Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research

Making sense of the social world


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Dr Beth Breeze

Director, Centre for Philanthropy

School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research

School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research
Cornwallis North East
Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NF


I am Director of the Centre for Philanthropy, at the University of Kent’s School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research. I also teach a postgraduate module on Fundraising and Philanthropy, and an undergraduate module on volunteering.

A review of the first three years of the philanthropy research centre is available here and a leaflet celebrating our first 5 years of activity is available here.

I have written a wide range of research reports on issues related to charitable giving and philanthropy, including:

Current projects include: a 3 year Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship to study the personal and social skills of fundraisers; ongoing updates of the annual Million Pound Donor Report, funded by Coutts Bank; and a study of giving circles and collaborative giving in the UK.

I began my career as a fundraiser for a youth homelessness charity, the Cardinal Hume Centre and spent a decade working in a variety of fundraising, research and charity management roles, most recently as Deputy Director at the Institute for Philanthropy. I co-founded the Centre for Philanthropy in 2008.

I completed my PhD in Sociology at the University of Kent, my MSc in Voluntary Sector Organisation at the London School of Economics, my Certificate in Fundraising Management at the Open University and my MA in Social Anthropology at the University of St. Andrews.
Find me:

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Also view these in the Kent Academic Repository

    Lloyd, Theresa and Breeze, Beth (2013) Richer Lives: Why Rich People Give. Directory of Social Change, London, 240 pp. ISBN 9781906294793.


    'Richer Lives provides further evidence of what charities need to do to be much more effective at raising money from the rich.' Sir Thomas Hughes-Hallett, chair of The Philanthropy Review 'This book makes an important contribution to the enduring issue of philanthropy and its role in building a better society.' Sir Stuart Etherington, Chief Executive, National Council for Voluntary Organisations 'Theresa Lloyd and Beth Breeze bring their wealth of expertise to produce a work that is invaluable to those asking for money for good causes and to those trying to give it away effectively. It should also be of great interest to anyone seeking to encourage a stronger philanthropic culture in the UK.' Trevor Pears CMG, Pears Foundation 'I am confident that this book will inform, intrigue, infuriate and inspire in equal measure. Everyone who cares about strengthening social engagement by the wealthy should read Richer Lives.' Lord Joel Joffe, Chair, Giving Campaign (2001-04); Chair, The Joffe Charitable Trust 'Theresa Lloyd and Beth Breeze provide invaluable insights into UK philanthropy. Charity and university fundraisers could benefit enormously by absorbing its key messages.' Sir Peter Lampl, chairman, Sutton Trust


    Breeze, Beth (2013) How donors choose charities: the role of personal taste and experiences in giving decisions. Voluntary Sector Review, 4 (2). pp. 165-183. ISSN 2040-8056,Online:2040-8064.


    The question of how donors decide which charities to support, as opposed to questions about whether to give and how much to give, has been under-researched. This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 60 committed donors in the United Kingdom and concludes that charitable decision making is primarily driven by donors' tastes and personal background, and that inertia and path dependency also account for many of their current donation decisions. Despite subscribing to popular beliefs that charitable giving should be directed primarily to the needy, donors often support organisations that promote their own preferences, that help people with whom they feel some affinity and that support causes that relate to their own life experiences.

    Breeze, Beth and Dean, Jon (2012) Pictures of Me: User views on the representation of need in homelessness fundraising appeals. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 17 (2). pp. 132-143.


    There is a long-standing ethical debate regarding the ‘right’ representation of recipients in charity marketing materials that are intended to accurately define and represent social problems whilst also prompting the maximum response in voluntary income. The study presented in this article makes a contribution to that debate by highlighting the views of charity beneficiaries regarding their representation in fundraising campaigns. Drawing on data from five focus groups conducted in cities across England, we explore the views of young homeless people regarding the images of homelessness that appeared in major charity campaigns aimed at raising money to fund homelessness services. Participants displayed a high level of reflexivity, demonstrating that they understood the issues involved with homelessness and the perceptions of people like themselves that exist in the public sphere and in the consciousness of potential donors. Although the participants held the view that maximising revenues through the use of simple, eye-catching images is the prime goal of fundraising, they also expressed a desire for more nuanced campaigns that tell the dynamic stories of how people become homeless and the use of imagery that elicits empathy rather than merely arouses sympathy.

