Portrait of Jeremy Kendall

Jeremy Kendall

Senior Lecturer in Social Policy
Director of Studies, MA in International Social Policy
Director of Studies, MA in Civil Society, Non-Profit and NGO Studies
Director, Civil Society Research Cluster


Before becoming a Lecturer and Director of Studies in the School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, Jeremy Kendall worked as a researcher at the University of Kent’s Personal Social Services Research Unit and the London School of Economics, and contributed to the MSc in Voluntary Sector Organisation at the Centre for Civil Society, London School of Economics. 

During the last 20 years, Jeremy has accumulated wide ranging inter-disciplinary research experience in relation to the third sector, and social and health care, especially care and support for older people. Much of this research has been international and/or comparative in character, mostly undertaken with European Union Research Framework support. His research has also been funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and charitable foundations. 

Jeremy completed his BSc in Economics at Hull, MSc in Health Economics at York and PhD in Social Services at Kent.

Research interests

Jeremy's current interests include the development of civil society and the third sector policy and practice nationally and internationally, and its relationship to other sectors and forms of socio-economic and political action (the state and the market).

Jeremy's international focus involves an interest in cross national comparisons – especially in relation to public policy and social policy - and in the role of European and international institutions in shaping the development of civil society. He is concerned both with theory building and empirical applications in relation to all these issues.

Jeremy's background is in economics, but his work also draws on approaches developed within political and policy analysis, sociology and political economy. He works in collaboration with researchers from many social science traditions. 

Jeremy is also interested in social policy and the public policy making process more generally and in the development of social care for older people (both nationally and internationally), especially with regard to regulatory and supply-side issues. He is a visiting fellow at the Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU), LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science. 

Jeremy is currently collaborating with co-researchers on the 'Third Sector Impact' project, writing papers examining the English third sector's policy situation in the context of austerity policies. This includes both quantitative and qualitative analysis in collaboration with John Mohan and Rob Macmillan at the Third Sector Reseach Centre, University of Birmingham. He is also funded by the Norwegian Research Council on a three country comparative project 'Conditions and Impacts of the Welfare Mix', working on the British situation in collaboration with Nadia Brookes at PSSRU 

Recent research 

Research in relation to civil society, the third sector, and third sector policy for the Third Sector Research Centre, funded by ESRC, the Office for the Third Sector and the Barrow Cadbury Trust, 2008-2013. Much of this was collaborative with Professor Pete Alcock and colleagues at the University of Birmingham. See the University of Kent’s Third Sector Policy Network for further details.


Jeremy teaches undergraduate modules on welfare in modern Britain, the third sector and caring for vulnerable adults.

At postgraduate level he is programme director for International Social Policy MAs and teaches in the areas of comparative social policy, civil society and the third sector and social justice.


Jeremy is interested in supervising students in his research areas.




Showing 50 of 84 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.


