Dr Magali-Fleur Barnoux
Dr Magali-Fleur Barnoux completed her first degree in Psychology and Sociology at the University of Leeds, followed by an MSc at the University of Kent in Forensic Psychology. Her PhD focused on the characteristics and treatment of adult male imprisoned fire setters (2015).
Dr Barnoux has worked at the Tizard Centre since 2013 as a researcher on projects researching older adults with learning disabilities and offenders and ex-offenders with learning disabilities. She has been a lecturer in Forensic Psychology and Intellectual and Developmental Disability since 2017.
- Aetiology, assessment and treatment of offending behaviour in individuals with autism and/or learning disabilities
- Research and assessment of deliberate firesetting behaviour
- Theory and theory development in forensic intellectual and developmental disabilities
- Supporting individuals with autism and/or learning disabilities within the criminal justice system
Dr Barnoux teaches across the Tizard Centre's undergraduate and postgraduate courses and convenes a number of modules for the School of Psychology.
Magali currently supervises students with research related to people with IDD in the criminal justice system in terms of offending behaviour, victims and/or witnesses
Barnoux, M. (2019). Community Services and Transforming Care: Reflections and Considerations. Tizard Learning Disability Review [Online] 24:33-37. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TLDR-12-2018-0034.Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the existing evidence base regarding community services for people with learning disabilities in the context of Transforming Care (TC).
Design/methodology/approach: Reflections and commentary on the provision of community services for people with learning disabilities following Washington et al.’s article on admissions and discharges from assessment and treatment units in England.
Findings: The existing evidence base pertaining to Community Learning Disability Teams in the UK is dated, sparse, and methodologically weak. A greater focus on researching community services for people with learning disabilities is needed in order to inform best practice guidelines.
Originality/Value: The success of the Transforming Care Agenda is contingent on the provision of high quality community services. However, the focus has been on discharging individuals from hospital, rather than the support available to them once they leave.
Langdon, P., Alexander, R., Barnoux, M., Bhaumik, S., Devapriam, J., Duggan, C., Shepstone, L., Staufenberg, E., Turner, D. and Viding, E. (2018). The Face Validity of an Initial Sub Typology of People with Autism Spectrum Disorders Detained in Hospital (The mATCH Study). Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities [Online] 31:529-568. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12485.Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities experience extensive health inequalities; some evidence suggests they also have greater dental treatment needs. We investigated prevalence and determinants of poor oral health in adults with intellectual disabilities.
Method: The adult population (16 years+) of people with intellectual disabilities living within one geographical area, were recruited. Each participant underwent a dental examination. We compared this with dental data on the Scottish general population (Scottish Health Survey). Descriptive statistics on prevalence and determinants of poor oral health were generated.
Results: 560 adults with intellectual disabilities participated; 298 males (53.2 %) and 262 (46.8%) females, aged 46 years (16–79). 178 (31.8%) were edentulous (complete absence of teeth) compared to 384 (15.1%) of the general population; this inequality was evident from early adulthood, and widened with progressive age groups. Edentate adults had more severe intellectual disabilities, took antipsychotic medication, and lived in both the least and most deprived areas. Type of accommodation, autism, and problem behaviours did not predict being edentate.
Conclusion: Adults with intellectual disabilities need proactive supportive oral care to avoid their ability to eat and quality of life deteriorating from this largely avoidable condition, regardless of where and with whom they live.
Forrester-Jones, R., Beecham, J., Barnoux, M., Oliver, D., Couch, E. and Bates, C. (2017). People with intellectual disabilities at the end of their lives: The case for specialist care?. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities [Online] 30:1138-1150. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12412.Background: People with intellectual disabilities have a shorter life expectancy, but healthcare improvements mean that they are beginning to live longer, with associated health difficulties. This means that there is an urgent need to focus research on ageing as well as end-of-life care. This study aimed to explore a specialist intellectual disability service for older people who are dying and how it related to their quality of life and to costs associated with care provided.
Method: Data were collected for nine residents and 15 staff members of the specialist service. A single case study design with mixed methods including observations, interviews, standardized questionnaires and costs analysis was utilized.
Results: We found positive results regarding overall quality of life, although individuals had limited social networks. Placement fees paid by local health trusts and social services departments were slightly higher than the estimated cost of care reflecting good financial management by a small voluntary sector organization.
Conclusion: Whilst the philosophical arguments around “specialist” care persist, this service fills a gap in intellectual disability care provision.