    Wiepking, Pamala and Breeze, Beth (2012) Feeling Poor, Acting Stingy: the effect of money perception on charitable giving. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 17 (1). pp. 13-24.


    In research on philanthropy, much attention has been given to the impact of the actual economic costs of giving. This paper argues that the perceived psychological costs of giving should also be taken into consideration when seeking to understand donations to charitable organizations. It is already known that people differ in their attitudes towards money, and that money attitudes are mostly independent from income, but these findings have been largely overlooked in the study of philanthropy and altruism. This paper seeks to rectify that omission by investigating the relationship between charitable giving and money perceptions. The analyses show that, regardless of the actual financial resources held by a donor, the size of their donations is negatively affected by feelings of retention (a careful approach to money) and inadequacy (people who worry about their financial situation). We conclude that an understanding of money perceptions is an additional important factor in the understanding of charitable behaviour. Fundraising professionals should not only select potential donors based on their absolute financial capacities but also take the potential donor's own financial perceptions into account when asking for donations.

    Breeze, Beth and Gouwenberg, Barbara and Schuyt, Theo et al. (2011) What Role for Public policy in Promoting Philanthropy? Public Management Review, 13 (8). pp. 1179-1195.


    This article presents and discusses the findings of a survey conducted among Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in most of the twenty-seven countries within the European Union, which studied the extent and success of fundraising from philanthropic sources for research. Our data demonstrate that success in fundraising is related to institutional privilege (in terms of the universities' reputation, wealth and networks) as well as factors relating to the internal organization, activities and cultures of universities (such as the extent of investment in fundraising activities) and factors relating to the external social, economic and political environments (such as national cultural attitudes towards philanthropy and the existence of tax breaks for charitable giving). Our findings identify the existence of a ‘Matthew effect’, such that privilege begets privilege, when it comes to successful fundraising for university research. We argue that, despite the existence of some untapped philanthropic potential, not all universities are equally endowed with the same fundraising capacities. The article concludes by suggesting that policy-makers pay more heed to the structural constraints within which fundraising takes place, to ensure that policies that seek to promote philanthropy are realistic.

Book Sections

    Breeze, Beth (2011) Is there a ‘New Philanthropy?’. In: Rochester, Colin and Gosling, George Campbell and Penn, Alison et al. Understanding Roots of Voluntary Action; Historical Perspectives on Current Social Policy. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 9781845194246.


    The current debate on the growing role of the voluntary and community or –third– sector in delivering public and social policy is impoverished by its lack of understanding of the historical events which have shaped the sector and its relationship with the state. This widely anticipated book draws on a range of empirical studies of aspects of the history of voluntary action to illuminate and inform this debate. Chapter contributions range across two centuries and a variety of fields of activity, geographical areas and organisational forms. Four key themes are addressed: The ‘moving frontier’ between the state and voluntary action; the distribution of roles and functions between them; and the nature of their inter-relationship. The ‘springs’ of voluntary action – what makes people get involved in voluntary organisations or support them financially. Organisational challenges for voluntary agencies, including growth, cleaving to their missions and values, and survival. Issues of continuity and change: how and to what extent has the nature of voluntary action and its role in society remained essentially the same despite the changing context? This book is essential reading for all practitioners involved in charities and voluntary and non-profit organisations, for those who work at the interface between government and the third sector and for those who are involved in making and implementing public and social policy.

    Breeze, Beth (2011) Philanthropy. In: Southerton, Dale Encyclopaedia of Consumer Culture. SAGE Publications Inc. ISBN 9780872896017.

    Breeze, Beth (2009) ‘Andrew Carnegie’ and ‘Marcel Mauss’. In: Anheier, Helmut K. and Toepler, Stefan International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.. ISBN 9780387939940.

    Breeze, Beth (2008) The problem of riches: is philanthropy a solution or part of the problem? In: Maltby, Tony and Kennett, Patricia and Rummery, Kirstein Social Policy Review 20: Analysis and debate in social policy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781847420763.


