the effort. Findings point to the strength of the work ethic and individual responsibility alongside a regret that major and highly-valued state services appear unsustainable, the construction of immigrants as simultaneously a burden on provision and unfair labour-market competitors and backing for the development of a ‘new risk’ welfare state through social investment. The study reveals the complexity of responses to current challenges in an increasingly liberal-leaning welfare state.
  • Chung, H. and Van der Horst, M. (2018). Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking. Human Relations [Online] 71:47-72. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726717713828.
    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work–life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009–2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work–life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals’ work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers’ careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market.
  • Chung, H. (2017). National-level family policies and the access to schedule control in a European comparative perspective: crowding out or in, and for whom?. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2017.1353745.
    This paper examines national-level family policies in a comparative perspective, to see whether they ‘crowd out’ company-level family-friendly policies, namely schedule control. Further, it
    examines whether this relationship varies for different types of family policies, and for different groups of workers – i.e. distinguished by gender, parenthood status and skill divisions. The
    paper uses data from 27 European countries in 2010, and applies multilevel random slopes models with cross-level interaction terms. Results show that generous national-level family
    policies, in particular work-facilitating policies, ‘crowd in’ company-level schedule control provisions, especially for high-skilled workers. However, very generous leaves seem to crowdout
    schedule control provision.
  • Chung, H. and Meuleman, B. (2016). European parents’ attitudes towards public childcare provision. The role of current provisions, interests and ideologies. European Societies [Online] 19:49-68. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2016.1235218.
    Despite the large volume of literature on childcare provision across countries, individuals’ attitudes and preferences concerning the role of government in the provision of childcare remain largely unexplored. This study examines how current policy provision structures influence the degree to which parents in European countries support public provision of childcare. Current provision is measured here through objective and subjective indicators, both at the individual and national levels. The relative importance of current provision structures on support for public childcare is then compared with other welfare attitude determinants; i.e., self-interest and political attitudes. This is done using data from 22 European countries in 2008/9 and a multilevel modelling technique. Results show that in general parents across Europe are largely supportive of public childcare provision. Furthermore, current provision structures, and people’s assessment of it, are consistently related to parents’ support for public childcare. Current provisions are salient factor explaining variance in childcare support (both at the individual and national level) over and beyond the most commonly used frameworks, namely self-interest and ideologies. The results of this study provide evidence for a vicious and virtuous cycle in the relationship between policy provision and support, where investment in policies may drive up support while rolling back of policies may further decrease support.
  • Lott, Y. and Chung, H. (2016). Gender discrepancies in the outcomes of schedule control on overtime hours and income in Germany. European Sociological Review [Online] 32:752-765. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcw032.
    Schedule control can have both positive – e.g., increased income – but also negative outcomes – e.g., increased overtime. Here our core interest is whether there are gender discrepancies in these outcomes. Given the different ways in which schedule control can be used, and perceived to be used by men and women, their outcomes are also expected to be different. This is examined using the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2003-2011), and panel regression models. The results show that schedule control is associated with increases in overtime and income – but only for men. Women in full-time positions also increase their overtime hours when using schedule control yet they do not receive similar financial rewards. The results of this study provide evidence to show that increases in schedule control has the potential to traditionalise gender roles by increasing mainly men’s working hours, while also adding to the gender pay gap.
  • Chung, H. (2016). Dualization and subjective employment insecurity: Explaining the subjective employment insecurity divide between permanent and temporary workers across 23 European countries. Economic and Industrial Democracy [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143831X16656411.
    Dualization theory posits that certain institutions cause dualization in the labour market, yet how institutions deepen the subjective insecurity divide between insiders and outsiders has not been examined. This paper examines this question using data from 23 European countries in 2008/9. Results show that the subjective employment insecurity divide between permanent and temporary workers varies significantly across different countries. Corporatist countries, with stronger unions, have larger subjective insecurity divides between permanent and temporary workers. However, this is because permanent workers feel more secure in these countries rather than because temporary workers are more exposed to feelings of insecurity.
  • van Oorschot, W. and Chung, H. (2015). Feelings of dual-insecurity among European workers: A multi-level analysis. European Journal of Industrial Relations [Online] 21:23-37. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959680114523199.
