About

Dr Jennifer E Storey completed her BA (Honours) majoring in both Psychology and Law at Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada) and her MA and PhD in forensic psychology at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada.

Key Publications

Storey, J. E. (2020). Risk factors for elder abuse and neglect: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2019.101339
Strand, S., & Storey, J. E. (2019). Intimate partner violence in urban, rural and remote areas: An investigation of offense severity and risk factors. Violence Against Women. DOI: 10.1177/1077801218766611
Storey, J. E. (2016). Hurting the healers: Stalking and stalking-related behavior perpetrated against counselors. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47(4), 261-270. DOI: org/10.1037/pro0000084 

Storey, J. E., Hart, S. D., Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2016). The reliability and validity of the PCL-R in a representative sample of incarcerated male correctional offenders in Canada. Law and Human Behavior, 40(2)136-146. DOI: 10.1037/lhb0000174

Research interests

  • Violence risk assessment, management and communication
  • Elder abuse
  • Stalking
  • Intimate partner violence
  • Psychopathy 

Jennifer’s research is applied in nature and centres on interpersonal violence and violence risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. The goal of her research is to identify and implement best practices in society’s responses to violence in order to minimise its impact on the well-being of victims. Her main areas of expertise in interpersonal violence are elder abuse, stalking, and intimate partner violence. She works extensively with health, criminal justice, social work, and other agencies that respond to interpersonal violence.
Jennifer’s recent focus on elder abuse has resulted in the development of a violence risk assessment tool for elder abuse called the Elder Abuse Risk Level Index (EARLI). She is also working on projects related to elder homicide, risk factors for elder abuse and how to decrease risky decision making among older adults to reduce their vulnerability to financial abuse. In the area of stalking, Jennifer is currently examining topics including cyberstalking, victim impact and the assessment of risk.  

As part of her research Jennifer provides training on violence risk assessment, management, and safety planning. To date she has trained social workers, nurses, police, and mental health professionals as well as students. 

Supervision

Dr Jennifer Storey welcomes prospective doctoral students to get in touch if they are interested in her areas of research.

  • Silvia Fraga Domínguez (2017-2020) PhD, Help Seeking and Disclosure in cases of Elder Abuse, Royal Holloway University of London
  • Laura Bowden (2018-2024, part time) PhD, An international study of the clinical application of violence risk assessments in forensic mental health services, Royal Holloway University of London

Professional

Registered Forensic Practitioner Psychologist, Health Professions Council (Registration Number PYL36700)

Grants and Awards

2020Strategic Knowledge Exchange Collaborations Funding, Older Adult Financial Abuse: Organization and Participant Knowledge Exchange. Co-Investigator£22,162
2017-2020Leverhulme Magna Carta Doctoral Centre Scholarship, The Identification and Prosecution of Cyberstalking: Barriers to Combatting a New Crime in the Digital Age. Principal supervisor£62,500
2018Higher Education Interdisciplinary Fund, RHUL, Improving Security Awareness and Responses to Financial Elder Abuse. Principal Investigator                 £5,000
2018Higher Education Interdisciplinary Fund, RHUL, Adolescent online security and safety risks: Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking. Co-Investigator  £5,000  
2018-2019Homicide of the Elderly. Research Strategy Fund, RHUL. Principal Investigator    £1,900
  2015-2016  Brottsoffermyndigheten (The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority): Strukturerade riskbedömningar för våld (Structured risk assessment for violence). Principal investigator 2015-2016, Researcher (2014-2015). £187,787
2016Young Alumni Award, Carleton University    
2015Christopher Webster Young Scholar Award: International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services    