    This chapter is a response to the call for research agenda focusing on the ‘problem of riches’. It suggests that the topic of philanthropy fits within this agenda yet is under-researched in the social sciences. In this chapter, original research into the distinctive features of contemporary UK philanthropists is presented, based on a secondary analysis of the governing documents, annual reports and other documentary evidence relating to the philanthropic acts of 150 of the most significant major UK donors in the 2006. Drawing on the literature, the chapter then discusses the ways in which philanthropy can both solve and contribute to the problem of riches. Both the data and literature review are used to evaluate the extent to which significant charitable gifts made by wealthy people can tackle the ‘problem of the riches’ such as inequality, the tension between private affluence and public squalor and the promotion of happiness. The chapter ends by concluding that philanthropy is often perceived to be part of the problem of the riches, but at the same time, it also has the potential to become a viable solution.

    Breeze, Beth (2001) ‘Annie Besant’. In: Rosen, Greg Dictionary of Labour Biography. Methuen Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781902301181.


    Breeze, Beth (2014) Philanthropic Journeys:. project_report. Pilotlight


    The UK is a generous country: the giving of time and money to help good causes is a normal part of everyday life. But much of that giving is superficial, involving spare change rather than strategic major donations and sporadic ‘helping out’ rather than sustained volunteering. Our charity sector is therefore reliant on the collective impact of intermittent gifts, rather than the sustained commitment of life-long givers. This report explores how people’s philanthropic journeys – defined as their lifetime voluntary contribution of time, treasure and talent - can be extended and deepened to the benefit of both recipients and the donors. We take this approach because most research takes a ‘snapshot’ of giving at a moment in time, rather than trying to understand philanthropy as a dynamic, life-long activity. Our concern is with how people start and scale up their giving - or indeed how they start and then stop, or never get started in the first place.

    Breeze, Beth (2013) Corporate philanthropy on the shop floor: what drives employee fundraising? working_paper. Charitable Giving and Philanthropy


    This paper presents findings from a research project exploring the 'shop floor' experience of participating in corporate philanthropy. Observation methods and interviews were used to explore employees' views on the selection of charity partners and the experience of participating in fundraising activities in ten workplaces in the south east of England. The project reveals the distinct processes by which lower-paid and lower-status staff engage in philanthropic activity in the workplace. The findings show that, whereas the board and senior managers emphasise the business case for corporate philanthropy, such as reputational benefits and strategic alignments with suitable charity brands, ‘shop floor’ staff prioritise charitable causes with which they have a personal connection, which provide enjoyable fundraising experiences that break the monotony of the working day. This paper provides a new perspective on corporate philanthropic activities, and sheds original and much-needed light on the attitudes of non-wealthy people towards beneficiaries. Findings should be useful to fundraisers in their efforts to attract and maintain relationship with corporate supporters.

    Breeze, Beth (2012) Donor and Governmental Perceptions of Philanthropy. working_paper. Alliance Publishing Trust


    Philanthropy is, and always has been, supply led rather than demand driven: the freedom to distribute as much as one wants, to whom one chooses, is what distinguishes giving from paying tax. Yet the depiction of philanthropy in governmental documents often underestimates its subjectivity and complexity. Take, for example, this statement from the Giving White Paper: We believe that everyone can make a difference. So we want to empower and encourage more people to get involved, support each other and create the change they want to see. (HM Government, 2011: 8) Such a statement raises many questions: Who wants to make a difference, and to what? Who wants to get involved, and in what? Which people are interested in supporting which other types of people? Do all donors want to create change, or are some indifferent to change, or indeed seeking to resist change?

    Breeze, Beth and Dean, Jon (2012) User Views of Fundraising: A study of charitable beneficiaries’ opinions of their representation in appeals. working_paper. Alliance Publishing Trust, Centre for Giving and Philanthropy, London


    This paper presents the findings of a study exploring the views of charitable beneficiaries on literature that is designed to appeal to donors. Ethical questions raised by using images of beneficiaries in fundraising materials have been a matter of debate for some time, but such debates normally only include the opinions of ‘powerful’ voices such as charity leaders, moral philosophers and media commentators. This research extends the parameters of the debate by canvassing the opinions of those depicted, to ask: what do users think of the images of themselves found in fundraising appeals? The study is based on five focus groups attended by a total of 38 young people living in, or attending services at, homeless hostels in four English cities. Focus group participants were asked their opinion of an array of images of homelessness that had recently been used in fundraising campaigns run by major charities working in this field. The findings demonstrate that this group of beneficiaries are visually literate, familiar with how marketing works and largely supportive of methods that maximize income. They understood why charity marketing often makes use of contrived and simplified images to depict homelessness, and showed appreciation for the skills of fundraisers in balancing the accurate depiction of social problems with the need to generate enough donations to – literally, in most cases – provide a roof over their heads.

