Portrait of Dr Eddy Hogg

Dr Eddy Hogg

Director of Studies for Social Policy and Health and Social Care
Lecturer in Social Policy


Dr Eddy Hogg is a Lecturer in Social Policy and Director of Studies for Social Policy and Health and Social Care. 

His research looks at volunteering, charitable giving and public attitudes to the voluntary sector. His research interests include volunteering across the lifecourse, on volunteering and charitable giving for public services, on youth volunteering, on the value of charity involvement in supporting young people, on attitudes towards charity regulation in England and Wales and, on charity engagement with the Fundraising Regulator. 

Prior to joining Kent, Dr Hogg completed his PhD at Northumbria University in 2012, which looked at how volunteering undertaken by older adults relates to their volunteering and other work activities across the lifecourse. This research was undertaken in collaboration with Age UK and funded by an ESRC CASE Studentship.  

Research interests

Dr Hogg’s recent research projects have explored: 

  • Charitable giving and volunteering in schools, work which found that schools in deprived areas receive considerably less donated income or voluntary support. The UK Government is increasingly encouraging voluntary action as a response to depleting school budgets – our work suggests this would substantially increase inequality. 
  • Volunteering within the National Health Service, exploring the roles that volunteering plays and the impact this has on volunteers, patients and on the NHS as a whole. 
  • Social class differences in engagement in volunteering by adolescents. This finds that when pathways to volunteering are through schools, there are no statistically significant differences in engagement between young people from different social backgrounds. When community groups, clubs and organisations are the main pathway, significant class differences emerge. 
  • Public attitudes towards charity regulation in England and Wales, in response to a proposal by the Charity Commission to charge charities to support the cost of regulation. It found that donors were broadly happy to support charities paying a small fee, if that money was invested in robust and supportive regulation. 
  • Charity engagement with the new Fundraising Regulator in England and Wales, which found that the use of name and shame tactics for organisations refusing to pay the ‘voluntary’ levy have been successful, at least initially. 


Dr Hogg teaches a range of undergraduate modules which explore the voluntary sector and volunteering, including two modules which support students in undertaking volunteering within the local community and one which provides students with the opportunity to undertake a research project in collaboration with a voluntary organisation. 


Dr Hogg has contributed to articles in The Guardian, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Charity Times and Kent on Sunday. 

He has appeared on BBC 5Live and a wide range of local BBC Radio stations discussing volunteering, charitable giving and the charity sector. 

He is an active member of the 'Voluntary Sector Studies Network' and the 'International Society for Third Sector Research' and is Book Reviews Editor for the journal Voluntary Sector Review. 

Additionally, he speaks regularly at events for voluntary sector practitioners, sharing research findings and exploring how these can translate into practice. These include events organised by the National Council of Voluntary Organisations, the Association of Volunteer Managers and the Sports Volunteering Research Network. 