Publications

Article

  • Storey, J. (2020). Risk factors for elder abuse and neglect: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 50. doi:doi:10.1016/j.avb.2019.101339
    Elder abuse is a global problem gaining recognition due to its severe impact on victims and the ageing population. Increased recognition has led to the investigation of perpetrator and victim characteristics that increase the risk of elder abuse. The identification of such risk factors can assist practitioners in preventing abuse, determining the risk of continued elder abuse and, where factors are dynamic, can be targets for risk management. This literature review identifies and describes perpetrator and victim risk factors for elder abuse with the goal of informing professional practice and providing the basis for an empirically derived risk assessment instrument for elder abuse. Electronic searches identified 198 studies that met the eligibility criteria. The studies reviewed provide evidence supporting eight risk factors related to the perpetrator that increase their risk of continued elder abuse and eight victim vulnerability factors that place the victim at heightened risk of elder abuse. Hypotheses raised by researchers to account for the associations are outlined. The practical utility of the risk and vulnerability factors are described. The need for and approach to developing a structured method to assess and manage elder abuse risk based on the empirically supported risk and vulnerability factors is discussed.
  • Rogers, M., & Storey, J. (2019). Elder homicide: A systematic literature review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 48, 141-151. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2019.08.008
    This paper presents the findings of the first review of the research-based evidence reporting the phenomenon of elder homicide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published across the world (between 1982 and 2018) was undertaken. A total of 33 articles were identified and appraised using PRISMA including quantitative (n = 30) and mixed methods (n = 3) studies. Four themes were identified in the synthesis of findings: victim characteristics; offender characteristics; victim-offender relationship; and offence characteristics. Through a critical discussion, these themes, and the emerging typology, are contextualised to argue that these findings could influence the improvement of policy and practice, and inform future research, for vulnerable elderly people at risk of violence and homicide. A gap identified in the literature was the lack of identification and analysis of risk factors for elder homicide which provides evidence of the need for further research on elder homicide, risk and risk management.
  • Fraga Dominguez, S., Storey, J., & Glorney, E. (2019). Help-Seeking Behavior in Victims of Elder Abuse: A Systematic Review. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. doi:10.1177/1524838019860616
    Elder abuse has become increasingly relevant for intervention and study in the context of an aging population. One of the major barriers to progress in the field is underreporting of elder abuse by victims. This systematic literature review aimed to synthesize the available findings regarding victims’ help-seeking behavior to inform practice, understand the limits of the evidence, and identify research gaps. A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature was undertaken, and studies were included if they addressed help-seeking behavior from the perspective of elder abuse victims aged 60 and older. A total of 19 studies met inclusion criteria for review. Findings are presented as a narrative synthesis organized according to help-seeking barriers, facilitators, sources of help, the responses of others, and the characteristics of victims more likely to seek help. Although barriers and sources of help received detailed attention across all studies, findings regarding victim characteristics and facilitators for and responses to help-seeking were limited. The results suggest that there are many barriers to help-seeking and that some victims only seek help when the abuse is perceived as unbearable or they fear for their safety. Results are discussed in relation to implications for intervention, including suggestions to enhance help-seeking behavior. Future research should identify facilitators of help-seeking among victims of elder abuse and victim characteristics associated with early disclosure. Research efforts should frame help-seeking as a continuing process and study ways in which the responses of others may impact future help-seeking or service engagement.
  • Strand, S., & Storey, J. (2019). Intimate Partner Violence in Urban, Rural, and Remote Areas: An Investigation of Offense Severity and Risk Factors. Violence Against Women, 25, 188-207. doi:10.1177/1077801218766611
    This study compared the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the relationship between risk factors for IPV and overall risk judgements of future IPV in urban, rural and remote areas. IPV risk assessments conducted by the Swedish police between 2010 and 2014 in urban (n = 564), rural (n = 456), and remote (n = 196) areas were examined. Rurality was associated with the severity of IPV reported, as well as the presence of risk factors and their relationship to overall risk judgements. Cases in remote areas included more severe IPV as well as more risk factors.
  • Storey, J., & Prashad, A. (2018). Recognizing, reporting, and responding to abuse, neglect, and self-neglect of vulnerable adults: an evaluation of the re:act adult protection worker basic curriculum. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 30, 42-63. doi:10.1080/08946566.2017.1371092