    Breeze, Beth (2010) How donors choose charities: Findings of a study of donor perceptions of thenature and distribution of charitable benefit. working_paper. Alliance Publishing Trust, Centre for Charitable Giving and Philanthropy, London


    This paper is concerned with the question of how donors select charitable beneficiaries, and the extent to which assessments of need are a factor in giving decisions. The study is based on interviews with 60 committed donors, representing a spread of gender, age and income levels. There is a widespread belief that charities exist primarily to help needy people and that the desire to meet needs is a key criterion in the selection of charitable beneficiaries. However, this study finds that people do not give to the most urgent needs, but rather they support causes that mean something to them. In particular, the study finds four non?needs?based criteria that commonly influence donors’ decision?making: Donors’ tastes, preferences and passions, acquired ?? as a result of an individual’s social experiences. These motivate many giving decisions, even among donors who perceive themselves to be motivated by meeting needs. ?? Donors’ personal and professional backgrounds, which shape their ‘philanthropic autobiographies’ and influence their choice of beneficiaries. ?? Donors’ perceptions of charity competence, notably the efficiency with which they are believed to use their money, often judged on the basis of the quality and quantity of direct mail. ?? Donors’ desire to have a personal impact, such that their contribution makes a difference and is not ‘drowned out’ by other donors and government funding. Given the voluntary nature of charitable activity, these are not surprising conclusions. Giving and philanthropy have always been supply-led rather than demand-driven: the freedom to distribute as much as one wants, to whom one chooses, is what distinguishes giving from paying tax. Yet the methods used to encourage donations tend to assume that philanthropy depends on objective assessments of need rather than on donors’ enthusiasms. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people act as rational agents results in fundraising literature that often focuses on the dimensions and urgency of the problem for which funding is sought. The assumption underlying this approach is that donations are distributed in relation to evidence of neediness, when in fact much giving could be described as ‘taste-based’ rather than ‘needs-based’.

    Breeze, Beth (2010) The Coutts Million Pound Donors Report. project_report. Coutts and Co, London


    This panel session is predicated on the assumption that a distinctive feature of the third sector is that it is values-driven, that values motivating philanthropic action are held by individuals, organisations and society at large, and that when these values clash it challenges the legitimacy of both motivations and actions. My paper is concerned with the role that values play as a driver of personalised philanthropy and it focuses on the complex issues involved in choosing one type of charitable beneficiary over another. The data discussed in this paper comes from a larger research programme that explores donor perceptions of the nature and distribution of charitable benefit, and it should be stressed that the findings presented here are interim as they are based on analysis of only half of the data gathered for this study.

    Breeze, Beth (2009) Natural Philanthropists: Findings of the Family Business Philanthropy and Social Responsibility Inquiry. project_report. Institute for Family Business (UK)


    Family businesses are more likely to support charitable activities than non-family businesses, and their commitment to being philanthropic, socially responsible and good members of the community is genuinely felt, deeply held and more robust. Clearly, family businesses have no monopoly on being philanthropic or socially responsible, but their characteristic commitment to long-term stewardship, stability and continuity means that a philanthropic and responsible outlook is frequently embedded in their business. However, being “naturally philanthropic” involves both advantages and disadvantages: these activities are more likely to be resilient if they are innate, but a lack of conscious cultivation can sometimes mean they are not undertaken in a very structured or strategic way.