  • Pape, U. et al. (2019). Changing policy environments in Europe and the resilience of the third sector. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-018-00087-z.
    In the article, we analyse the impact of changing policy environments on the development of the third
    sector in Europe. Based on the results of systematic comparative research in eight European countries
    (Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom), we
    identify commonalities and differences. In a three-step analysis, we examine policy changes, effects on
    the third sector and responses by third sector organizations (TSOs) in the social domain. Overall, the
    third sector in Europe has proven resilient. However, not only have public and private funding decreased,
    the process for acquiring such funding has become more demanding for TSOs, as have requirements to
    be accountable. There are signs of a proliferation of more market-based, hybrid organizations. Despite
    this general trend towards marketization, the impact of policy changes varies across Europe with TSOs
    being better equipped to adapt and survive in countries where collaborative ties between the state and
    the third sector have traditionally been strong.
  • Kendall, J. et al. (2018). The English voluntary sector: How volunteering and policy climate matter. Journal of Social Policy [Online] 47:759-782. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279418000107.
    This paper considers the situation of the English voluntary sector in relation to austerity-driven social policies. Existing characterisations are outlined and it is argued that the quantitative evidence used to represent the situation of these organisations to date has been partial because it relies too narrowly on financial resource input measures. We argue that the situation of these organisations needs to be conceptualised in a more holistic way and, to initiate a move in this direction, we identify and explicate two relevant dimensions: the perceived capacity of organisations to rely on volunteers for support (a non-financial resource input); and their perception of the effect of the policy climate in shaping their capacity to flourish, including their ability to perform multiple roles beyond service provision alone. We draw on an original mixed methods empirical study undertaken in England in 2015 to operationalise these dimensions, combining qualitative interviews with national ‘policy community’ members with a large scale on-line survey of social policy charities. We find a complex and variegated situation that, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of financial resource pressures, also points to the salience of the volunteering situation, and to the relevance of the challenging policy climate that these organisations have to navigate.
  • Kendall, J. et al. (2018). English voluntary organisations: subjective perceptions and financial realities. voluntary sector review [Online]. Available at: https://doi-org/10.1332/204080518X15428929809816.
    The financial position of English social policy charities has received much attention, with a particular
    focus on the difficulties that small- and medium-sized organisations are experiencing. However,
    in this article we show that the evidence base has a number of limitations. We then demonstrate,
    analysing data from a survey of more than 1,000 charities, that organisational size, per se, is
    only one dimension of the problem: perceptions that the operating and financial environment is
    challenging are related to other organisational characteristics. We then add to the survey data
    indicators of financial vulnerability to investigate whether there is a relationship between perception
    (responses to questions about the resources available to charities) and financial reality (the recent
    financial history of these charities). Somewhat reassuringly, however, we demonstrate that there
    is a degree of consistency between the perceptions that organisations report and we discuss the
    implications of the findings.
  • Hogg, E., Kendall, J. and Breeze, B. (2015). The Third Sector and the State in England. Sociologia e Politiche Sociali [Online] 18:27-50. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3280/SP2015-003003.
    Third sector organisations and the state have sought to work together in England since the inception of the welfare state, yet rarely has there been greater debate about this relationship than at present. Successive governments have sought to redefine the dominant pattern, with the policy focus moving from more ad hoc relationships to an (expressed) commitment to partnership and, more recently, to a push towards relatively passive delivery of state contracts. This paper maps the sector, charts this changing relationship and explores key areas of debate: the role of charitable organisations in the English policy environment, the importance of scale with regards to relations between state and sector; and the impact of commissioning in recent years. We conclude by considering the potential implication of change for the distinctiveness of the third sector.
  • Alcock, P., Kendall, J. and Parry, J. (2012). From the third sector to the Big Society: consensus or contention in the 2010 UK General Election? Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 3:347-363. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204080512X658054.
    The 2010 General Election marked a turning-point in British politics, with a new coalition government replacing the Labour administration that had been in power for 13 years. This resulted in an apparent change in policy on the third sector, from a period of 'hyperactive mainstreaming' in which significant support was provided for the sector to the 'Big Society' agenda under which voluntary and community action are promoted as an alternative to state intervention. This article explores this transition through analysis of the presentation of third sector politics in the election campaign and the subsequent development of these under the new government, providing an insight into the relationships between electoral politics and policy development within the United Kingdom.
  • Alcock, P. and Kendall, J. (2011). Constituting the Third Sector: Processes of Decontestation and Contention Under the UK Labour Governments in England. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations [Online] 22:450-469. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11266-010-9178-9.
