Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research

Making sense of the social world



I am a Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Kent’s School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research. I am also the REF coordinator for the School and a member of Kent's Q-Step Centre.

I am interested in cross-national comparative analysis of welfare states and their labour markets. Currently my two main research areas are subjective employment insecurity and the roles institutions play therein, and the role of flexible working on work-life balance of individuals.


I completed my PhD in Sociology at the ReflecT, Tilburg University & AIAS/HSI, University of Amsterdam, my MSc in Research in Social Policy from Edinburgh University’s School of Social and Political Studies and my MSW major in Social Policy and BA in Social Welfare from Yonsei University.

My research visits and training have included Manchester University, Social Science Research Centre in Berlin (WZB), Germany, Essex University and Aalborg University, Denmark.

Contact Information


Room CNE 106
Cornwallis North East
University of Kent
Kent CT2 7NF

Students should contact me by email to arrange a meeting

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Also view these in the Kent Academic Repository

Chung, H. (2017). National-level family policies and the access to schedule control in a European comparative perspective: crowding out or in, and for whom? Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice [Online]. Available at:
Chung, H. and Van der Horst, M. (2017). Women's employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking. Human Relations.
Lott, Y. and Chung, H. (2016). Gender discrepancies in the outcomes of schedule control on overtime hours and income in Germany. European Sociological Review [Online]. Available at:
Chung, H. (2016). Dualization and subjective employment insecurity: Explaining the subjective employment insecurity divide between permanent and temporary workers across 23 European countries. Economic and Industrial Democracy [Online]. Available at:
Chung, H. and Meuleman, B. (2016). European parents' attitudes towards public childcare provision. The role of current provisions, interests and ideologies. European Societies [Online]:1-20. Available at:
van Oorschot, W. and Chung, H. (2015). Feelings of dual-insecurity among European workers: A multi-level analysis. European Journal of Industrial Relations [Online] 21:23-37. Available at:
Yoon, Y. and Chung, H. (2015). New Forms of Dualization? Labour Market Segmentation Patterns in the UK from the Late 90s Until the Post-crisis in the Late 2000s. Social Indicators Research [Online] 128:609-631. Available at:
Carr, E. and Chung, H. (2014). Employment insecurity and life satisfaction: The moderating influence of labour market policies across Europe. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 24:383-389. Available at:
Chung, H. and Mau, S. (2014). Subjective Insecurity and the Role of Institutions Chung, H. and Mau, S. eds. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 24:303-318. Available at:
Chung, H. and Tijdens, K. (2013). Working time flexibility components and working time regimes in Europe: using company-level data across 21 countries. International Journal of Human Resource Management [Online] 24:1418-1434. Available at:
Chung, H., Bekker, S. and Houwing, H. (2012). Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020. Transfer [Online] 18:301-317. Available at:
Chung, H. (2012). Measuring Flexicurity: Precautionary Notes, a New Framework, and an Empirical Example. Social Indicators Research [Online] 106:153-171. Available at:
Chung, H. and van Oorschot, W. (2011). Institutions versus market forces: Explaining the employment insecurity of European individuals during (the beginning of) the financial crisis. Journal of European Social Policy [Online] 21:287-301. Available at:
Chung, H. and Thewissen, S. (2011). Falling back on old habits? A Comparison of the Social and Unemployment Crisis Reactive Policies in Germany, the UK, and Sweden. Social Policy & Administration [Online] 45:354-370. Available at:
Kerkhofs, M., Chung, H. and Ester, P. (2008). Working time flexibility across Europe: a typology using firm-level data. Industrial Relations Journal [Online] 39:569-585. Available at:
Chung, H. (2007). From collectivism towards individualisation. Tijdschrift voor HRM [Online] lente:71-72. Available at:
Chung, H. and Kim, J. (2003). The Dutch Welfare Reform and Labour Market Policies: over the 'Miracle' towards 'Flexicurity (in Korean). Critical Social Welfare 14:177-214.
Chung, H. (2003). Korean Welfare State Regime Argument in a Different Perspective (in Korean) . Critical Social Welfare 13:217-240.
Chung, H. (2009). Flexibility for Whom? Working time Flexibility Practices of European Companies. Tilburg University Ph.D. Dissertation, Ridderkerk: ReflecT.
Muffels, R. et al. (2008). Flexibility and security over the life course. [Online]. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions: EU Office for Official Publications, Luxembourg. Available at:
Chung, H., Kerkhofs, M. and Ester, P. (2007). Working Time Flexibility in European Companies. [Online]. European Foundation: EU Office for Official Publications: Luxembourg. Available at:
Book section
Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). Where Next for the UK Welfare State? in: After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe after the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). Liberalism, Social Investment, Protection, and Chauvinism: New Directions for the European Welfare State. in: Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. eds. After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe after the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Available at:
Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). The Context: How European Welfare States Have Responded to Post-Industrialism, Ageing Populations, and Populist Nationalism. in: After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe after the Great Recession. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-27. Available at:
Chung, H. (2015). Subjective employment insecurity gap between occupations: variance across Europe. in: Eichorst, W. and Marx, P. eds. Non-Standard Employment in Post-Industrial Labour Markets: An Occupational Perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 271-297.
Chung, H. and Meuleman, B. (2014). Support for Government Intervention in Child Care Across European Countries. in: Leon, M. ed. The Transformation of Care in European Societies. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 104-133. Available at:
Chung, H. (2014). Work, Alternative/Flexible Arrangements. in: Michalos, A. C. ed. Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Springer, pp. 7203-7208. Available at:
Wilthagen, T., Muffels, R. and Chung, H. (2013). The 'State Of Affairs' of Flexicurity in Industrial Relations: Assessing Country Performance Using Transition Indicators . in: Pulignano, V., Arrowsmith, J. and Rocca, G. D. eds. The Transformation of Employment Relations in Europe; Institutions and Outcomes in the Age of Globalization. Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 184-206.
Chung, H. and van Oorschot, W. (2012). The Impact of Perceived and Actual Unemployment Benefit Generosity and Unemployment Rates on the Employment Security of Workers (Chapter 3). in: Ervasti, H., Andersen, J. G. and Fridberg, T. eds. The Future of the Welfare State; Social Policy Attitudes and Social Capital in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, pp. 46-67. Available at:
Meuleman, B. and Chung, H. (2012). Who Should Care for the Children? Support for Government Intervention in Childcare(Chapter 6) . in: Ervasti, H., Andersen, J. G. and Fridberg, T. eds. The Future of the Welfare State; Social Policy Attitudes and Social Capital in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, pp. 107-133. Available at:
Chung, H. (2011). Work-Family Conflict across 28 European Countries: A Multi-level Approach. in: Drobnic, S. and Guillén, A. M. eds. Work-Life Balance in Europe; The role of job quality . Palgrave Macmillan , pp. 42-68. Available at:
Chung, H. and Bekker, S. (2009). Restructuring Organisations while Striving for Flexicurity: Connecting the European Level to National Contexts. in: Moreau, M. -A. ed. Building Anticipation of Restructuring in Europe. PE Lang Publishers, pp. 303-330. Available at:
Chung, H. (2008). Provision of work–life balance arrangements in European companies: Public vs. Private. in: Keune, M., Leschke, J. and Watt, A. eds. Privatisation and liberalisation of public services in Europe: An analysis of economic and labour market impacts. Brussels: ETUI-REHS, pp. 285-319.
Kerkhofs, M., Chung, H. and Ester, P. (2008). Working Time Flexibility across Europe (Chapter 7). in: Ester, P., Muffels, R. and Schippers, J. eds. Innovating European Labour Markets;Dynamics and Perspectives. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., pp. 163-190. Available at:
Chung, H. (2007). Flexibility for employers or for employees? A new approach to examining labour market flexibility across Europe using company level data. in: Jørgensen, H. and Madsen, P. K. eds. Flexicurity and Beyond: Finding a new agenda for the European Social Model. Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing, pp. 243-277. Available at:
Chung, H. (2014). Explaining the provision of flexitime in companies across Europe (in the pre-and post-crisis Europe): role of national contexts. University of Kent.
van Oorschot, W. and Chung, H. (2011). Feelings of Insecurity Among European Workers in the Context of Flexicurity Policies and Socio-Economics Conditions. ReflecT Research paper series,Tilburg University: Tilburg.. Available at:
Muffels, R. et al. (2010). Towards a Methodology to Monitor and Analyse Flexicurity (FLC) and Work-Life Balance (WLB) Policies in the Member States of the EU. ReflecT - Tilburg University, Tilburg. Available at:
Chung, H. and van Oorschot, W. (2010). Employment insecurity of European individuals during the financial crisis. A multi-level approach . RECWOWE Publication, University of Edinburgh: Edinburgh. Available at:
Chung, H., Muffels, R. and Wilthagen, T. (2009). Defining and testing flexicurity indicators in Europe: How well performs the Dutch labour market comparably?. Tilburg.
Chung, H. (2009). Flexibility for Whom? Working time flexibility practices of European companies. Amsterdam Institute for Advanced labour Studies. Available at:,Tijdens.pdf.
Chung, H. (2008). Do institutions matter? Explaining the use of working time flexibility arrangements of companies across 21 European countries using a multilevel model focusing on country level determinants. WZB: Berlin. Available at:
Klammer, U. et al. (2008). "Take it or leave it: flexible working-time arrangements and the synchronization of business cycle and life cycle". European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, . Available at:
Wilthagen, T. et al. (2008). Decent work in the Netherlands. A report for the ILO project on Decent work in Europe. International Labour Organisation, Geneve. Available at:
Chung, H. and Muffels, R. (2007). Contract flexibility and working time arrangements: Constructing a typology. Tilburg University: Tilburg.
Edited book
Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. (2017). After Austerity: Welfare State Transformation in Europe after the Great Recession. [Online]. Taylor-Gooby, P., Leruth, B. and Chung, H. eds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Available at:
Total publications in KAR: 46 [See all in KAR]
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Research Interests

