Barnoux, M., Alexander, R., Bhaumik, S., Devapriam, J., Duggan, C., Shepstone, L., Staufenberg, E., Turner, D., Viding, E. and Langdon, P. (2020). The face validity of an initial sub-typology of people with autism spectrum disorders detained in psychiatric hospitals. Autism [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361320929457.
Autistic adults who have a history of committing crimes present a major problem for providers of services in terms of legal disposal options and possible interventions, and greater understanding of this group and their associated needs is required. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the face validity of a proposed sub-typology of autistic adults detained in secure psychiatric hospitals in the United Kingdom. Initially, a focus group was completed with psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, healthcare workers, family members, and autistic adults who had been detained in hospital, leading to revisions of the sub-typology. Following this, a consensus rating exercise of ten clinical vignettes based upon this subtypology with three rounds was completed with fifteen psychiatrists and clinical psychologists; revisions to the vignettes to improve clarity were made following each round. The findings indicated these subtypes possess face validity and raters were able to classify all ten clinical case vignettes into the sub-typology and percentage of agreement ranged from 96% to 100% for overall subtype classification. This study suggests that the further validity of the sub-typology should be investigated within a larger study, as these sub-types have the potential to directly inform the hospital care-pathway such that length of stay can be minimised.
Barnoux, M. (2019). Community Services and Transforming Care: Reflections and Considerations. Tizard Learning Disability Review [Online] 24:33-37. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TLDR-12-2018-0034.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the existing evidence base regarding community services for people with learning disabilities in the context of Transforming Care (TC).
Design/methodology/approach: Reflections and commentary on the provision of community services for people with learning disabilities following Washington et al.’s article on admissions and discharges from assessment and treatment units in England.
Findings: The existing evidence base pertaining to Community Learning Disability Teams in the UK is dated, sparse, and methodologically weak. A greater focus on researching community services for people with learning disabilities is needed in order to inform best practice guidelines.
Originality/Value: The success of the Transforming Care Agenda is contingent on the provision of high quality community services. However, the focus has been on discharging individuals from hospital, rather than the support available to them once they leave.
Forrester-Jones, R., Beecham, J., Barnoux, M., Oliver, D., Couch, E. and Bates, C. (2017). People with intellectual disabilities at the end of their lives: The case for specialist care?. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities [Online] 30:1138-1150. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12412.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities have a shorter life expectancy, but healthcare improvements mean that they are beginning to live longer, with associated health difficulties. This means that there is an urgent need to focus research on ageing as well as end-of-life care. This study aimed to explore a specialist intellectual disability service for older people who are dying and how it related to their quality of life and to costs associated with care provided.
Method: Data were collected for nine residents and 15 staff members of the specialist service. A single case study design with mixed methods including observations, interviews, standardized questionnaires and costs analysis was utilized.
Results: We found positive results regarding overall quality of life, although individuals had limited social networks. Placement fees paid by local health trusts and social services departments were slightly higher than the estimated cost of care reflecting good financial management by a small voluntary sector organization.
Conclusion: Whilst the philosophical arguments around “specialist” care persist, this service fills a gap in intellectual disability care provision.
Murphy, G., Chiu, P., Triantafyllopoulou, P., Barnoux, M., Blake, E., Cooke, J., Forrester-Jones, R., Gore, N. and Beecham, J. (2017). Offenders with intellectual disabilities in prison: what happens when they leave?. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research [Online] 61:957-968. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12374.
People with intellectual disabilities, if convicted of offences, may be sentenced to prison, but little is known about their life when they are released. This study followed up men with ID who were leaving prisons in England. The men were hard to contact, but 38 men were interviewed, on average 10 weeks after leaving prison. The men were living in a variety of situations and often were very under-occupied, with limited social networks. 70% were above the clinical cut-off for anxiety and 59.5% were above the clinical cut-off for depression. The men were receiving little support in the community and many had been re-interviewed by police. Community teams need to provide better support to this very vulnerable group.
Alexander, R., Langdon, P., Chester, V., Barnoux, M., Gunaratna, I. and Hoare, S. (2016). Heterogeneity within Autism Spectrum Disorder in Forensic Mental Health: The Introduction of Typologies. Advances in Autism [Online] 2:201-209. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AIA-08-2016-0021.
Purpose: Individuals with diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) within criminal justice settings are a highly heterogeneous group. Although studies have examined differences between those with and without ASD in such settings, there has been no examination of differences within the ASD group.
Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the findings of a service evaluation project, this paper introduces a typology of ASD within forensic mental health and learning disability settings.
Findings: The eight sub-types that are described draw on clinical variables including psychopathy, psychosis and intensity/ frequency of problem behaviours that co-occur with
the ASD. The initial assessment of inter rater reliability on the current version of the typology revealed excellent agreement, multirater Kfree = .90.
Practical implications: The proposed typology could improve understanding of the relationship between ASD and forensic risk, identify the most appropriate interventions and
provide prognostic information about length of stay. Further research to refine and validate the typology is ongoing.
Originality/value: This paper introduces a novel, typology based approach which aims to better serve people with ASD within criminal justice settings.
Ó Ciardha, C., Alleyne, E., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M., Mozova, K. and Gannon, T. (2015). Examining the Psychopathology of Incarcerated Male Firesetters using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Psychology, Crime & Law [Online] 21:606-616. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2015.1008478.
Research to date has been equivocal on the relationship between firesetting and psychopathology, and has been impeded by studies lacking adequate control samples. The present study examined psychopathology in a sample of incarcerated adult male firesetters (n = 112) and prison controls (n = 113) using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Firesetters demonstrated multiple elevated scores on personality and clinical syndrome scales. Logistic regression showed that the borderline personality scale was the strongest personality scale discriminator between firesetters and controls. Major depression and drug dependence were the strongest clinical syndrome scale predictors. However, both clinical syndrome scale predictors appeared to be mediated by borderline personality scores indicating that firesetters are best characterized by responding indicative of borderline personality traits rather than other psychopathological deficits. The results suggest that, relative to other offenders, firesetters face challenges with impulse control, affect regulation, stability of interpersonal relationships, and self-image.
Barnoux, M., Gannon, T. and Ó Ciardha, C. (2014). A descriptive model of the offence chain for imprisoned adult male firesetters (descriptive model of adult male firesetting). Legal and Criminological Psychology [Online] 20:48-67. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lcrp.12071.
Purpose: Firesetting has devastating consequences. Although some theoretical efforts have been made to explain firesetting (i.e., a small number of multi- and single-factor theories), little effort has been devoted to understand how deliberate firesetting unfolds across time (i.e., micro or offence chain theories). This research aimed to produce the first descriptive offence chain theory for incarcerated adult male firesetters.
Methods: Thirty-eight adult male firesetters—recruited from prison establishments in England and Wales—were interviewed about the events, thoughts and feelings leading up to, surrounding, and immediately following a deliberate incident of firesetting.
Results: Using Grounded Theory analysis, the Descriptive Model of Adult male Firesetting (DMAF) was developed documenting the cognitive, behavioural, affective and contextual factors leading to a single incident of deliberate firesetting.
Conclusions: New information generated from the DMAF is presented and its contributions to the current evidence base are highlighted. Clinical implications, limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
Gannon, T., Wood, J., Pina, A., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M. and Vasquez, E. (2014). An Evaluation of Mandatory Polygraph Testing for Sexual Offenders in the United Kingdom. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment [Online] 26:178-203. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063213486836.
Objective: This research examined whether a government-initiated pilot project of mandatory polygraph testing would increase the disclosures made by community-supervised sexual offenders in the UK. Method: The Offender Managers of 332 pilot polygraph sexual offenders and 303 sexual offenders who were receiving usual community supervision were telephoned quarterly, over a 21 month period, to collect information about numbers of clinically relevant disclosures, the seriousness of disclosures made, and actions taken as a result of disclosures. Perceptions of polygraph usefulness were also collected. Results: Offender Managers in the pilot polygraph group—compared to comparison Offender Managers—reported (1) a higher proportion of offenders making at least one disclosure (i.e., 76.5% versus 51.2% respectively), and (2) that their offenders made more total disclosures overall (Ms = 2.60 versus 1.25 respectively). The majority of disclosures made by sexual offenders in the polygraph group were associated with the polygraph session itself. Polygraph Offender Managers reported being more likely to take an action that involved increasing supervision, informing a third party, informing MAPPA, changing supervision focus, or issuing a warning to the offender. However, the relative seriousness of disclosures did not appear to differ across groups. In terms of polygraph test results, one third of offenders (most notably those who were higher in risk) failed their first test with ‘Deception Indicated’. This outcome—received on a first test—was most likely to elicit clinically relevant disclosures. Offender Managers described the polygraph as aiding supervision strategies. Conclusions: This research and its associated caveats are discussed.