    Discussion about, and analysis of, the question of definition and the third sector and civil society more generally has developed to a significant degree in recent years. This paper can be located in a new phase of recent research, which seeks to attend to the historical, cultural and politically contingent nature of this domain’s boundaries. The process of constituting the sector is discussed as the product of new discourses of decontestation and contention within third sector policy and practice. It takes England as a case study, drawing on evidence and argument assembled by the authors in recent and ongoing research efforts, variously conducted with the support of the Third Sector Research Centre (TSRC) and the European Commission. The paper proceeds by discussing relevant literature; describing recent patterns of policy institutionalisation; and then tries to draw out more analytically how this process of constitution has been associated not so much with a stable and consistent set of definitions and constructs, but rather with unstable and changing formulations, which reflect the playing out of a dual process of decontestation and contention.
  • Kendall, J. (2010). The limits and possibilities of third sector Europeanization. Journal of Civil Society [Online] 6:39-65. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17448689.2010.481937.
    Policy-making on the third sector as a subject of policy in the Member States of the European Union is primarily a matter for domestic (national and sub-national) public authorities, working in collaboration with the third sector itself and other policy actors. However, over the past 25 years, the European Union (EU) collectively has increasingly taken an interest in this sphere. Most of this activity has been low visibility and 'soft' in character, with implemented initiatives not involving direct, mandatory or 'hard' intervention in domestic policy communities by the EU. But it has involved significant commitments of EU financial resources and periods of sustained multi-level collective policy effort. It therefore merits attention from scholarly and policy viewpoints. Drawing on the findings of a major multi-country study of horizontal third sector policy (i.e. cross-cutting policy pertaining to the sector as a whole), this article interprets this phenomenon through the lens of the 'Europeanization' literature. This literature is sensitive to the possibility that policy linkages between the EU and other pan-European institutions and country-level policy communities can be significant and consequential even if they do not involve primary law-making or administrative fiat on the part of the originating bodies. The article reviews the extent to which Europeanization, understood in three related but distinctive ways, has proceeded over the past quarter of a century and discusses the causes and consequences of this process. The article shows that overall, relatively modest and very uneven progress towards third sector Europeanization can be said to have proceeded on this account. It reviews why this has tended to be the case and also discusses the conditions under which third sector European policy has managed to proceed relatively effectively and productively. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
  • Kendall, J. (2010). Bringing ideology back in: the erosion of political innocence in English third sector policy. Journal of Political Ideologies [Online] 15:241-258. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569317.2010.513859.
    The paper draws upon basic distinctions made in Mary Douglas' cultural theory and some of the analytic concepts proposed by Michael Freeden to map and unpack the ideological dimension of recent developments in English third sector policy and politics. It is suggested that the mainstreaming of the third sector into policy debates and discourses in recent years can partly be understood as an attempt to decontest the idea that fatalism, neo-liberalism, plenipotentiary statism and autarky should all be ruled out as bases for engaging with the third sector; and that fostering a healthy civil society involves finding an ideational terrain which seeks to avoid these extremes. However, it is also suggested that developing third sector policy has also involved contesting the content of the shared ideational space thus ruled in. Competing ideational tendencies within the previous (New Labour) government—quasi-market consumerism, civil order renewal and democratic life revival—are identified, compared and contrasted, and the likely direction of travel in the years ahead under a Conservative–Liberal Democratic coalition is briefly discussed.
  • Fernández, J. et al. (2007). Direct payments in England: Factors linked to variations in local provision Evans, S. ed. Journal of Social Policy [Online] 36:97-121. Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=613784.
    Direct payments have moved to the heart of the government's drive for increased user choice. At the same time, implementation has remained disappointing. This article explores the demand, supply and related factors associated with patterns of local variability in uptake and intensity of care package provision. Statistical analyses are conducted for key client groups people with physical disabilities, older people, people with learning disabilities and people who use mental health services - using data for England from 2000-01 to 2002-03. The results suggest that direct payments variability reflects a complex array of factors, both within and beyond the control of local public actors. In particular, while local policy preferences appear to shape the extent of direct payments growth, the results also demonstrate that understanding levels of activity requires attention to local circumstances.
  • Matosevic, T. et al. (2007). Care home providers as professionals: understanding the motivations of care home providers in England. Ageing and Society [Online] 27:103-126. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X06005290.
    The financial and social climate in which the residential-care sector operates in the United Kingdom has changed substantially over recent years. This paper examines the underlying motivations for providing residential-care services for older people. We focus on the motivations of a sample of managers and owners of care homes drawn from eight English local authorities, and explore the intrinsic aspects of their motivations, particularly professional achievement, recognition and job satisfaction. The majority of the respondents' primary motivations were to meet the needs of older people and to accomplish professional achievements. Their caring motivations had four principal components, which were labelled professional, financial, client-specific and client-generic, and as for their professional motivations, the interviewees reported high levels of job satisfaction. The respondents were satisfied with their career choice and felt that, through their work, they were contributing to society. The study identified several personal and external factors that influenced the providers' intrinsic motivations and professional aspirations. The presented evidence suggests that if future policies are to improve the quality of care-home services, it is essential that they also incorporate the professional needs of care-home providers.