Murphy, G., Chiu, P., Triantafyllopoulou, P., Barnoux, M., Blake, E., Cooke, J., Forrester-Jones, R., Gore, N. and Beecham, J. (2017). Offenders with intellectual disabilities in prison: what happens when they leave?. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research [Online] 61:957-968. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jir.12374.People with intellectual disabilities, if convicted of offences, may be sentenced to prison, but little is known about their life when they are released. This study followed up men with ID who were leaving prisons in England. The men were hard to contact, but 38 men were interviewed, on average 10 weeks after leaving prison. The men were living in a variety of situations and often were very under-occupied, with limited social networks. 70% were above the clinical cut-off for anxiety and 59.5% were above the clinical cut-off for depression. The men were receiving little support in the community and many had been re-interviewed by police. Community teams need to provide better support to this very vulnerable group.
Alexander, R., Langdon, P., Chester, V., Barnoux, M., Gunaratna, I. and Hoare, S. (2016). Heterogeneity within Autism Spectrum Disorder in Forensic Mental Health: The Introduction of Typologies. Advances in Autism [Online] 2:201-209. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AIA-08-2016-0021.Purpose: Individuals with diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) within criminal
justice settings are a highly heterogeneous group. Although studies have examined
differences between those with and without ASD in such settings, there has been no
examination of differences within the ASD group.
Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the findings of a service evaluation project, this
paper introduces a typology of ASD within forensic mental health and learning disability
Findings: The eight sub-types that are described draw on clinical variables including
psychopathy, psychosis and intensity/ frequency of problem behaviours that co-occur with
the ASD. The initial assessment of inter rater reliability on the current version of the typology
revealed excellent agreement, multirater Kfree = .90.
Practical implications: The proposed typology could improve understanding of the
relationship between ASD and forensic risk, identify the most appropriate interventions and
provide prognostic information about length of stay. Further research to refine and validate
the typology is ongoing.
Originality/value: This paper introduces a novel, typology based approach which aims to
better serve people with ASD within criminal justice settings.
Ã CiardhaC., Alleyne, E., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M., Mozova, K. and Gannon, T. (2015). Examining the Psychopathology of Incarcerated Male Firesetters using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Psychology, Crime & Law [Online] 21:606-616. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2015.1008478.Research to date has been equivocal on the relationship between firesetting and psychopathology, and has been impeded by studies lacking adequate control samples. The present study examined psychopathology in a sample of incarcerated adult male firesetters (n = 112) and prison controls (n = 113) using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Firesetters demonstrated multiple elevated scores on personality and clinical syndrome scales. Logistic regression showed that the borderline personality scale was the strongest personality scale discriminator between firesetters and controls. Major depression and drug dependence were the strongest clinical syndrome scale predictors. However, both clinical syndrome scale predictors appeared to be mediated by borderline personality scores indicating that firesetters are best characterized by responding indicative of borderline personality traits rather than other psychopathological deficits. The results suggest that, relative to other offenders, firesetters face challenges with impulse control, affect regulation, stability of interpersonal relationships, and self-image.
Gannon, T., Wood, J., Pina, A., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M. and Vasquez, E. (2014). An Evaluation of Mandatory Polygraph Testing for Sexual Offenders in the United Kingdom. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment [Online] 26:178-203. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1177/1079063213486836.Objective: This research examined whether a government-initiated pilot project of mandatory polygraph testing would increase the disclosures made by community-supervised sexual offenders in the UK. Method: The Offender Managers of 332 pilot polygraph sexual offenders and 303 sexual offenders who were receiving usual community supervision were telephoned quarterly, over a 21 month period, to collect information about numbers of clinically relevant disclosures, the seriousness of disclosures made, and actions taken as a result of disclosures. Perceptions of polygraph usefulness were also collected. Results: Offender Managers in the pilot polygraph group—compared to comparison Offender Managers—reported (1) a higher proportion of offenders making at least one disclosure (i.e., 76.5% versus 51.2% respectively), and (2) that their offenders made more total disclosures overall (Ms = 2.60 versus 1.25 respectively). The majority of disclosures made by sexual offenders in the polygraph group were associated with the polygraph session itself. Polygraph Offender Managers reported being more likely to take an action that involved increasing supervision, informing a third party, informing MAPPA, changing supervision focus, or issuing a warning to the offender. However, the relative seriousness of disclosures did not appear to differ across groups. In terms of polygraph test results, one third of offenders (most notably those who were higher in risk) failed their first test with ‘Deception Indicated’. This outcome—received on a first test—was most likely to elicit clinically relevant disclosures. Offender Managers described the polygraph as aiding supervision strategies. Conclusions: This research and its associated caveats are discussed.