  • Nichols, G. et al. (2019). Selling volunteering or developing volunteers? Approaches to promoting sports volunteering. Voluntary Sector Review.
    This paper considers the balance between promoting volunteering in sport by emphasising the personal rewards to prospective volunteers themselves – the dominant management approach – and promoting it by the long term development of the values of volunteering. We review the motivations and rewards of sports volunteers and how these can be used to promote volunteering as being a transaction between volunteer and organisation. This is contrasted with a life-course approach to understanding volunteering, and evidence that an understanding of the value of volunteering can be inculcated that underpins continued volunteering. The two approaches regard potential volunteers respectively as ‘consumers’ and as ‘citizens’. We suggest that a shift to treating volunteers as consumers can lead to volunteering being regarded as transactional. The discussion has implications for volunteering in general; in particular, how it can be promoted in a society where narratives of ‘the consumer’ increasingly dominate over those of ‘the citizen’.
  • Body, A. and Hogg, E. (2018). What mattered ten years on? Young people’s reflections on their involvement with a charitable youth participation project. Journal of Youth Studies [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2018.1492101.
    Youth work in England is experiencing ongoing rapid and significant change, fuelling debate about its very function. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting original research on what young people themselves prioritised as significant in-service provision and highlights the longer-term impact that engagement with a voluntary sector organisation can have on the lives of vulnerable young people. Drawing on qualitative interviews with ten former youth participants involved in youth participation projects, the findings presented in this paper suggest that participants felt the support they received was, in many cases, ‘transformative’. However, they primarily defined their experiences and the impact through their relationships with individuals supporting them, through the sense of achievement and ability to effect change they developed and through finding a voice to affect community decisions.
  • Hogg, E. (2018). What Regulation, Who Pays? Public Attitudes to Charity Regulation in England and Wales. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly [Online] 47:72-88. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017728365.
    Funding for England and Wales’ Charity Commission has been cut by 48% between 2007 and 2016, impacting on its ability to deliver its core regulatory functions. Conversations around what charity regulation should look like and how it should be funded have therefore gained momentum. These debates, however, are not limited to England and Wales and in this paper we contribute to them by exploring public attitudes to these questions, presenting the findings of four focus groups. We find that while public knowledge of charity regulation is low, people are nonetheless clear that charities should be regulated. There is no clear preferred method of funding a charity regulator and a significant amount of complexity and nuance in public attitudes. People trust charities, but this can be eroded if they do not have confidence in how they operate. A visibly effective regulator supporting and supported by charities is central to maintaining trust.
  • Body, A., Holman, K. and Hogg, E. (2017). To Bridge the Gap? Voluntary Action in Primary Schools. Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 8:251-271. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1332/204080517X15090107362612.
    Voluntary action has long played a role in state education, with Parent Teacher Associations being one of the most common forms of charitable organisation in England. However, education policy, driven by a growing free-market discourse and policy initiatives such as localism, is increasingly pushing for greater voluntary action. This article explores the distribution of voluntary action for primary schools in one local authority area in England. Drawing upon primary data from 114 questionnaires completed by head teachers and secondary data from the financial records (2013/14) of 380 primary schools, we find evidence of considerable uneven dispersal of voluntary action between schools. These disparities are related to factors including school size, location, leadership ideology and the socio-economic profile of the school. The consequence of this uneven distribution is that schools catering for more affluent communities are more likely to have additional resources than those with poorer profiles.
  • Hogg, E. (2016). Constant, serial and trigger volunteers: volunteering across the lifecourse and into older age. Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 7:169-190. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204080516X14650415652302.
    In recent years there has been an increased recognition that philanthropic engagement needs to be understood longitudinally, rather than as a snapshot in time. Much of this work is quantitative, utilising panel data to track groups of individuals over a number of years. In contrast, this article takes a qualitative approach to the study of volunteering over the course of individuals’ and their families’ lives. In doing so, it explores how engagement changes over the lifecourse, and how this impacts volunteer engagement in older age. Understanding this is crucial: volunteering is not an activity that takes place in isolation but rather one that must be situated over time and within a range of other activities. This article uses data from 26 life history interviews conducted in England to develop a heuristic put forward by Davis Smith and Gay (2005), which proposes three categories of older volunteer: constant, serial and trigger volunteers.