Book section

  • Brookes, N., Kendall, J. and Mitton, L. (2016). Birmingham, Priority to Economics, Social Innovation at the Margins. in: Brandsen, T. et al. eds. Social Innovations in the Urban Context. Springer, pp. 83-96. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21551-8_5.
    The governance system in Birmingham over the decades has been rooted in a pro-growth strategy. This has resulted in an environment not typically conducive to large-scale social innovation. The impact of history is of significance, with the impact of recession and deindustrialisation that started in the 1980s, and that still continues today, influencing the policy and practice of actors in the city. The major, lasting innovation in the city is partnership working seen as essential to deliver the economic regeneration agenda. Until recently this was a ‘closed’ form of partnership comprising existing local political and economic power holders, but this has evolved to more inclusive engagement. The city council has focused over the years on the promotion of local economic development and employment growth, and to a lesser extent on the provision of services. However, the council has always seen economic development as also serving the objective of improving the quality of life of its citizens and therefore policies do not always show an obvious divide between social and economic policy. Using analysis of local labour market and housing and regeneration policy, the situation in Birmingham can be described as a case of urban governance where solutions to social problems are stated in terms of economic priorities. Innovation does occur but is marginal, through opportunistic and short-term support for small-scale projects, largely through national funding streams. Looking to the future, enhanced devolved decision-making was seen by local actors as a potential vehicle for innovation at the (very) local level.
  • Brookes, N., Kendall, J. and Mitton, L. (2016). Birmingham: A "Locality Approach" to Combating Worklessness. in: Brandsen, T. et al. eds. Social Innovations in the Urban Context. Springer, pp. 257-263. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21551-8_20.
    The locality approach to worklessness in Birmingham is an approach to tackling worklessness developed by the city. It was locality driven and focused on areas where worklessness was high. Detailed consultation took place to agree neighbourhood employment and skills plans and services commissioned on that basis. It also had a strong client focus adopting an integrated employment and skills model. The aim of the model was to offer a continuous service, incorporating the provision of targeted action and support that each individual required no matter which provider they accessed. It enabled an in-depth understanding of issues for local residents where worklessness was high, which provided the opportunity for provider organisations to work together for the first time and to develop small-scale innovative projects. Key was the agreement of the major players in the local welfare system and their signing up to the model.
  • Kendall, J. (2016). Voluntary Welfare. in: Alcock, P. et al. eds. The Students Companion to Social Policy. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Brookes, N., Kendall, J. and Mitton, L. (2015). Birmingham: The Youth Employment and Enterprise Rehearsal Project. in: Brandsen, T. et al. eds. Social Innovations in the Urban Context. Springer, pp. 251-255. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21551-8_19.
    Youth Employment and Enterprise Rehearsal (YEER) was set up by The Future Melting Pot, a community interest company, to provide business support to black and minority ethnic young people who were not in employment, education or training. The main aim was to enable participants to set up their own enterprises. The project included training, support and access to accredited advisors. The approach was innovative in that it offered young people an alternative to the conventional focus on getting a job by providing the opportunity to explore the option of self-employment in an environment which was needs led. The approach could be described as intensive, personalised support to stimulate entrepreneurialism and an example of integrating economic and social domains.
  • Brookes, N., Kendall, J. and Mitton, L. (2014). United Kingdom: Dover. in: Evers, A., Ewert, B. and Brandsen, T. eds. Social Innovation for social cohesion: Transnational patterns and approaches from 20 European cities. WILCO, pp. 397-412. Available at: http://www.wilcoproject.eu/downloads/WILCO-project-eReader.pdf.
  • Kendall, J. (2014). From mainstreaming to modernisation? New Labour and the third sector in England. in: Friese, M. and Hallman, T. eds. Modernising Democracy? Associations and Associating in the Twenty First Century. Springer, New York.
  • Brookes, N., Kendall, J. and Mitton, L. (2014). United Kingdom: Birmingham. in: Evers, A., Ewert, B. and Brandsen, T. eds. Social Innovation for social cohesion: Transnational patterns and approaches from 20 European cities. WILCO, pp. 381-395. Available at: http://www.wilcoproject.eu/downloads/WILCO-project-eReader.pdf.
  • Kendall, J. (2012). Voluntary Welfare. in: Alcock, P., May, M. and Wright, S. eds. The Student's Companion to Social Policy. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    The fourth edition of The Student's Companion to Social Policy maintains the text's inimitable and best-selling approach. Written by a wide range of experts in the field, it has been extensively updated and revised to take account of recent developments and debates and changing political and economic configurations. Includes an additional five chapter section on the key themes and issues in the development of social policy in the UK since the nineteenth century New to this edition are chapters addressing emergent areas in the discipline, new illustrative material, problem-centred review questions, and a dedicated website Provides students with a 'Companion' which is so comprehensive that it can be used throughout their undergraduate and/or postgraduate studies Meets the needs both of those specializing in social policy or policy-related occupations and the wide range of students studying it as part of other programmes Enhanced by a website available at www.wiley.com/go/alcock4e , featuring student resources including chapter overviews, study questions, videos, resource guides, and more
  • Kendall, J. (2011). The role of the voluntary and community sectors. in: Baldock, J. C. et al. eds. Social Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199570843.do#.
  • Kendall, J. (2010). The UK: Ingredients in a Hyperactive Horizontal Policy Environment. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 67-94. Available at: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Third-Sector-Policy-Europe/dp/1845429605/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1404386632&sr=1-1&keywords=9781845429607.
  • Olsson, L. et al. (2009). Sweden: when strong third sector historical roots meet EU policy processes. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Zimmer, A. et al. (2009). Germany: on the social policy centrality of the Free Welfare Associations. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Elgar.
  • Crowhurst, l and Kendall, J. (2009). European Social Fund local social capital pilots and mainstreamed global grants:on the troubled trajectory of third sector policy transfer. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J., Will, C. and Brandsen, T. (2009). The third sector and the Brussels dimension: trans-EU governance work in progress. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J. and Taylor, M. (2009). On the Interdependence Between Politics and Policy in the Shaping of English Horizontal Third Sector Initiatives. in: Gidron, B. and Bar, M. eds. Policy Initiatives Towards the Third Sector in International Perspective. New York: Springer. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-11-4419-1259-6.
  • Kendall, J. (2009). Terra incognita: third sectors and European policy processes. in: Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Ellis Paine, A., Kendall, J. and Baglioni, S. (2009). The United Nations International Year of Volunteering: a significant non-EU transnational initiative for European countries? in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J. and Fraisse, L. (2009). The European Statute of Association: why still an obscure but contested symbol in a sea of indifference and scepticism? in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J. (2009). Concluding observations: a diverse and evolving third sector policy landscape. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J. and Brandsen, T. (2009). The European Employment Strategy, social economy and employment policy: coordination failure and neglect in the face of fragmentation and complexity. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Will, C. and Kendall, J. (2009). A new settlement for Europe: towards 'open, transparent and regular dialogue with representative associations and civil society. in: Kendall, J. ed. Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Kendall, J., Knapp, M. and Forder, J. (2006). Social care and the nonprofit sector in the western developed world. in: Powell, W. W. and Steinberg, R. eds. The Nonprofit Sector Research Handbook, 2nd Edition. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, pp. 415-431.
  • Kendall, J., Knapp, M. and Forder, J. (2006). The third sector and social care in the western developed world. in: Powell, W. W. and Steinberg, R. eds. The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, 2nd Edition. Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press.