    Abuse and neglect of vulnerable adults are significant problems, the identification and management of which is increasingly being made the legal responsibility of healthcare professionals. In response, some jurisdictions have developed training to assist professionals in these duties. This study evaluates the re:act Adult Protection Worker Basic Curriculum training from British Columbia, Canada. One hundred and fifty-seven participants, 109 training completers and 48 noncompleters, answered a survey evaluating their confidence, knowledge, and applied knowledge in identifying, reporting, and investigating cases of suspected abuse, neglect, and selfneglect of vulnerable adults. Comparisons of training completers to non-completers showed significant gains in completers’ perceived confidence and knowledge, but no improvement in applied knowledge. The type of healthcare professional being trained and the length of training did not impact learner improvement. The results suggest ways in which both training and evaluation can be improved (e.g., supervised practice) to increase and detect gains in knowledge and practice.
  • Storey, J., & Perka, M. (2018). Reaching Out for Help: Recommendations for Practice Based on an In-Depth Analysis of an Elder Abuse Intervention Programme. The British Journal of Social Work, 48, 1052-1070. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcy039
    Elder abuse is a growing public health concern with serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Intervention research is lacking despite its potential value to victim protection. This study investigates the first and longest running social work intervention program for elder abuse in Canada. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the scope of the problem and needs of the population to inform program development through the recommendations made. 164 cases of elder abuse reported from January 2012 to April 2014 were examined. Case characteristics and related recommendations are reported. Third parties reported most abuse, which was typically emotional and financial
  • Strand, S., Fröberg, S., & Storey, J. (2018). Protecting victims of intimate partner violence: Swedish prosecutors’ experiences of decision-making regarding restraining orders. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 19, 170-186. doi:10.1080/14043858.2018.1450547
    Restraining orders can be used as a risk management strategy to reduce the likelihood of intimate partner violence (IPV) re-victimisation. The aim of this study was to examine how prosecutors work with cases of IPV, with a focus on their collaboration with police, use of violence risk assessment and implementation of restraining orders. A qualitative analysis was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with five prosecutors operating in two northern police districts in Sweden in 2016. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. Three overarching themes arose: The case, Organization of resources and Interpretation of the law. Each theme was discussed in the context of the prosecutors’ work with IPV. Prosecutors pointed to several inadequacies in the legislation and offered potential solutions that would ameliorate their work. Results also showed that prosecutors seldom used violence risk assessments conducted by police as a basis for issuing restraining orders. The primary reason for this was a lack of clear routines governing cooperation between police and prosecutors in the application process. The results from this study can be used when training criminal justice personnel in order to obtain a better understanding of the difficulties that prosecutors face when trying to protect victims of IPV.
  • Watt, K., Storey, J., & Hart, S. (2018). Violence risk identification, assessment, and management practices in inpatient psychiatry. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 5, 155-172. doi:10.1037/tam0000099
    Serious mental illness is a major risk factor for violence. Research suggests that many committed psychiatric inpatients have perpetrated violence before, during, and after hospitalization. Despite the prevalence and implications of violence among committed psychiatric patients, the responsibility of health care professionals to identify, assess and manage violence risk, and the development of identification and assessment tools to assist health care professionals in discharging their responsibility, little is actually known about what practices are being used to identify, assess, and manage violence in inpatient psychiatry units. The purpose of this study is to obtain a better understanding of violence risk identification, assessment, and management practices used by inpatient psychiatric units. Specifically, this study involved semistructured interviews with key informants from 13 inpatient psychiatry units in the largest health region in Western Canada. Every inpatient psychiatry unit that was invited to take part in this study agreed to participate. Data were analyzed using frequency and content analysis. The analysis revealed limited use of formal identification and assessment instruments for violence and diversity with respect to strategies used to manage violence. These findings have implications for highlighting promising practices that are currently being used, and identifying potential areas for future improvement.
  • Storey, J., & Strand, S. (2017). The Influence of Victim Vulnerability and Gender on Police Officers’ Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Risk. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 125-134. doi:10.1007/s10896-016-9905-0
    This study investigated the influence of victim vulnerability factors and gender on risk assessment for intimate partner violence (IPV). 867 cases of male and female perpetrated IPV investigated by Swedish police officers using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (BSAFER) were examined. For male-to-female IPV, victim vulnerability factors were associated with summary risk judgments and risk management recommendations. For femaleto-male IPV, vulnerability factors were more often omitted, and consistent associations were not found between vulnerability