Ó Ciardha, C., Barnoux, M., Alleyne, E., Tyler, N., Mozova, K. and Gannon, T. (2014). Multiple factors in the assessment of firesetters’ fire interest and attitudes. Legal and Criminological Psychology [Online] 20:37-47. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lcrp.12065.
The number of measures available to practitioners to assess fire interest and other fire-related attitudes is limited. To help establish the utility of such measures, this study explored whether three fire measures contained multiple factors and whether such factors related to firesetting behaviour.
The Fire Interest Rating Scale, the Fire Attitude Scale, and the Identification with Fire Questionnaire were administered to 234 male prisoners (117 firesetters, 117 non-firesetters) and results were factor analyzed. To determine the relationship of the resulting factors with firesetting behaviour, their ability to discriminate firesetters from controls was examined and compared to the original scales.
Responses were best represented by five factors, four of which discriminated firesetters from non-firesetters. One factor demonstrated significant accuracy in discriminating single offence firesetters from repeat firesetters. Taken together the factors offered more clarity than using the original scale outcomes and showed equivalent predictive accuracy.
The five factors identified may aid practitioners in helping to formulate the specific treatment needs of identified firesetters.
Gannon, T., Ó Ciardha, C., Barnoux, M., Tyler, N., Mozova, K. and Alleyne, E. (2013). Male Imprisoned Firesetters Have Different Characteristics than Other Imprisoned Offenders and Require Specialist Treatment. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes [Online] 76:349-364. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1521/psyc.2013.76.4.349?needAccess=true.
Objective: This study investigated whether a group of firesetters (n = 68) could be distinguished, psychologically, from a matched group of non-firesetting offenders (n = 68). Method: Participants completed measures examining psychological variables relating to fire, emotional/ self-regulation, social competency, self-concept, boredom proneness, and impression management. Official prison records were also examined to record offending history and other offense-related variables. A series of MANOVAs were conducted with conceptually related measures identified as the dependent variables. Follow up discriminant function and clinical cut-off score analyses were also conducted to examine the best discriminating variables for firesetters. Results: Firesetters were clearly distinguishable, statistically, from non-firesetters on three groups of conceptually related measures relating to: fire, emotional/self-regulation, and self-concept. The most successful variables for the discrimination of firesetters determined via statistical and clinical significance testing were higher levels of anger-related cognition, interest in serious fires, and identification with fire and lower levels of perceived fire safety awareness, general self-esteem, and external locus of control. Conclusions: Firesetters appear to be a specialist group of offenders who hold unique psychological characteristics. Firesetters are likely to require specialist treatment to target these psychological needs as opposed to generic offending behavior programs.
Barnoux, M. and Gannon, T. (2013). A new conceptual framework for revenge firesetting. Psychology, Crime & Law [Online] 20:497-513. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2013.793769.
Revenge has frequently been acknowledged to account for a relatively large proportion of motives in deliberate firesetting. However, very little is actually known about the aetiology of revenge firesetting. Theoretical approaches to revenge-seeking behaviour are discussed. A brief review of how revenge is accounted for in existing theoretical explanations of deliberate firesetting and the known characteristics of revenge firesetters are provided. On this basis, the authors suggest, as a motive, revenge firesetting has to date been misconceptualised. A new conceptual framework is thus proposed, paying particular attention to the contextual, affective, cognitive, volitional and behavioural factors which may influence and generate a single episode of revenge firesetting. Treatment implications and suggestions for future research are also provided.
Barnoux, M. and Wood, J. (2012). The specific needs of foreign national prisoners and the threat to their mental health from being imprisoned in a foreign country. Aggression and Violent Behavior [Online] 18:240-246. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.012.
Foreign national prisoners represent an increasingly significant and vulnerable proportion of the prison
estate in England and Wales, accounting for 13% of the population in custody (Prison Reform Trust, 2010).
They are ever present in the Safer Custody statistics, accounting for nearly a quarter of self-harm incidents
and self-inflicted deaths (HM Inspectorate of Prisons, 2009). Recent Inspectorate Reports (2006, 2007,
2010) and a handful of research studies outline the lack of support facing many foreign national prisoners,
in terms of language problems, social and cultural isolation, family support, immigration uncertainties and
diversity issues. This paper reviews the current context of the foreign national prisoner population in England
and Wales, paying particular attention to their experiences, specific needs, and potential threat to their
mental health from being imprisoned in a foreign country. We then offer suggestions as to how these issues
can be addressed by reviewing existing initiatives and making recommendations for future research.