Conference or workshop item

  • Kendall, J. (2016). Arrested by austerity policies? Towards a fuller account of the challenges faced by English social policy charities. in: 2016 SPA Annual Conference.

Edited book

  • Kendall, J. ed. (2009). Handbook on Third Sector Policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society. [Online]. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Available at: http://www.e-elgar.com/bookentry_main.lasso?id=12516&breadcrumlink=&breadcrum=&sub_values=&site_Bus_Man=&site_dev=&site_eco=&site_env_eco=&site_inn_tech=&site_int_pol=&site_law=&site_pub_soc=.
    This Handbook is the first attempt to systematically examine, empirically and analytically, the contours of the third sector policy process in the European Union (EU). While scholarship on the social, economic and political contributions of organisations existing between the market and the state has proliferated in recent years, no sustained attention has previously been paid to how such organisations are collectively treated by, and respond to, public policy. The expert contributors examine the policy environment for, and evolving policy treatment of, the third sector in Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom from a comparative perspective. They also look at how the third sector relates to multi-level European policy processes, including the Open Method of Co-ordination, the Community Method, nationally-led 'partnership' approaches within an overall EU framework and the United Nations International Year of Volunteering; an initiative implemented in the EU but originating externally. Providing a rich and compelling examination of a crucially important aspect of policymaking, this unique Handbook will fill a major gap in the knowledge of both general policy analysts and specialists in third sector studies. Researchers and students in the overlapping fields of organised civil society, voluntary and third sector studies and the non-profit sector will also warmly welcome this important book.