Barnoux, M., Gannon, T. and Ã CiardhaC. (2014). A descriptive model of the offence chain for imprisoned adult male firesetters (descriptive model of adult male firesetting). Legal and Criminological Psychology [Online] 20:48-67. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lcrp.12071.Purpose: Firesetting has devastating consequences. Although some theoretical efforts have been made to explain firesetting (i.e., a small number of multi- and single-factor theories), little effort has been devoted to understand how deliberate firesetting unfolds across time (i.e., micro or offence chain theories). This research aimed to produce the first descriptive offence chain theory for incarcerated adult male firesetters.
Methods: Thirty-eight adult male firesetters—recruited from prison establishments in England and Wales—were interviewed about the events, thoughts and feelings leading up to, surrounding, and immediately following a deliberate incident of firesetting.
Results: Using Grounded Theory analysis, the Descriptive Model of Adult male Firesetting (DMAF) was developed documenting the cognitive, behavioural, affective and contextual factors leading to a single incident of deliberate firesetting.
Conclusions: New information generated from the DMAF is presented and its contributions to the current evidence base are highlighted. Clinical implications, limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
Gannon, T., Ã CiardhaC., Barnoux, M., Tyler, N., Mozova, K. and Alleyne, E. (2013). Male Imprisoned Firesetters Have Different Characteristics than Other Imprisoned Offenders and Require Specialist Treatment. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes [Online] 76:349-364. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1521/psyc.2013.76.4.349?needAccess=true.Objective: This study investigated whether a group of firesetters (n = 68) could be distinguished, psychologically, from a matched group of non-firesetting offenders (n = 68). Method: Participants completed measures examining psychological variables relating to fire, emotional/ self-regulation, social competency, self-concept, boredom proneness, and impression management. Official prison records were also examined to record offending history and other offense-related variables. A series of MANOVAs were conducted with conceptually related measures identified as the dependent variables. Follow up discriminant function and clinical cut-off score analyses were also conducted to examine the best discriminating variables for firesetters. Results: Firesetters were clearly distinguishable, statistically, from non-firesetters on three groups of conceptually related measures relating to: fire, emotional/self-regulation, and self-concept. The most successful variables for the discrimination of firesetters determined via statistical and clinical significance testing were higher levels of anger-related cognition, interest in serious fires, and identification with fire and lower levels of perceived fire safety awareness, general self-esteem, and external locus of control. Conclusions: Firesetters appear to be a specialist group of offenders who hold unique psychological characteristics. Firesetters are likely to require specialist treatment to target these psychological needs as opposed to generic offending behavior programs.
Tyler, N. and Barnoux, M. (2016). Filicide by Fire. In: Doley, R., Dickens, G. L. and Gannon, T. A. eds. The Psychology of Arson: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Managing Deliberate Firesetters. Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/The-Psychology-of-Arson-A-Practical-Guide-to-Understanding-and-Managing/Doley-Dickens-Gannon/p/book/9780415810692.Filicide is the killing of a child by their own parents(s) (biological, adoptive or step-parent; Flynn, Windfuhr, & Shaw, 2009); infanticide and neonaticide are defined as the killing of an infant under 1 year (Flynn, Shaw, & Abel, 2007) and 24 hours old respectively (Resnick, 1969). Although filicide is rare, estimated at 1.92 cases per 100,000 inhabitants for girls and 2.93 for boys under the age of 18 (Pinheiro, 2006), it is not a recent phenomenon (Langer, 1974). Causing death by fire is reported in the literature as one of the most common methods of filicide (Adinkrah, 2001); with reported rates varying between approximately 3% (Liem & Koenraadt, 2008) and 37% (Meyer, Oberman, & White, 2001). The existing research on filicide has made little effort to examine the specificities of this group of offenders, in particular around determining possible typologies of filicide offenders by method of killing.
Given the emerging interest and research in deliberate firesetters as a distinct group of offenders, it is appropriate to focus on those individuals who commit filicide by fire, a behaviour that has been largely ignored in the literature to date. To address the gap in the literature, this chapter will first provide an overview of the existing literature on filicide (with a focus on filicide by fire) and firesetting. It will then examine the shared and unique characteristics of these groups of offenders. A conceptualisation of the factors that may contribute to an individual using fire to commit filicide will be provided using the latest theory of adult firesetting, the Multi-Trajectory Theory of Adult Firesetting (Gannon, Ó Ciardha, Doley, & Alleyne, 2012). Finally, recommendations for specific areas of treatment and further research will be made based upon the current evidence base.