    factors, summary risk judgments, and risk management. Results indicate that B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors can assist in assessing male-to-female IPV risk. Further research is necessary to examine the use of B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors for female-to-male IPV, as results showed victim vulnerability factors to be less relevant to officers’ decision making, particularly their management recommendations. However, several variables external to the B-SAFER, such as the availability of management strategies may account for these findings.
  • Storey, J., Hart, S., & Lim, Y. (2017). Serial stalking of mental health professionals: Case presentation, analysis, and formulation using the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM). Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 4, 122-143. doi:10.1037/tam0000087
    The present article illustrates the use of the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM; Kropp, Hart, & Lyon, 2008) to assess violence risk and recommend management strategies in a case of stalking. Through this case analysis we will also highlight and try to better understand the phenomenon of stalking of mental health professionals by their clients. The case study under examination involves a perpetrator who, over the course of multiple decades, stalked 4 mental health professionals whom she had sought out and seen for therapy. The SAM is a violence risk assessment instrument for stalking. Designed in the structured professional judgment framework, the SAM contains 6 steps. The SAM was completed by 2 individuals trained in its use
    and in violence risk assessment generally and reviewed by 1 of the authors of the SAM. The results present the analysis of each of the 6 steps, identifying key risk factors and motivations for the stalking behavior and recommending management strategies to end the stalking behavior. The discussion highlights research needed to compare available methods for assessing risk in stalking cases and describes wider applications for the findings with respect to the stalking of mental health professionals.
  • Storey, J. (2016). Hurting the healers: Stalking and stalking-related behavior perpetrated against counselors. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47, 261-270. doi:10.1037/pro0000084
    The increased risk of stalking faced by mental health professionals (MHPs) raises many important questions for practitioners. For instance, what factors place MHPs at greater risk of being stalked, and what perceptions do MHPs have about stalking? The present study investigates these and other understudied questions pertaining to stalking and stalking-related behavior perpetrated toward MHPs in the context of their work, by surveying a sample of 346 registered clinical counselors in British Columbia, Canada. Results indicated that many respondents had experienced individual stalking-related behaviors, and 7% (n = 23) had been stalked by a client. Work-related stalking and stalking-related behavior was perpetrated by clients, coworkers, and the acquaintances of clients. Respondents treating clients for forensic, substance abuse, and sexuality issues as well as for sexual abuse were at greater risk of being victimized. However, respondents treating clients out of their residence were not at greater risk. Less than half (47%) of respondents were aware of their heightened risk of being stalked, and many (50%) endorsed the view that poor clinical skill can increase stalking victimization. The majority of respondents reported that they would call police or terminate therapy in the event that they were being stalked by a client and three-quarters wanted to receive training on stalking. Findings suggest the need and desire for training that raises the awareness and abilities of MHPs to manage stalking behavior, but that also challenges unfounded and potentially harmful beliefs that some MHPs hold about their victimized colleagues.
  • Storey, J., Hart, S., Cooke, D., & Michie, C. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 40, 136-146. doi:10.1037/lhb0000174
    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the “norms” for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative.
  • Storey, J., Watt, K., & Hart, S. (2015). An Examination of Violence Risk Communication in Practice Using a Structured Professional Judgment Framework. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 33, 39-55. doi:10.1002/bsl.2156
    The increased use of violence risk assessment tools in professional practice has sparked the development of best-practice guidelines for communicating about violence risk. The present study examined 166 pre-sentence reports, authored by clinicians and probation officers, to determine the extent to which they are consistent with those guidelines. We examined the frequency with which reports contained information about five topics: the presence of risk factors; the relevance of risk factors; scenarios of future violence; recommended management strategies; and summary risk judgments. Analyses revealed that the topics addressed most frequently in reports were the presence of risk factors and recommended management strategies, but none of the five topics was addressed consistently, completely, or clearly in reports. This was especially the case for probation reports. The findings highlight the need to improve practice through better implementation of guidelines for risk communication. Also needed is research on the extent to which information in risk communications is comprehended, accepted, and used by various stakeholder groups.