Edited journal

  • Kendall, J. and Deakin, N. eds. (2010). Editorial - Special Issue. Journal of Political Ideologies [Online] 15. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569317.2010.513645.


  • Mohan, J., Kendall, J. and Brookes, N. (2016). Third Sector Impact: Towards a More Nuanced Understanding of Barriers and Constraints. Third Sector Impact.
  • Kendall, J., Brookes, N. and Mohan, J. (2016). The English Third Sector Policy in 2015: an overview of perceived barriers to realising impact potential, Third Sector Impact project Briefing number one. Third Sector Impact.
  • Buckingham, H. et al. (2014). Whose Speaking for Whom? Exploring Issues of Third Sector Leadership, Leverage and Legitimacy. Third Sector Research Centre. Available at: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tsrc/documents/tsrc/working-papers/working-paper-121.pdf.
  • Buckingham, H. et al. (2014). Who’s speaking for whom? Exploring issues of third sector leadership, leverage and legitimacy, TSRC Working Paper 121. TSRC.
  • Kendall, J. (2011). Behind the Big Society. Charity Finance.
  • Parry, J., Alcock, P. and Kendall, J. (2010). Opportunity and Influence: the third sector and the 2010 General Election, TSRC Working Paper 44. TSRC.
  • Kendall, J. (2009). Volunteering in Europe in the noughties: what would Beveridge have thought?. Third Sector Research Centre. Available at: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tsrc/documents/tsrc/working-papers/working-paper-37.pdf.
  • Davey, V. et al. (2007). Schemes Providing Support to People Using Direct Payments: A UK Survey. Personal Social Services Research Unit. Available at: http://www.pssru.ac.uk/pdf/dprso.pdf.
    This report sets out the main findings from a survey of schemes providing support
    to direct payment users. The survey represented the combined efforts of three
    multidisciplinary research teams involved in national studies of direct payments: a
    team from the Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU) at the London
    School of Economics and Political Science (LSE); a team from the Universities of
    Leeds, Edinburgh and Glasgow; and a team from the Health and Social Care
    Advisory Service (HASCAS), the Foundation for People with Learning
    Disabilities (FPLD) at the Mental Health Foundation and the Health Service
    Management Centre (HSMC) at the University of Birmingham
  • Netten, A. et al. (2005). Understanding Public Services and Care Markets. King's Fund. Available at: http:www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications.

Research report (external)

  • Parry, J., Alcock, P. and Kendall, J. (2010). Opportunity and Influence: the third sector and the 2010 General Election. [Online]. Third Sector Research Centre. Available at: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tsrc/documents/tsrc/reports/researchreport-44.pdf.
  • Knapp, M. et al. (2005). Developing social care: the current position. Funded/commissioned by: Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE). Personal Social Services Research Unit.
  • Netten, A. et al. (2005). Understanding Public Services and Markets: Summary Paper of the Report Commissioned by the King's Fund for the Care Services Inquiry (for full version see DP2111/4). [Online]. Personal Social Services Research Unit. Available at: http://www.pssru.ac.uk/pdf/dp2123_2.pdf.
    <p>The King’s Fund has established a Committee of Inquiry to consider care services for older people in London and whether there are likely to be sufficient care services of the right design and quality to meet needs in the short and longer term future. Much care provision, particularly social care services, now takes place in the context of market conditions. PSSRU were commissioned to produce an analysis of social care markets to inform the Inquiry, covering their operation, the role of public bodies and potential and actual levers that could be used to influence the market. The results of this are reported elsewhere.1 This summary draws out the main messages of that report.

    <p><p><p>We start by describing the nature of the social care market, including the objectives of social care, the extent of public and private purchasing and provision, and factors affecting demand and supply, before turning to an analysis of the performance of that market. The reasons why various problems have arisen are explored together with a discussion of likely future challenges. We end by discussing ways that public bodies might address these.


  • Kendall, J. (2015). Book Review : Manufacturing Civil Society Brandsen, T., Trommel, W. and Verschuere, B. eds. Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 6:231-233. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/204080515X14357513647117.


  • Macmillan, R. and Kendall, J. (2019). The moving frontier and beyond: the third sector and social policy. Social Policy Review 31.
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