My research interests are broadly around issues concerning cross-national comparative analysis of welfare states and their labour markets.

One key question I am currently tackling in my new project is how working time flexibility impacts individual's work-life balance, and the role of contexts in moderating that influence. Another area I am currently developing is how welfare state institutions and socio-economic factors shape individual's perceived employment insecurity.

The main method used to answer these questions is multilevel modelling using cross-national/European data. However, I also use qualitative methods including interviews and policy analyses, as well as other quantitative methods focusing on the examination of latent factors.

My key interests include

  • European welfare states and labour markets
  • Subjective employment insecurity
  • Working time flexibility and job autonomy
  • Work-life balance and work-family conflict
  • Gender equality and gender norms
  • Cross-national data and European data 
  • Multi-level modelling and other advance quantitative methods
  • Policy and document analysis.

Current projects

Working-time flexibility and work-life balance

I have been awarded the ESRC Future Leaders Award 2012/3 for the project "Working time flexibility and work-life balance across Europe and the role of contexts: connecting the individual- , company and the country-level". There is mixed evidence on whether the use of flexi-time is beneficial for a better work-life balance, because flexibility can lead to spill-overs from work to home and blur the boundaries between them. I expect that different family, company and national contexts will shape the way flexi-time is used by individuals as well as its outcomes. I will match data from three levels; individual, company and national levels across 25 European countries to explore this question further.

This project started on the 16 December 2013 and will end on the 15 June 2017. Links to further information:

Labour market institutions and subjective employment insecurity

Another research project that I am currently involved in, which is an extension of my post-doctoral research project (Funded by the European Commission) is to examine the various influence of welfare state institutions on subjective employment insecurity of European individuals. My current focus is on how different institutional structures impact different groups of the labour market in different ways, as well as the moderating influence of institutions in the outcomes of subjective insecurity on subjective well-being and political attitudes/support for the welfare state.

Norface Project: Our Children's Europe

Project website

This is an international project that examine attitudes to welfare and to the future development of welfare states in six European countries . People’s current aspirations, ideas and assumptions will be important drivers of change and persistence in European welfare states, and of the extent to which conflict and solidarity surround change. This project uses innovative methods (deliberative democratic forums, a qualitative cross-national focus group survey) to develop understanding of people’s aspirations for the Europe their children will inhabit.

The project will contribute to theoretical work on the main cleavages and solidarities driving social policy in different European welfare states and to more practical consideration of the parameters of acceptable policy change. It will supply new findings relevant to the politics and sociology of welfare and provide data for reanalysis and as a base-line in future studies.