Gannon, T., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M. and Pina, A. (2012). Female arsonists and firesetters. In: Dickens, G. L., Sugarman, P. A. and Gannon, T. A. eds. Firesetting and Mental Health: Theory, Research and Practice. London: RCPsychiatrists, pp. 126-142.
Conference or workshop item
Langdon, P., Alexander, R., Barnoux, M., Bhaumik, S., Devapriam, J., Duggan, C., Shepstone, L., Staufenberg, E., Turner, A. and Viding, E. (2017). People with autism detained within hospitals: defining the population, understanding aetiology, and improving care pathways (The mATCH Study). In: Clinical Research Group- Forensic Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
Forrester-Jones, R., Barnoux, M. and Twigg, J. (2016). Clothes and Fashion and people with ID. In: International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 782-782.
Murphy, G., Triantafyllopoulou, P., Chiu, P., Barnoux, M., Blake, E., Cooke, J., Forrester-Jones, R., Gore, N. and Beecham, J. (2016). Life after prison for ex-offenders with intellectual disabilities. In: International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 712.
Forrester-Jones, R., Barnoux, M. and Twigg, J. (2016). Memories, moments and mannequins: the changing world of learning disability. In: Social Policy Association Annual Conference 2016.
Forrester-Jones, R., Oliver, D., Barnoux, M. and Beecham, J. (2015). Palliative care for People with IDD growing older. In: 14th World Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care.
Forrester-Jones, R., Oliver, D. and Barnoux, M. (2014). People with IDD growing older: the case for specialist palliative care?. In: 4th International Association of Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities Europe Regional Congress. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 395-395.
Forrester-Jones, R., Oliver, D., Barnoux, M. and Couch, M. (2014). People with IDD growing older: the case for specialist care?. In: Seattle Club Conference.
Forrester-Jones, R., Oliver, D. and Barnoux, M. (2013). People with IDD growing older: the case for specialist care: indicative findings. In: Seattle Club Conference.
Barnoux, M. (2015). The Characteristics and Treatment Needs of Adult Male Imprisoned Firesetters.Deliberate firesetting is an international problem which has devastating financial and human consequences. However, the area has received little attention from researchers and practicing professionals compared to other types of offending, thus hindering our ability to recommend how firesetters should be detected, assessment, managed, and treated. In particular, very little is understood about firesetting in imprisoned offenders, particularly in terms of their characteristics and treatment needs, and whether these differ between subtypes of imprisoned firesetter. Theoretical efforts explaining firesetting in imprisoned offenders have also been poor, especially in terms of their empirical adequacy and understanding how the offence process might unfold.
The purpose of this thesis was to extend current knowledge of firesetting in adult male imprisoned offenders by examining the characteristics, treatment needs, and offence processes associated with different types of imprisoned firesetter. Four studies were conducted in this thesis. Study one examined whether specialist treatment is required for all imprisoned firesetters or whether more generic treatment approaches might be sufficient for some types of imprisoned firesetters. Study two evaluated the existence of different types of imprisoned firesetter based on the most comprehensive firesetting theory to date, the Multi-Trajectory Theory of Adult Firesetting (Gannon, Ó Ciardha, Doley, & Alleyne, 2012). Finally, studies three and four examined the offence process and the potential pathways imprisoned firesetters follow to offending.
The studies in this thesis highlight there are important differences between subtypes of adult male imprisoned firesetters. Three key conclusions were drawn from the combined findings: (i) different types of imprisoned firesetter have different fire-related deficits; (ii) different types of imprisoned firesetter have different treatment needs; and (iii) the findings highlight the importance of considering different target populations and different types of firesetter in theory development and evaluation. Limitations and future research directions are considered.
Hernandez-Castro, J., Boiten, E. and Barnoux, M. (2014). Second Kent Cyber Security Survey [Internet only]. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/news/stories/Cybercrime_survey2/2014.
Research report (external)
Forrester-Jones, R., Oliver, D., Barnoux, M. and Beecham, J. (2015). Palliative Care for People With IDD at Fynvola. Tizard Centre, University of Kent.
Forrester-Jones, R., Barnoux, M. and Twigg, J. (2015). Memories, Moments and Mannequins: The Changing World of Learning Disability - Summary Findings. University of Kent in collaboration with East Kent Mencap.