    This article analyses European Social Survey data for 22 countries. We assess the relationship between feelings of employment and income insecurity (dual-insecurity) among workers and national flexicurity policies in the areas of lifelong learning, active labour market policy, modern social security systems and flexible and reliable contractual arrangements. We find that dual-insecurity feelings are lower in countries that score better on most flexicurity polices, but these effects are in all cases outweighed by levels of GDP per capita. Thus feelings of insecurity are reduced more by the affluence of a country than by its social policies. However, affluence is strongly correlated with the policy efforts designed to reduce insecurity, especially active labour market policies and life-long learning, two policy areas that are threatened with cuts as a result of austerity.
  • Yoon, Y. and Chung, H. (2015). New Forms of Dualization? Labour Market Segmentation Patterns in the UK from the Late 90s Until the Post-crisis in the Late 2000s. Social Indicators Research [Online] 128:609-631. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-1046-y.
    There has been an increase in literature that examines the patterns of dualization in labour markets across different welfare states. However, rarely do these studies empirically explore how labour markets are divided. Rather they assume a certain type of division to exist in a market, and apply this assumption to measure the extent to which this division can be observed. This paper aims to overcome this limitation by examining the labour market dualization patterns of the UK’s employed population over the past decade through a latent class analysis model. Our analysis shows that the UK labour market could be characterised by a three group system during the period between 1999 and 2010. This divide supports the theoretical literature on labour market divisions in that there are clear distinctions between those who are insiders and those who are not. However, what is interesting is that rather than having a dichotomised pattern of division of insiders and outsiders, we find a third group which can be characterised as a “future insecure” group. What is more, the main characteristics that divide the groups are not contract types (involuntary part-time or temporary employment), but rather income levels (low pay), occupational profile (low-skilled occupations) and social security benefits stemming from employment (occupational pension coverage). From the results, we conclude that the patterns and characteristics of labour market divisions may not be generalised and further empirical investigations are needed to understand the cross-national variations.
  • Carr, E. and Chung, H. (2014). Employment insecurity and life satisfaction: The moderating influence of labour market policies across Europe. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 24:383-389. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958928714538219.
    This article tests whether the link between employment insecurity and life satisfaction is moderated by the generosity of labour market policies across Europe. Employment insecurity provokes anxieties about (a) the difficulties of finding a new job and (b) alternative sources of non-work income. These components can be related to active and passive labour market policies, respectively. Generous policy support is thus expected to buffer the negative consequences of employment insecurity by lowering the perceived difficulty of finding a similar job or providing income maintenance during unemployment. Based on data for 22 countries from the 2010 European Social Survey, initial support for this hypothesis is found. Perceived employment insecurity is negatively associated with life satisfaction but the strength of the relationship is inversely related to the generosity of labour market policies. Employment insecurity, in other words, is more harmful in countries where labour market policies are less generous.
  • Chung, H. and Mau, S. (2014). Introduction to Special Issue: Subjective Insecurity and the Role of Institutions Chung, H. and Mau, S. eds. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 24:303-318. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958928714538214.
    The issue of social insecurity is high on the public and scientific agenda. Most research, however, looks at
    objective forms of insecurity like growing labour market volatilities or atypical employment. Less has been
    done with regard to the way people perceive these changes and the role of institutions therein. While recent
    studies have highlighted the relatively weak role of institutions in explaining different levels of subjective
    insecurity, they were limited in their understanding in the institutions–security interplay. This special issue
    aims to understand how institutions generate and moderate the outcomes of subjective insecurity, as well
    as to overcome some of the methodological limitations of previous studies. The introduction provides
    a state-of-the-art literature review and unfolds the research question addressed in the special issue. It
    concludes with some thoughts for future research in the field of social insecurity and institutions.
  • Chung, H. and Tijdens, K. (2013). Working time flexibility components and working time regimes in Europe: using company-level data across 21 countries. International Journal of Human Resource Management [Online] 24:1418-1434. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.712544.
    Working time ?exibility comprises a wide variety of arrangements, from part-time,
    overtime, to long-term leaves. Theoretical approaches to grouping these arrangements
    have been developed, but empirical underpinnings are rare. This article investigates
    the bundles that can be found for various ?exible working time arrangements, using the
    Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work–Life Balance, 2004/2005, covering 21
    EU member states and 13 industries. The results from the factor analyses con?rmed that
    working time arrangements can be grouped into two bundles, one for the employee-centred
    arrangements and second for the employer-centred arrangements, and that these two
    bundles are separate dimensions.Wealso tested the stability of the factor analysisoutcome,
    showing that although we ?nd some deviations from the pan-Europe and pan-industry
    outcome, the naming of the components as ?exibility for employees and ?exibility for
    employers can be considered rather stable. Lastly, we ?nd three country clusters for the 21
