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Undergraduate Courses 2017
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Clearing applicants and others planning to start in 2016 should view Architecture for 2016 entry.

Architecture - BA (Hons) - ARB/RIBA Part 1

Canterbury

Overview

One of the most important roles of architectural intervention is to enhance the quality of life of those whom it touches. We deal in the invention of new, hitherto unimagined environments, the resuscitation of existing buildings and urban settlements, and the careful enhancement of our towns, cities, rural environments and landscapes.

Kent teaches two architecture degree programmes:

This programme, Architecture BA (Hons), gives exemption from the Part 1 examinations required by the Architects Registration Board (ARB) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).

Our Master of Architecture (MArch) programme gives you exemption from the Part 2 examinations required by the ARB and RIBA.

Both offer multidisciplinary learning experiences, studying areas such as regeneration and sustainability, landscape, community and the quality of urban life, which equips our students with the skills they need to practise in the profession.

Study abroad

On the Architecture BA, you have the opportunity to study abroad for a term in Stage 2. In addition, field study tours are an embedded part of the programme.  In recent years, students have visited Lille, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, Rome and Vienna, as well as San Francisco, Oakland and Washington DC.

Think Kent video series

In this talk, Dr Timothy Brittain-Catlin from the Kent School of Architecture examines new ways of writing and talking about buildings and asks if being a critical failure in architecture really matters.

About the Kent School of Architecture

Kent School of Architecture has a reputation for tackling global issues at a local scale, with many projects set in the south-east region. Through this work, and our open lecture programmes and events, the School continues to build links with the profession and the wider community. The School is also committed to the development of sustainable design and this is taught at all stages of the curriculum.

Independent rankings

In the National Student Survey 2015, Architecture was ranked 13th in the UK for student satisfaction. Architecture was also ranked 3rd in the UK in The Guardian University Guide 2016, and 1st for graduate employment prospects in The Complete University Guide 2016.

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take ‘wild’ modules from other programmes offered by the University in order that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas of interest to you or that may further enhance your employability.

Stage 1

Possible modules may include:

AR318 - Form Finding (15 credits)

The module introduces the student to the ‘design project’ and how to interpret and analyse a brief. The project will investigate spatial concepts, and will examine various types of spatial enclosure, scale and function.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR319 - Building Design (15 credits)

Building on their experience gained in the autumn term this module deepens students’ understanding of the design of interior and exterior space by the investigation and design of environments that confront the senses and where the integration of the sensory range is paramount. The potential of different materials within a design proposition is addressed. The module addresses the further awareness of the integration of function, aesthetics, technology and comfort within a design proposal. It also addresses the incorporation of vertical movement within a design proposal.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR320 - Building Envelope (15 credits)

Aspects of the Technology & Environment curriculum covered in this module include the fundamentals of the external envelope, the thermal environment, human comfort, artificial light, and natural ventilation. An important aspect includes the weathering of materials, and an introduction to building services-plumbing, electrical, etc.

Students will explore these technical and environmental aspects in the context of a design project, providing students with the opportunity to gain first-hand experience with the complexity of technical integration in architecture at a small scale. Moreover, students will experience the relationship between theory and practice and technical/environmental design

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR322 - Modern House (15 credits)

The concept of building type is crucial in developing an understanding of the built environment as a coherent endeavour. Recurrent plan types are important in establishing order in architecture and interiors. Equally, divergence from the norm is important in rethinking established spatial types. The most ubiquitous building type is the house, and its analysis comprises the essence of this module. We shall be studying the house as an example of vernacular design, as a response to the particular environment of a region, as well as analysing key examples of the modern house. By this means, the key periods and events in the development of modernism may be charted. Students will gain an understanding of the modern house by reading relevant literature and architectural drawings and photographs, in addition to making scale models of particular houses, and writing illustrated essays.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR323 - Folio (30 credits)

This module teaches the principles and skills of orthographic and metric projections, perspective drawing and rendering of drawings to communicate design aspirations. The acquisition of skills to make 3D models, from conceptual to finished scaled presentations is started in this module. The module will develop various skills in recording the observed environment through appropriate drawing, modelling and a whole range of graphic systems. Emphasis will be placed on the use of the sketch book and the development of freehand drawing, but the module will also develop students skills in visual communication and presentation dealing with 3D computer modelling. Students enhance their modelling skills to develop high quality rendering skills.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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AR324 - Ancient and Medieval Architecture (15 credits)

This course provides stage one students with an introduction into ancient and medieval architecture, predominantly Western. It will include a series of weekly lectures based on different key episodes in architectural history, supplying the students with both the historical information that will form the foundation for their future studies, as well as with a grasp of basic architectural concepts and ways of discussing and presenting them. Typical forms of historic building technologies will be discussed, together with their relevance to current technologies. The assessable component of the module will take the form of an examination in the summer term.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR325 - Light and Structure (15 credits)

The key concepts of sustainable design are introduced. An awareness of the distinction between structural and non-structural elements in buildings is taught.. Lectures and workshops on structures and basic constructional techniques are also introduced along with the study of the environmental factors of natural light, with reference to their impact upon building interiors. The palette of building materials is outlined, conveying both their sensory impact as well as their physical properties. An awareness of the prime means of placing and fixing different materials in addition to the aesthetic and technical aspects of joining materials.



Indicative lecture list:



- Module introductions

- The building envelope- Daylight 1.