The project is headed by Peter Taylor-Gooby (PI) and consists of welfare attitude experts across Europe. Jorgen Goul Andersen and Christian Albrekt Larsen (Alborg), Maša Filipovič Hrast and Tatjana Rakar (University of Ljubljana), Bjorn Hvinden and Mi Ah Schoyen (Nova), Steffen Mau and Jan-Ocko Heuer (Humboldt University), Wim van Oorschot (Leuven), Benjamin Leruth (Kent) along with myself.

This project is funded by the NORFACE Welfare Futures grant and will run from 1 February 2015 - January 2018.

Norwegian project on part-time work

Project website

I am participating in a project funded by the Research Council of Norway. The project title is "Part-time careers in Norway – the end of normalization? Women’s working time adaptation in a longitudinal perspective”. PI: Heidi Nicolaisen at Fafo.

This project will run from November 2014 - November 2017.

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I teach a variety of lectures around gender issues, East Asian welfare state and labour market policies:

  • Gender & Sexuality - SO337 Fundamentals of Sociology
  • Gender & the Welfare State - UG SA503 A Future for the Welfare State? & PG SO877 Comparative Social Policy
  • East-Asian Welfare State - UG SA503 A Future for the Welfare State? & PG SO872 International Social Policy
  • Labour market insecurity & Dualisation - PG SO877 Comparative Social Policy

Previously, I convened the PG module SO819 Analysis of Quantitative Data and ran several methods workshops, including Multilevel modelling workshops at Tilburg University and University of Hamburg.


I am supervising a number of students including undergraduates, MAs and PhDs. Current/past PhDs include:

  • Taehoon Lee (2012- 2015) - 'New and old risks in Korean social policy: the case of the National Pension Scheme' (MPhil)
  • Yeosun Yoon (2011 - 2016) - 'Varieties of labour division: segmented labour markets and divided workforce in the UK' (passed Viva with minor corrections)
  • Marc Wigley (2013 -) - 'Social capital, welfare and well-being: implications for the social economy'
  • Eva Kleinert (2014 -) – ‘Linking varieties of capitalism and gender labour market inequality’
  • Charmaine Keatley (2015 -) - 'Impact of father's involvement in childcare on women's career progression'
  • Silvia Girardi (committee member at KU Leuven) (2015 - ) - 'Social assistance in Europe in relation to the different labour markets'
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Awards and Prizes

  • Academic Champion 2015: University of Kent 50th anniversary award
  • Rosemary Crompton Prize 2010: Work Employment Society Conference Best Paper Prize
  • Research Fellowship grant 2007: Social Science Research Centre Berlin, department of Labour Market Policy and Employment
  • Social Security Research Prize 1999: Prize given to bachelor students in Social Sciences with research potential
  • Yonsei University Contribution Scholarship 1998/1999 : Scholarships awarded to student body representatives

Professional Affiliations/Editorial Work


  • Co-editor of the Policy Press Book Series ‘Research in Comparative and Global Social Policy’ (2016 - current)
  • Editorial Board member for the journal Social Policy & Administration (2015 - current)
  • Editorial Board member for the journal Work, Employment & Society (2014 - 2015)
  • Associate Board member for the journal Work, Employment & Society (2011- 2013)

I have reviewed papers for several journals including; European Sociological Review, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Social Forces, Journal of European Social Policy, International Journal of Social Welfare.

Board membership

  • Co-lead for the WFRN network special Interest group Economic and Public Policy (2015 - current)
  • Board member for the Korean Association for Social Policy(사회정책학회) (2013 - current)
  • Foreign advisory board member for Korean Critical Social Welfare Association (비판과 대안을 위한 사회복지학회) (2014-current)

I am also a member of the European Social Policy Analysis Network (ESPAnet), the British Sociological Association (BSA), the Social Policy Association (SPA), Work and Family Researchers Network (WFRN), Society of the Advancement of Socio-Economic (SASE) and others

Reviewing work

External PhD examinations:

  • Chris Clarke - University of York (Social Policy) - April 2015
  • Patrick Vulkan - University of Gothenburg (Sociology) - February 2016

Grant reviews for the FWO (Flemish Science Foundation) - March 2014; July 2014

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A lecture where I speak on flexible working (2016)
(a Think Kent video)


2015 - 2016

2012 - 2014

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Telephone: +44(0)1227 823072 Fax: +44(0)1227 827005 or email us

SSPSSR, Faculty of Social Sciences, Cornwallis North East, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF

Last Updated: 27/02/2017