    European countries using the bundle approach. The ?rst group includes the Northern
    European countries along side Poland and Czech Republic, the second group the
    continental European countries with UK and Ireland, and lastly, the southern European
    countries with Hungary and Slovenia.
  • Chung, H. (2012). Measuring Flexicurity: Precautionary Notes, a New Framework, and an Empirical Example. Social Indicators Research [Online] 106:153-171. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-011-9800-2.
    Recently, there has been an increase and abundance of literature measuring flexicurity across countries. However, there is yet to be any agreement on the definition of the key concepts of flexicurity as well as the framework in which to base one’s research. Due to this, the outcomes found in the existing studies are rather diverse, far from reaching a consensus, and can be misleading. This paper addresses the issues by first introducing a framework, namely, the various levels and stages of flexicurity, as well as introducing some key issues that should be addressed when doing flexicurity indicators research. In addition, an empirical example is given to show how the framework derived can be used to carry out flexicurity research, and to show how by not regarding these frameworks one can come to misleading outcomes.
  • Chung, H., Bekker, S. and Houwing, H. (2012). Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020. Transfer [Online] 18:301-317. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1024258912448590.
    This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective insecurity arising from such labour market exclusion. We also examine what Member States have done to address this issue, especially as part of their response to the crisis. At both EU (through the Europe 2020 strategy) and national levels specific policy measures exist that target young people in the labour market, but these are mostly supply-driven. Thus, they do not take into account the true problems young people are facing, including problems finding first-time employment and bad-quality jobs with little prospect of moving up the employment ladder. In conclusion, a new generation with higher exposure to systematic labour market risks than previous generations is being left to fend for itself with little appropriate state support.
  • Chung, H. and van Oorschot, W. (2011). Institutions versus market forces: Explaining the employment insecurity of European individuals during (the beginning of) the financial crisis. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 21:287-301. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958928711412224.
    In reaction to the recent financial crisis, the European Commission re-stated its view that the balance between flexibility and security is the key to success for the future of the European social economy, as well as its belief in the power of institutional arrangements it deems necessary for this balance. However, do powerful institutions actually counter market forces where flexicurity is concerned? In this paper we address this question by analysing the impact of institutional configurations and market factors on perceived employment insecurity among workers in Europe. We use the 4th wave of the European Social Survey for 2008/2009, which covers 22 countries, and implement a multi-level approach where contextual effects are taken into account and individuals are considered to be embedded within a country. We find that policies that secure one’s income and employability skills, such as passive and active labour market policies, are more important for providing employment security for individuals than institutions that secure one’s current job, such as employment protection. Of the economic and labour market factors, general market conditions (measured as employment rate average) and the strength of the financial crisis (measured as gross domestic product growth rate from 2008 to 2009) are both similarly influential in explaining cross-national variance in the employment insecurity perception of individuals. More generally, and most interestingly, we find that institutional factors lose their significance when market factors are taken into account. Thus, it seems that differences in economic and labour market conditions between countries better explain why workers feel insecure about their employment, than the differences in employment and income policies. Although this result could be influenced by the time period under investigation, which is characterized by a financial crisis, results from previous studies using data from different periods suggest that it is not period-specific.
  • Chung, H. and Thewissen, S. (2011). Falling back on old habits? A Comparison of the Social and Unemployment Crisis Reactive Policies in Germany, the UK, and Sweden. Social Policy & Administration [Online] 45:354-370. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2011.00779.x.
    Although long-term processes of welfare state development have been investigated frequently, there is a surprising gap in knowledge on short-term reactions of states to sudden events. This article aims to fill this gap by examining the reactive policies, i.e. immediate policy responses to urgent social matters, of governments to the current economic crisis. We focus on social and unemployment policies of the three welfare regime ideal types of Esping-Andersen's typology, namely Germany, the UK and Sweden. We apply long-term policy development theories, most notably the convergence and path dependence theories, to understand the choices made in the different reactive policy strategies of these countries. In addition, we scrutinize whether we find similarities between the reactive policies and the converging structural welfare state developments. We use comparable data from various European and national data sources for the two years directly following the recent crisis, namely 2008 and 2009. Our analysis shows that, at least for the three countries under investigation, countries seem to have fallen back on ‘old habits’ by adopting social and unemployment reactive policies that can be identified based on their institutional legacies. This suggests that reactive policy strategies can be explained by different dynamics than the more structural long-term policy developments, and in our case we find evidence in support for the path dependence theory.