  • Hogg, E., Kendall, J. and Breeze, B. (2015). The Third Sector and the State in England. Sociologia e Politiche Sociali [Online] 18:27-50. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3280/SP2015-003003.
    Third sector organisations and the state have sought to work together in England since the inception of the welfare state, yet rarely has there been greater debate about this relationship than at present. Successive governments have sought to redefine the dominant pattern, with the policy focus moving from more ad hoc relationships to an (expressed) commitment to partnership and, more recently, to a push towards relatively passive delivery of state contracts. This paper maps the sector, charts this changing relationship and explores key areas of debate: the role of charitable organisations in the English policy environment, the importance of scale with regards to relations between state and sector; and the impact of commissioning in recent years. We conclude by considering the potential implication of change for the distinctiveness of the third sector.
  • Hogg, E. (2015). Older Volunteers in the UK. International Labor Brief 13:4-12.
  • Hogg, E., Hardill, I. and Ramsey, J. (2014). Co-producing knowledge: reflections on the benefits and challenges of researching in partnership with voluntary sector organisations. Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 5:399-406. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204080514X14117195972298.
    This practice paper explores the co-production of knowledge in a collaborative PhD studentship funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and Age UK, which examined the formal volunteering undertaken by older adults in England. Some third sector organisations, especially larger ones such as Age UK, are both producers and users of social science knowledge. In this paper we critically reflect on the co-production of knowledge, and the ways in which both student and supervisors experience the co-creation of knowledge.
  • Cattan, M., Hogg, E. and Hardill, I. (2011). Improving quality of life in ageing populations: What can volunteering do? Maturitas [Online] 70:328-332. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.08.010.
    The year 2011 was declared the ‘European Year of Volunteering’ to recognise the contribution volunteers make to society. Such cross-national events reflect the high profile of volunteering and political imperatives to promote it. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive review of current knowledge (articles published between 2005 and 2011) regarding the role of volunteering in improving older people's quality of life (QoL) and to identify areas requiring further research. Volunteering was defined as an activity that is freely chosen, does not involve remuneration and helps or benefits those beyond an individual's immediate family. Our search identified 22 studies and 5 review articles that addressed the benefits of volunteering on older people's quality of life. Most of the research had been conducted in the United States, Canada and Australia using data from longitudinal studies. The majority of the studies concluded that there is a positive association between older people's quality of life and engagement in volunteering. Due to the study designs and the heterogeneity of the research, causality is difficult to demonstrate and the knowledge the studies bring to the subject is variable. This review shows that volunteering may help to maintain and possibly improve some older adults’ quality of life. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of who actually benefits, the social and cultural context of volunteering and its role in reducing health and social inequalities.
  • Hogg, E. and Baines, S. (2011). Changing Responsibilities and Roles of the Voluntary and Community Sector in the Welfare Mix: A Review. Social Policy and Society [Online] 10:341-352. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1474746411000078.
    Many Western states have sought in recent years to harness the energies of voluntary agencies and charitable bodies in the provision of welfare (Brandsen and Pestoff, 2006; Milligan and Conradson, 2006; Haugh and Kitson, 2007). More than ever is expected of the Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS) in supporting people and communities, entering into partnerships with governments, and delivering public services (Lewis, 2005; Macmillan, 2010). The mainstreaming of the VCS has been associated with a push towards market reform and reducing state obligations for welfare provision (Amin, 2009). In some European states – for example, Germany and the Netherlands – a three-way mix of state, market and voluntary sector dates back to the nineteenth century (Brandsen and Pestoff, 2006). In the UK too, on which this review article focuses, the delivery of public services by voluntary organisations and charities is far from new, but over the past decade local government and health services, especially in England, have been required to step up their engagement with VCS organisations (VCSOs) (Alcock, 2009; Di Domencio et al., 2009; Macmillan, 2010). Commitment to this sector by the government under New Labour was signalled by the creation for England of the Office of the Third Sector within the Cabinet Office in 2006 and the associated appointment of the first dedicated Minister of the Third Sector, initially Ed Miliband MP. Working with charities, social enterprises and community and faith-based organisations appeals to politicians across the mainstream British political spectrum (Di Domencio et al., 2009; Alcock, 2010); the ‘Big Society’ agenda of the Coalition government elected in 2010 promises a continuation in this direction of travel, albeit in a new regime of reduced budgets, service cuts and demands of more for less.