    Breeze, Beth and Morgan, Gareth G. (2009) Philanthropy in a Recession: An analysis of UK media representations and implications for charitable giving. project_report. Sheffield Hallam University/University of Kent


    The recent economic downturn experienced in the UK and other major economies has led to intense speculation about the impact on non-profit organisations. In particular, there has been an assumption that charities will suffer significantly as a result of decreased donations and increased demand. However, drawing on an analysis of UK media coverage of philanthropy and charitable giving during a six month period, this paper seeks to re-appraise existing research on charitable giving in order to consider the impact of a recession. We show that much of the media comment fails to take account of existing theory regarding the non-economic basis of most philanthropic motivations, nor of the varied nature of charitable beneficiaries, which extends well beyond the financially disadvantaged. The paper also explores known features of recessionary impacts such as variability across the sector; time lags between economic conditions and changes in donor behaviours; and factors that affect resilience, such as the possession of reserves and investment in fundraising activities. The paper concludes by discussing implications for donor fundraising strategies.

    Breeze, Beth (2008) Investment Matters: In search of better charity asset management. project_report. Institute for Philanthropy: London

    Breeze, Beth and Thornton, Andy (2006) Raising a Giving Nation. project_report. The Citizenship Foundation


    This paper describes and analyses the relationship between income and donations to charity. The hypothesis is that the ‘U-shaped curve’, said to describe the relationship between income and percentage of income given to charity, takes a different shape if redrawn with the focus on specific socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of donors. Survey data on over 1000 current charity donors is used to explore and analyse giving to different charitable sub-sectors in relation to a number of different independent variables including age, gender, household size and attitudes. The analysis demonstrates that individuals on lower incomes consistently give a higher percentage of their income to charity than those on higher incomes. A negative correlation between income and percentage given to charity has previously been demonstrated and is discussed in the literature. This paper adds to that knowledge by demonstrating that this relationship still exists amongst UK donors in the late twentieth century even when a variety of other factors are controlled, including a wide range of demographic characteristics and personal explanations of giving behaviour and donating to different charitable sub-sectors. Whilst the findings are remarkably consistent, caution is required. Potential definitional problems in what survey respondents understand by ‘charity’ and ‘charitable giving’ has implications for reliability and validity of the data. In other words, do the figures measure what they intended to? Also, the key variables in the survey data upon which this analysis rests are responses to two questions regarding annual income and amount given to charity each year; the accuracy of both these self-reported figures may be affected by error, memory or social desirability bias. However, as the literature supports most of the findings and as the experts interviewed for this paper were generally positive about the findings of this research, some final conclusions and policy recommendations are offered in order to add to our understanding of charitable giving.

Research Reports

    Breeze, Beth and Wilkinson, Iain M. and Gouwenberg, Barbara et al. (2011) Giving in Evidence: Fundraising from Philanthropy in European Universities. 10.2777/4143. European Commission, 184 pp. ISBN 9789279187841.


    This report is a continuation of the themes and ideas explored in two previous European Commission reports, ‘Giving More for Research’ (2006) and ‘Engaging Philanthropy for University Research’ (2008). It is the first report to provide data gathered from universities across the European Union regarding the efforts made, and successes achieved, in fundraising from philanthropy for research. An additional output of the research is a new database of contacts responsible for fundraising in almost 500 European universities. We find that philanthropic fundraising is not, on the whole, taken seriously in European universities. Only a very small number of institutions are raising significant sums of money from this source, and even fewer are accessing philanthropic funding to pay for research and research-related activities. Whilst this may be disappointing for those hoping that private donors can represent an important source of funding for university-based research, it may also be interpreted in a more positive light as indicative of potentially significant untapped potential. There are many different types of university, which affects their likelihood of realising philanthropic income as a result of investment in fundraising activities. Our data demonstrates that success in fundraising is related to institutional privilege (what kind of a university it is, in terms of wealth, reputation and pre-existing relationships with different types of donors), as well as to the efforts made by universities (what the university does, in terms of fundraising activities), and environmental factors (where the university is located, in terms of the geo-political context). For this reason, we suggest that the concept of ‘accumulative advantage’ should be understood as an important factor, alongside ‘efforts’ and ‘context’ which have so far featured more prominently as key levers in the policymaking literature.