Book section

  • Chung, H. (2019). Part-time working women’s access to other types of flexible working-time arrangements across Europe. In: Nicolaisen, H., Kavli, H. C. and Jensen, R. S. eds. Dualisation of Part-Time Work The Development of Labour Market Insiders and Outsiders. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 109-132. Available at: https://policy.bristoluniversitypress.co.uk/dualisation-of-part-time-work.
    This chapter examines part-time working women’s access to flexitime, that is the worker’s control over their schedules such as starting and ending times, and time off work (a couple of hours during their working day) to tend to personal issues. It further examines whether this relative access varies across countries. The analysis of data from 30 European countries show that at the European average, part-time workers are more likely to get access to flexitime – showing evidence of a complimentary effect, and are as likely to get access to time off work for personal reasons as full time workers. There was a significant cross-national variance in part-time worker’s relative access to flexitime compared to that of full-time workers. Countries where part-time work is more prevalent, where strong centralied unions exist, and family policies are generous were where women generally had better access to flexitime. However, this was especially the case for full-time working women, decreasing the gap between full-time and part-time working women.
  • Chung, H., Filipovic Hrast, M. and Raker, T. (2018). The Provision of Care: Whose Responsibility and Why?. In: Taylor-Gooby, P. and Leruth, B. eds. Attitudes, Aspirations and Welfare: Social Policy Directions in Uncertain Times. Palgrave Macmillan. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75783-4.
  • Zimmerman, K., Chung, H. and Heuer, B. (2018). Labour Market Challenges and the Role of Social Investment. In: Taylor-Gooby, P. and Leruth, B. eds. Attitudes, Apsirations and Welfare: Social Policy Directions in Uncertain Times. Palgrave Macmillan. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75783-4.
  • Golden, L., Chung, H. and Sweet, S. (2018). Positive and Negative Application of Flexible Working Time Arrangements: Comparing the United States and the EU Countries. In: Farndale, E., Brewster, C. and Mayrhofer, W. eds. The Handbook of Comparative Human Resource Management. Elgar.
    This chapter focuses on flexible working time arrangements and presents flexible work schedule practices as they vary among individuals, organisations and nations, explaining reasons for observed variations. It highlights the need to focus on specific types of flexible work options; distinctions between availability, access, and use; as well as formal and informal use practices. We show that, depending on the metric used, flexibility can be seen as widely available, or as seriously constrained or limited. If structured as employee-centred, flexible work arrangements can improve work-family harmonisation. Creating contexts with flexible work options that can enhance employee well-being requires attention at the organisational level, with cultural contexts that support both formal and informal implementation, as well as national level policies that regulate the terms under which work hours can be, and should be, open to adjustment by employees.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). Where Next for the UK Welfare State?. In: After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe After the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). The Context: How European Welfare States Have Responded to Post-Industrialism, Ageing Populations, and Populist Nationalism. In: After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe After the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-27. Available at: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/after-austerity-9780198790266?cc=gb&lang=en&#.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). Liberalism, Social Investment, Protection, and Chauvinism: New Directions for the European Welfare State. In: Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. eds. After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe After the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Available at: https://www.oupjapan.co.jp/en/node/19153?language=ja.