Book section

  • Haski-Leventhal, D. et al. (2016). Volunteering in various life stages: Youth, elderly, and parental volunteering. in: Horton-Smith, D., Stebbins, R. and Gortz, J. eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Volunteering, Civic Participation, and Nonprofit Associations. Palgrave, pp. 682-701. Available at: http://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781137263162.
    As a person goes through the various stages of life, many things change, including the ways one volunteers and for what reasons (Musick and Wilson 2008). This chapter reviews research on formal volunteering at three different life stages: youth, elderly, and parental volunteering. In each stage, we discuss the definitions, unique characteristics, and scope of volunteering. We further analyze the existing knowledge on motivations, benefits, challenges, and impact for each age group. Furthermore, we discuss the cultural differences of volunteering in each stage in various regions around the world. We conclude with a comparison between the three groups and discuss future trends. The three life stages examined are more distinct and meaningful in industrial and post-industrial societies than in less complex societies, owing to mass education and longer lifespans. Given wide cultural differences in how individuals progress through these stages, the intersection of life-cycle stage and cultural setting are major variables in understanding patterns of volunteering.
  • Hogg, E. (2015). Social Science and Civil Society. in: Wright, J. D. ed. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Oxford, UK: Elsevier, pp. 576-582.
    This article gives an overview of key social science approaches to civil society. It addresses in turn civil society organizations, volunteering, and philanthropy. For each, it looks at how they are defined, their scope, how social science approaches the study of them, and how social policy has sought to encourage or coordinate them.
  • Hogg, E. (2013). The Demographic Opportunity: volunteering in older age. in: von Schnurbein, G., Wiederkehr, D. and Amman, H. eds. Volunteering between Freedom and Professionalisation. Basel, Switzerland: Universität Basel Press.
    Across advanced capitalist economies, demographic change has lead to older adults constituting a large and growing proportion of the population. This demographic shift is often observed in purely negative terms, focussing on the economic burden of a larger cohort of older people (in terms of pensions, health costs etc). This fails to take into account that this demographic change is the result of large numbers of individuals living longer, well beyond state pension age, potentially presenting the opportunity to continuing enjoying active lifestyles. Katz and Monk (1993) suggest that this has contributed to a paradigm shift in the way in which we understand ageing; no longer are individuals assumed to be at a stage in a chronologically-determined ‘life cycle’, rather it is suggested that an individual’s ‘life course’ is open to unexpected turns and changes, and may be wholly unrelated to their chronological age. This paper is interested in how these changes can contribute to an understanding of how older adults come to be undertaking voluntary work, through adopting a life course perspective in order to examine pathways into volunteering. This is done by situating voluntary and community activity within other activities undertaken across the lifecourse, to look at how adults come to be volunteering in older age.


  • Body, A. and Hogg, E. (2018). A Bridge Too Far? The Increasing Role of Voluntary Action in Primary Education. University of Kent. Available at: http://www.abridgetoofar.info/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/a-bridge-too-far-report-2018.pdf.
  • Body, A. and Hogg, E. (2016). Side By Side: A case study report of the experiences of young people. West Kent Extra.
  • Hogg, E. (2016). What regulation, Who Pays? Public Opinion and Charity Regulation. Charity Finance Group.
  • Body, A., Holman, K. and Hogg, E. (2016). To Bridge The Gap? Voluntary Action in Primary education. Canterbury Christ Church University.
    Voluntary action has had a long history in the education of our children, bringing a wide range of positive benefits to schools, children, staff, the local community and volunteers alike. Voluntary action enables schools to draw upon a wide range of additional skills and resources, can strengthen a school community and engage children in philanthropic activity from an early age. Schools continuously highlight how much they value the commitment, passion, skills and expertise brought into their community by volunteers, and recognise the advantages of fundraising in terms of community engagement, fostering philanthropic activity in children and providing additional income for the school. Unsurprisingly voluntary action in education tends to be viewed as a positive and good thing, and is increasingly encouraged within policy and practice. This research suggests that voluntary action in primary schools is indeed becoming progressively central to school activities, with many primary schools keenly seeking to strategically engage and grow this area of activity. Schools report purposefully fostering engagement of volunteers to help increase teacher capacity, support children through one-to-one activities and provide additional resources for both core and extra-curricular activities. Furthermore, schools highlight increasing focus on their fundraising activities to help support depleting budgets and growing demands.

    There is however very little research in the UK which explores voluntary action in education. The limited research that is available suggests significant disparities in how additional resources from voluntary action are dispersed within the UK context. This is supported by research from across Europe and the United States.

    Therefore this project sets out to be an exploratory study of this area to ascertain how actively schools engage with this voluntary action and what barriers they may face. The local authority of Kent was chosen as a focus for this study. Through analysis of financial data of over 600 primary schools, questionnaires completed by 114 of these and interviews with 4 case study schools this research presents initial findings and trends in activity under the separate headings of volunteering and philanthropic activity (fundraising).
  • Nichols, G. et al. (2016). Motivations of Sport Volunteers in England: A review for Sport England. Sport England.
  • Hogg, E. (2014). Fundraising for Small and Medium Sized Charities: The views of East Kent charities. University of Kent.
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