  • Storey, J. (2014). Commentary on DeClue and Zavodny (2014). Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 1, 185-187. doi:10.1037/tam0000006
    This commentary focuses on the paper by DeClue and Zavodny (2014, pp. 145–161) in this issue of the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. In their series of papers (DeClue, 2013; DeClue & Campbell, 2013; DeClue & Zavodny, 2013), the authors identify six questions commonly encountered by evaluators using Static 99R. The questions relate to the method by which risk estimates are obtained and the reporting of those estimates. In the present study,DeClue and Zavodny (2014) provide clear answers for each of the questions raised and guidelines for evaluators on how to proceed with and present their assessments. In addition to providing this information, their paper raises several important issues that will be discussed herein, including a) the need for similar guidelines for other violence risk assessment instruments, b) the need for research on the use of violence risk assessment instruments in practice, c) the need for research on the communication of violence risk, and d) the selection of violence risk assessment instruments for use in practice.
  • Storey, J., Kropp, P., Hart, S., Belfrage, H., & Strand, S. (2014). Assessment and Management of Risk for Intimate Partner Violence by Police Officers Using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41, 256-271. doi:10.1177/0093854813503960
    The management of intimate partner violence (IPV) typically falls to police. For assistance, officers are increasingly using
    violence risk assessment tools like the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER). This study replicates
    the methodology of Belfrage et al. but examines the B-SAFER as used by Swedish police officers when assessing and managing IPV. Results revealed a positive relationship between risk and management. Total scores and overall risk ratings predicted recidivism (AUC [Area under the curve] = .70 and .69, respectively). Finally, a pattern where management recommendations were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk perpetrators but increased recidivism in low risk perpetrators was found. Results validate the use of the B-SAFER by police and reveal mostly comparable findings between the B-SAFER and the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, as examined by Belfrage et al., but suggest that the B-SAFER may be better suited for police.
  • Storey, J. (2014). Commentary on Carr, Goranson, and Drummond (2014). Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 1, 23-24. doi:10.1037/tam0000009
    In this issue of the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, Carr, Goranson, and Drummond draw (2014, pp. 4–22) attention to an important problem, namely, the stalking of mental health professionals (MHPs), and discuss some important issues related to management of this problem. I discuss 2 areas in need of further dialogue that arise from the discussion provided by Carr et al. (2014). The first issue is the need to expand our thinking about management from a focus on individual strategies to a focus on coordinated management plans. The second issue is the need for training institutions and professional associations to play a greater role in preparing MHPs to deal with what is clearly a known occupational hazard—stalking victimization.
  • Storey, J., Campbell, V., & Hart, S. (2013). Expert Evidence About Violence Risk Assessment: A Study of Canadian Legal Decisions. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 12, 287-296. doi:10.1080/14999013.2013.867383
    In recent decades the practice of violence risk assessment and use of violence risk assessment instruments has become widespread in the criminal justice system. How are courts reacting to these developments? Herein the findings of a survey of Canadian case law are reported. Using Quick Law 35 cases were systematically identified in which judges commented on expert evidence regarding violence risk. Judicial comments were summarized with respect to evaluator qualifications, assessment procedures used, and presentation of findings and opinions. Findings indicate a wide variety of judicial preferences including the skill and knowledge of the evaluator, the type of information used, the description of findings and procedures, and the applicability of legal rules. Although potentially useful to evaluators caution is urged regarding the incorporation of some judicial preferences.
  • Storey, J., & Strand, S. (2012). The characteristics and violence risk management of women arrested by the police for intimate partner violence. European Journal of Criminology, 9, 636-651. doi:10.1177/1477370812453403
    Research and management efforts in the area of intimate partner violence (IPV) have primarily focused on male perpetrators and female victims, resulting in more limited knowledge of female IPV perpetrators and their male victims. In the current study the violence risk assessments of police officers were examined in order to outline the characteristics of female perpetrators of IPV and their male victims. In addition, the officers’ assessments of violence risk and proposed risk management strategies are presented. Results reveal some similarities between the female perpetrators and male victims and their more studied counterparts. However, differences appear to be present in the perceived violence risk posed by the perpetrators and the violence risk management strategies proposed to reduce that risk and protect the victim. The results suggest a need for further research in the area, particularly with respect to the violence risk assessment and management of female IPV perpetrators.
  • Storey, J., Watt, K., Jackson, K., & Hart, S. (2012). Utilization and Implications of the Static-99 in Practice. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 24, 289-302. doi:10.1177/1079063211423943