  • Golden, L., Sweet, S. and Chung, H. (2016). Positive and Negative Application of Flexible Working Time Arrangements: Comparing the United States and the EU Countries. In: The Handbook of Comparative Human Resource Management. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, pp. 237-256. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784711139.
    This chapter focuses on flexible working time arrangements and presents flexible work
    schedule practices as they vary among individuals, organisations and nations, explaining
    reasons for observed variations. It highlights the need to focus on specific types of flexible
    work options; distinctions between availability, access, and use; as well as formal and
    informal use practices. We show that, depending on the metric used, flexibility can be seen as
    widely available, or as seriously constrained or limited. If structured as employee-centred,
    flexible work arrangements can improve work-family harmonisation. Creating contexts with
    flexible work options that can enhance employee well-being requires attention at the
    organisational level, with cultural contexts that support both formal and informal
    implementation, as well as national level policies that regulate the terms under which work
    hours can be, and should be, open to adjustment by employees.
  • Chung, H. (2015). Subjective employment insecurity gap between occupations: variance across Europe. In: Eichorst, W. and Marx, P. eds. Non-Standard Employment in Post-Industrial Labour Markets: An Occupational Perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 271-297.
  • Chung, H. and Meuleman, B. (2014). Support for Government Intervention in Child Care Across European Countries. In: Leon, M. ed. The Transformation of Care in European Societies. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 104-133. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Transformation-Care-European-Societies/dp/1137326506/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1416495928&sr=8-1&keywords=The+Transformation+of+Care+in+European+Societies.
  • Chung, H. (2014). Work, Alternative/Flexible Arrangements. In: Michalos, A. C. ed. Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, pp. 7203-7208. Available at: http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/wellbeing+%26+quality-of-life/book/978-94-007-0752-8.
  • Wilthagen, T., Muffels, R. and Chung, H. (2013). The ’State Of Affairs’ of Flexicurity in Industrial Relations: Assessing Country Performance Using Transition Indicators. In: Pulignano, V., Arrowsmith, J. and Rocca, G. D. eds. The Transformation of Employment Relations in Europe; Institutions and Outcomes in the Age of Globalization. Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 184-206.
  • Chung, H. and van Oorschot, W. (2012). The Impact of Perceived and Actual Unemployment Benefit Generosity and Unemployment Rates on the Employment Security of Workers (Chapter 3). In: Ervasti, H., Andersen, J. G. and Fridberg, T. eds. The Future of the Welfare State; Social Policy Attitudes and Social Capital in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, pp. 46-67. Available at: https://www.e-elgar.co.uk/bookentry_main.lasso?id=14743&breadcrumlink=&breadcrum=&sub_values=.
  • Meuleman, B. and Chung, H. (2012). Who Should Care for the Children? Support for Government Intervention in Childcare(Chapter 6). In: Ervasti, H., Andersen, J. G. and Fridberg, T. eds. The Future of the Welfare State; Social Policy Attitudes and Social Capital in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, pp. 107-133. Available at: https://www.e-elgar.co.uk/bookentry_main.lasso?id=14743&breadcrumlink=&breadcrum=&sub_values=.