    Breeze, Beth (2011) The Coutts, Million Pound Donors Report 2011. Coutts & Co


    This publication is the fourth edition of the Million Pound Donors Report,which collates and analyses data on all identifiable UK charitable donations of £1 million or more. It describes and discusses 174 donations worth at least £1 million, made by UK donors or to UK charities in 2009/10,with a combined value of £1.312 billion. As in previous years, this edition of the report also assesses the scale and impact of these gifts, analyses trends in major giving at this level and presents case studies of both ‘million pound donors’ and ‘million pound recipients’.We are aware that our data is likely to under-estimate the true value of this largest level of philanthropy. This is due to donations that are either made anonymously, or for other reasons have not appeared in an identifiable form on the public record. It also doesn’t include very big donations that fall below our lower threshold of £1 million. This means the data in this report does not represent all significant giving, as it does not capture gifts of £10,000 - £999,999 that are still of great importance to the causes they benefit.We believe, however, that ‘million pound donations’ are a useful unit of analysis, because it is economically and psychologically significant to both donors and recipients.

Total publications in KAR: 24 [See all in KAR]


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I convene SO839 Fundraising and Philanthropy. This MA module provides an up to date overview of current academic knowledge about philanthropy, and industry knowledge regarding fundraising practice.

Students will gain an understanding of historical and contemporary issues relating to philanthropy and fundraising, the various theories and ideologies regarding the existence of philanthropic behaviours and the role of government and policy-makers in shaping the legal, fiscal and cultural context for philanthropy and fundraising.

Students also have the opportunity to achieve a professional qualification in fundraising.

I also convene SO670 Kent Student Certificate in Volunteering, Platinum award.
I deliver a series of lectures on the UK voluntary sector, with a focus on the role of volunteering, emphasising its benefits to society and to the volunteer. I also support students in the 100 hours of volunteering required to pass this module, which involves successfully completing three placements in voluntary organisations.

Students on this course also have the opportunity to achieve a professional qualification in fundraising.

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Research interests

My research interests focus on philanthropy, charitable giving, and the charity sector.

I work within the Centre for Philanthropy, which explores philanthropic activities, social patterns of giving and the redistributive impact of transfers from private wealth to the public good. I also have an interest in the impact of philanthropy on social policy and political processes, and vice versa.


From 2013-2016 I have a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship to undertake a project called 'The Formation of Fundraisers: the role of social skills in asking for money'. This study will explore the art of fundraising and the personality traits of successful fundraiser.

I have received funding from the European Commission to undertake a study of the role of philanthropic fundraising in universities across the European Union, and I have funding from Coutts & Co bank to write an annual report on UK charitable donations worth £1 million or more.


From 2008-2013 I was a researcher within the national Centre for Charitable Giving and Philanthropy (CGAP), which was funded by the ESRC, the Office of Civil Society, the Scottish Executive and the Carnegie UK Trust.

The four projects I undertook within CGAP were concerned with donors’ awareness of the nature and distribution of charitable benefit; the role that perceptions of need plays in donors’ selection of beneficiaries; relationships between givers and receivers and the social space bridged by donations; and the representation of need in charitable appeals and its impact on beneficiaries.

My doctoral thesis, completed in 2009, investigates the meaning and purpose of philanthropy in contemporary UK society. Based on secondary analysis of the public statements and giving patterns of 170 of the most significant philanthropists operating in the UK today, it argues that philanthropy is primarily a social relationship between givers and receivers, rather than merely a financial transaction, and that the philanthropic acts of the wealthy are part of a strategy - conscious or otherwise - to find meaning and purpose in their life whilst creating and communicating a positive identity to themselves, their loved ones and the wider community.

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Professional activities


  • I write regularly for national and charity sector media, in order to disseminate research findings as widely as possible to relevant audiences
  • In addition to the charity sector press, my research has featured on:
    • Radio 4 (including the Today programme, The World at One, You and Yours)
    • Channel 4 News
    • Regional BBC radio (Kent, Devon, Leeds, London and Scotland)
    • The Financial Times
    • Daily Telegraph
    • The Guardian
    • BBC Online
    • Guardian Online
    • New Statesman
    • Prospect magazine

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Telephone: +44(0)1227 823072 Fax: +44(0)1227 827005 or email us

SSPSSR, Faculty of Social Sciences, Cornwallis North East, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF

Last Updated: 16/01/2015