    The Static-99 is the most commonly used risk assessment instrument for sexual violence in North America and its results can affect highly consequential decisions made in the criminal and civil justice systems. Despite its influence, few studies have systematically examined how the Static-99 is used by clinicians in practice. The current study compares the Static-99 ratings of clinicians to those of researchers for 100 adult males who completed an outpatient sex offender treatment program and were followed up over an average of about 4 years. Results showed good agreement between the ratings of clinicians and researchers for total scores on the Static-99, as well as for most individual items. Ratings by clinicians tended to be slightly lower than those made by researchers. The predictive validity of ratings made by clinicians and researchers was very similar and moderate in terms of effect size. In 30 cases, clinicians used discretion to “override” or adjust the Static-99 ratings when making final risk judgments, but the predictive validity of the clinical adjusted ratings was worse than that of the original Static-99 ratings made by clinicians. The need for quality assurance and training are discussed along with the need for clear empirically supported guidelines regarding overrides.
  • Belfrage, H., Strand, S., Storey, J., Gibas, A., Kropp, P., & Hart, S. (2012). Assessment and management of risk for intimate partner violence by police officers using the spousal assault risk assessment guide. Law and Human Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10979-011-9278-0
    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime that is present in all countries, seriously impacts victims, and demands a great deal of time and resources from the criminal justice system. The current study examined the use of the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 2nd ed. (SARA; Kropp, Hart, Webster, & Eaves, 1995), a structured professional judgment risk assessment and management tool for IPV, by police officers in Sweden over a follow-up of 18 months. SARA risk assessments had significant predictive validity with respect to risk management recommendations made by police, as well as with recidivism as indexed by subsequent contacts with police. Risk management mediated the association between risk assessment and recidivism: High levels of intervention were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk cases, but with increased recidivism in low risk cases. The findings support the potential utility of police-based risk assessment and management of IPV, and in particular the belief that appropriately structured risk assessment and management decisions can prevent violence.
  • Slaney, K., Storey, J., & Barnes, J. (2011). Is My Test Valid? Guidelines for the Practicing Psychologist for Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Measures. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 261-283. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.627086
    A general logic for data-based test evaluation based on Slaney andMaraun’s (2008) framework is described. On the basis of this framework and other well-known test theoretic results, a set of guidelines is proposed to aid researchers in the assessment of the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research. The guidelines are organized into eight areas and range from general recommendations, pertaining to understanding different psychometric properties of quantitative measures and at what point in a test evaluation their respective assessments should occur, to clarifications of core psychometric concepts such as factor structure, reliability, coefficient alpha, and dimensionality. Finally, an illustrative example is provided with a databased test evaluation of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 1991) as a measure of psychopathic personality disorder in a sample of 384 male offenders serving sentences in a Canadian correctional facility.
  • Storey, J., Gibas, A., Reeves, K., & Hart, S. (2011). Evaluation of a Violence Risk (Threat) Assessment Training Program for Police and Other Criminal Justice Professionals. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38, 554-564. doi:10.1177/0093854811403123
    Although a great deal of research has focused on the development and validation of violence risk (threat) assessment instruments, few studies have examined whether professionals can be trained to use these instruments. The present study evaluated the impact of a violence risk assessment training program on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 73 criminal justice professionals, including police officers, civilian support staff, and prosecutors. The program covered principles of violence risk assessment, the nature of mental disorder and its association with violence risk, and the use of various structured professional judgment (SPJ) risk assessment instruments. Comparisons of pre- and post-training evaluations indicated significant improvements on measures of knowledge about risk assessment, skills in the analysis of risk in a case vignette, and perceived confidence in conducting violence risk assessments. Findings support the utility of risk assessment training for criminal justice professionals and the utility of SPJ violence risk assessment instruments generally.
  • Kropp, P., Hart, S., Lyon, D., & Storey, J. (2011). The development and validation of the guidelines for stalking assessment and management. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 29, 302-316. doi:10.1002/bsl.978