Edited book

  • Taylor-Gooby, P. and Leruth, B. eds. (2018). Attitudes, Aspirations and Welfare: Social Policy Directions in Uncertain Times. [Online]. Basingstoke UK: Macmillan Palgrave. Available at: https://www.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319757827.
  • Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe After the Great Recession. [Online]. Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. eds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Available at: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/after-austerity-9780198790273?lang=en&cc=gb.
    European welfare states are undergoing profound change, driven by globalization, technical changes, and population ageing. More immediately, the aftermath of the Great Recession and unprecedented levels of immigration have imposed additional pressures. This book examines welfare state transformations across a representative range of European countries and at the EU level, and considers likely new directions in social policy. It reviews the dominant neo-liberal austerity response and discusses social investment, fightback, welfare chauvinism, and protectionism.

    It argues that the class solidarities and cleavages that shaped the development of welfare states are no longer powerful. Tensions surrounding divisions between old and young, women and men, immigrants and denizens, and between the winners in a new, more competitive, world and those who feel left behind are becoming steadily more important. European countries have entered a period of political instability and this is reflected in policy directions. Austerity predominates nearly everywhere, but patterns of social investment, protectionism, neo-Keynesian intervention, and fightback vary between countries. The volume identify areas of convergence and difference in European welfare state futures in this up-to-date study - essential reading to grasp the pace and directions of change.

Edited journal

  • Chung, H. and Van der Lippe, T. eds. (2018). Flexible working, work life balance, and gender equality. Special issue of Social Indicators Research. Social Indicators Research [Online]. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-018-2025-x.
  • Chung, H., Taylor-Gooby, P. and Leruth, B. eds. (2018). Political Legitimacy and Welfare State Futures. Special Issue of Social Policy & Administration. Social Policy and Administration [Online] 52. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12400.
    Welfare attitudes are pivotal in understanding the preferences and demands of citizens to help shape future policy reforms in welfare states. Accordingly, and due to the availability of large scale comparative survey data on attitudes, large numbers of studies of welfare attitudes have emerged during the past few decades. However, some limitations still exist in the field, such as the background assumptions informing the questionnaire design and top–down framing of issues, the population represented, and, lastly, limitations in teasing out the causal mechanisms of relationships, especially pertaining to that of policy reform. This regional issue brings together articles that address some of these issues and others in welfare attitude research to provide some guidance for future studies. This article first summarizes the existing studies on welfare attitudes to identify some of the key limitations, and introduces the five articles in this issue. It concludes with some suggestions for future studies in welfare attitudes.
  • Chung, H. and Mau, S. (2014). Special Issue: Subjective Insecurity and the Role of Institutions Chung, H. and Mau, S. eds. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 24:303-402. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/espa/24/4.
    The issue of social insecurity is high on the public and scientific agenda. Most research, however, looks at
    objective forms of insecurity like growing labour market volatilities or atypical employment. Less has been
    done with regard to the way people perceive these changes and the role of institutions therein. While recent
    studies have highlighted the relatively weak role of institutions in explaining different levels of subjective
    insecurity, they were limited in their understanding in the institutions–security interplay. This special issue
    aims to understand how institutions generate and moderate the outcomes of subjective insecurity, as well
    as to overcome some of the methodological limitations of previous studies. The introduction provides
    a state-of-the-art literature review and unfolds the research question addressed in the special issue. It
    concludes with some thoughts for future research in the field of social insecurity and institutions.

Monograph

  • Chung, H. (2014). Explaining the Provision of Flexitime in Companies across Europe (in the Pre-and Post-Crisis Europe): Role of National Contexts. University of Kent.

Research report (external)

  • Vontz, M., Chung, H., Dennehy, J., Sacks, R., Woodman, P. and Amin, W. (2018). A Blueprint for Balance: Time to Fix the Broken Wondows. [Online]. Chartered Management Institute. Available at: https://www.managers.org.uk/cmi-women/broken-windows?leadsrc=ldreport.
  • Chung, H. (2018). Future of Work and Flexible Working in Estonia: The Case of Employee-Friendly Flexibility. Principal Investigator of the Work Autonomy, Flexibility and Work-Life Balance.
  • Chung, H. and Jung, S. (2018). The Conditions and Legal Regulation of Sub-Contracted Employment in the UK. Korean Human Rights Commission.
  • Chung, H. (2017). Work Autonomy, Flexibility and Work-Life Balance Final Report. University of Kent.

Thesis

  • Yoon, Y. (2016). New Forms of Dualization? Labour Market Segmentation in the UK from the Early 1990s to the Late 2000s.
    This thesis provides a quantitative investigation on issues of labour market divisions, focusing on the UK case between 1991 and 2010. Existing literatures offer a sophisticated account of the theoretical understanding of divisions within labour markets across different welfare states. Especially, amongst others, the most recent literature, termed dualization, has highlighted a dualistic pattern of division not only within the labour market but also in other spheres such as social security settings in many advanced industrial economies. It also emphasises the cross-national variation in the divisions of labour markets. Yet, the existing researches do have their limitations, particularly by the extent to which many studies rely on pre-defined patterns and features of divisions. In other words, rarely do these studies examine how and to what extent labour markets are divided. Rather, they assume that a specific type of division exists in a market and this assumption is applied to measure the extent to which this division can be observed. Thus, this thesis aims to overcome these limitations by investigating distinctive patterns and features of the divided labour market as well as matters concerning the positional stability of individuals of the UK's employed population over the past two decades using advanced quantitative methods (latent class, latent and regression modelling). By investigating the country in which dualization is deemed to be less likely to occur due to its liberal economic structures, the thesis also engages with the role of labour market institutions and their policies.

    Results suggest that the UK labour market has been divided over the last 20 years and many socio-demographic indicators, such as gender, age and education, are attributed to the segmentation of labour force. This supports the theoretical literature on labour market divisions in that there are clear distinctions between those who are insiders and those who are not and that there are the contrasting demographics in different labour market segments. However, the clearest deviation from the existing literature is that the main characteristics that divide the groups in the UK labour market are not contract types but rather income levels, occupational profile, and social security benefits stemming from employment. Simultaneously, the divided labour groups indicated have relatively strong levels of positional stability between 1991 and 2010. Such an analytical outcome differs from previous theories' argument that the UK labour market has a flexible labour market structure which promotes frequent mobility amongst the labour force. In particular, the strong positional stability of the "insiders" regardless of different time points and scales was rather distinctive. Furthermore, of various individual-level indicators, trade unions have shown to be one of the core driving factors to reinforce the divisions in the UK labour market alongside the socio-demographic factors despite a radical reduction within their size and power over recent decades. Therefore, overall findings appear to be consistent with the broader argument of the existing literature on labour market divisions, that the "divides" do exist in the UK labour market. However, it provides less support for the recent suggestion that a specific pattern of division and its characteristics operate neatly across different countries. Such a result highlights the importance of further empirical investigations in order to understand the cross-national variations of labour market divisions.
  • Lee, T. (2015). New and Old Social Risks in Korean Social Policy: The Case of the National Pension Scheme.
    This is a study of old and new social risks in Korean social policy, in relation to the National Pension Scheme (NPS). It provides a comprehensive overview of the Korean pension structure and the emergence of new social risk groups. Based on the Korean Labour and Income Panel Study undertaken over eleven years and using bivariate and multivariate analysis, this thesis examines the effectiveness of the NPS and its reforms in protecting new social risk groups.
    The analytical framework of this thesis is based on the New Social Risk theory. Its limitation in explaining developing welfare states like Korea is also highlighted. Over the past two decades, the NPS has undergone dramatic financial cuts as its coverage expands rapidly. Given Korea’s aging population, the reliance on such public schemes will further increase, which will have a profound impact particularly, on those with low income. Societal and economic changes in the Korean society, as a result of de-industrialisation, have given rise to new social risks groups that differ from those that predominate in the post-war welfare era. These new groups are vulnerable because they cannot afford to contribute to their pension even during their working life with the likelihood that they will have little or no benefit from the NPS when they retire. They tend to be the atypical contract holders and workers of small-scale enterprises without unions. Contrary to expectation, women with care responsibility and young workers are less vulnerable.
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