    International research has established that stalking is a prevalent problem with serious and often life-threatening consequences for victims. Stalking is also a unique form of violence due to its nature and diversity, making it difficult for criminal justice and health professionals to establish which perpetrators and victims have the greatest need for services and protection. Risk assessment is one way to address these problems but few tools exist. This article describes the development of the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM), the first risk assessment instrument designed specifically for the stalking situation. Preliminary data are presented, indicating that the SAM has promise for use by professionals working with stalkers and their victims. Results indicated that interrater reliabilities for the SAM risk factors and total scores range from fair to good, and the structural reliability of the SAM is sound. Moreover, the SAM showed good concurrent validity when compared with two other measures of violence propensity: the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). Limitations of the study are discussed, especially those related to the difficulties inherent in file-based research, and suggestions for future research are offered.
  • Slaney, K., Storey, J., & Barnes, J. (2011). When “Good Enough” Is Just Not Good Enough: Response to Holden and Marjanovic. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 290-294. doi:10.1080/14999013.2011.629716
    In this article, we respond to a commentary by Holden and Marjanovic (this issue) on Slaney, Storey, and Barnes’ article “‘Is My Test Valid?’: Guidelines for the Practicing Psychologist for Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of Measures” (this issue). Specifically, we reply to Holden and Marjanovic’s claims that our guidelines: endorse a “construct approach” to test evaluation and development, rely too heavily on modern test theoretic methods and as such are too mathematically and technically intractable to be practically useful, and may present too unrealistic a challenge to be used in test development and the evaluation of well-established measures. Finally, we attempt to clarify the major themes that the guidelines described in Slaney, Storey, and Barnes were intended to convey.
  • Storey, J., & Hart, S. (2011). How Do Police Respond to Stalking? An Examination of the Risk Management Strategies and Tactics Used in a Specialized Anti-Stalking Law Enforcement Unit. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 26, 128-142. doi:10.1007/s11896-010-9081-8
    How do police respond to and manage complaints of stalking? To answer this question, we conducted a 3-phase study. First, we reviewed the literature to identify risk management tactics used to combat stalking. Second, we asked a group of police officers to review those tactics for completeness and group them into categories reflecting more general risk management strategies. The result was 22 categories of strategies. Finally, we used qualitative methods to evaluate the files of 32 cases referred to the specialized anti-stalking unit of a metropolitan police department. We coded specific risk management tactics and strategies used by police. Results indicated that a median number of 19 specific tactics from 7 general strategies were used to manage risk. Also, the implementation of strategies and tactics reflected specific characteristics of the cases (e.g., perpetrator risk factors, victim vulnerability factors), suggesting that the risk management decisions made by police were indeed strategic in nature. Qualitative analyses indicated that some of the strategies and tactics were more effective than others. We discuss how these findings can be used to understand and use stalking risk management more generally, as well as improve research on the efficacy of risk assessment and management for stalking.
  • Storey, J., Hart, S., Meloy, J., & Reavis, J. (2009). Psychopathy and stalking. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 237-246. doi:10.1007/s10979-008-9149-5
    We examined the association between psychopathy, assessed using theHare PsychopathyChecklist-Revised: Screening Version (Hart et al., Manual for the psychopathy checklist screening version (PCL:SV), 1995), and stalking in 61 men convicted of stalking-related offenses. Psychopathic symptoms were rare, but their presence—especially that of affective deficit symptoms—was associated with victimization of casual acquaintances and with several risk factors from the Guidelines for Stalking Assessment and Management (SAM) (Kropp et al., Guidelines for stalking assessment and management, 2008a), including stalking in violation of supervision orders, degree of preoccupation with victims, and targeting of victims with limited access to external resources. The findings suggest that in spite of their rarity, psychopathic traits may be important in the assessment and management of stalking risk.

Forthcoming

  • Storey, J., & Hart, S. (2020). The Assessment and Management of Stalking Perpetrated by Clients Against Their Counsellors. Violence and VIctims.
    Mental health professionals are at heightened risk of stalking victimization, however minimal research has examined empirically supported risk factors for stalking and the efficacy of risk management strategies. 346 counselors were surveyed, 7% had been stalked by clients. Results describe the nature of the stalking perpetrated and the efficacy of management strategies employed. Stalking behaviors tended to be of lower severity, perpetrator risk factors, particularly those related to relationships, anger and obsession were common. Victim vulnerabilities were identified, where many victims engaged in behavior considered ineffective in response to stalking. Victims often encountered problems coping with victimization due to inadequate access to resources. Results indicate that risk management plans must be bespoke and highlight ways that mental health professionals can be protected from stalking.
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