- Foundations- Daylight 2.

- Walls- Solar Geometry.

- Roofs- Ecology.

- Floors- Global warming

- Frames- Sustainable materials

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Stage 2

Possible modules may include:

AR541 - Collective Dwelling (30 credits)

This module introduces students to urban design, focussing on housing as a building type. It takes place in two stages, the first being to plan a group of buildings, possibly in an urban context, and the second to develop the design of one of the individual housing blocks comprising multiple units. Students will examine the various typologies of collective dwellings and investigate alternative ways in which these can be combined to form urban blocks. In preparation for this module students will explore some of the principles and theories of urban design and apply some of these in their projects . The principles of sustainability will be examined in the context of energy and environmental assessment methods, and the use of appropriate construction techniques will be explored. Students will develop both digital and hand-drawn presentation and communication techniques,

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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AR542 - Climate (15 credits)

Students will explore passive means of environmental control to achieve comfort in different climates. Vernacular precedents of passive design will be examined and distinguished from the cultural influences on design in different cultures. The concept of exterior and interior climates will be critically investigated and students will develop a good understanding of the microclimate created by cities, landscapes, groups of building and individual structures. The influence of materials, form and construction on environmental performance will be examined with reference to precedents and benchmarks. Specific techniques and methodologies for climate analysis and environmental design will be learned and applied.



The assignment concerns the development of environmental design strategies that are to be integrated appropriately into the design work of the concurrent module Architecture and Landscape. Students will demonstrate how they have provided for fresh air to move through the main building of Architecture and Landscape, as well as how they have exploited passive resources for cooling, temperature control, solar gain and the control of solar gain, both in the summer and winter and for the daytime and night-time. The integration of these into the main building of Architecture and Landscape will take heed of the functions of the spaces and their disposition and be arranged for good efficacy. Students will concisely describe the rationale of the environmental strategies and explain the operation of any technology used in realizing these strategies and illustrate this with appropriate plans and cross-sections.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR544 - Renaissance to Neoclassicism (15 credits)

This module addresses the developments in architecture from the early fifteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The cultural context of the time will be studied by outlining the socio-economic conditions, the new attitudes to knowledge, arts, history and architecture. Architectural treatises of the early Renaissance and the related developments in the practices of painting and sculpture will be brought into the consideration in order to highlight specific innovation and dynamics of architecture. The underlying conditions of the movements known as Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, Rococo and Neo-classicism will be addressed and relevant buildings, objects of art, architectural texts and dominant narratives will be studied. Landscape design will be discussed through the comparative analysis between the formal landscape design and the phenomenon of the picturesque. The architecture of symbolism and utopianism is also considered. The eighteenth-century organization of life and labour, the emerging spaces of production, as well as the establishment of the academies, museums, and other institutions will be addressed, in order to highlight the way in which these phenomena contributed to the rise of the architectural profession and the building guilds. Typical forms of historic building technologies will be discussed, together with their relevance to current technologies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR549 - Forms and Structure (15 credits)

This design module integrates concerns for structure, construction and form in the process of architectural design. The objective is to help and to encourage students to design with each of these subject areas simultaneously informing the others.



A series of lectures and seminar group exercises will introduce students to the principles of structural design including structural typologies; loads and forces; simple beam bending theory; mechanics of materials; and structural geometry. Students will be presented with strategies and qualitative methods of structural analysis which will support the activities of the module. Basic structural theory and the study of form and construction will be consistently related to real buildings, structures and materials.



Students will undertake a Structural Case Study of an existing work of architecture. They will be required to identify the structural materials and systems adopted, and will present a critique of the contribution made by the structure to the architecture. (Component A). Component A will conclude with a presentation by the students of their Structural Case Studies and the submission of a brief written report.



The module will conclude with a design exercise in which the focus will be the design and resolution of an appropriate structural system, (Component B). Component B will conclude with a presentation of a structural system to include a model which clearly explains the structural strategy, drawings of the general arrangement of structural components including sized elements alongside a structural design report.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR551 - Nineteenth-Century Architecture (15 credits)

This course will enable the student to learn through a series of detailed thematic and historical investigations how a number of specific important aspects and events in architectural history have changed the way in which we experience the built environment and, also, to appreciate the responsibility of all architects and designers towards the societies in which they live. Its focus is the nineteenth century. Students will be assessed in the form of an examination which will draw on material researched through guided casework study. Typical forms of historic building technologies will be discussed, together with their relevance to current technologies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR552 - Architecture and Landscape (30 credits)

This course focuses upon the relationship of landscape and architectural, particularly through the siting of a building, site planning, and elementary planting design and landscape detailing. The design project is treated as a totality, with architecture and landscape fully integrated both spatially and conceptually. The building brief is of moderate complexity, following sustainable principles relating to the Climate module. The history and theory of landscape architecture is covered in a series of accompanying lectures. Lectures and workshops with landscape architects and others introduce students to the contemporary profession of landscape architecture, techniques of landscape representation, and to the dynamics of professional team work with related disciplines. Computer drawing, 2D and 3D, is also taught in this module, and students present aspects of their design scheme using these methods.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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Stage 3

Possible modules may include:

AR554 - Urban (30 credits)

This module, the final one of the programme, engages students in the design of a building in an urban centre. In lectures and seminars, it deals with distinctive urban plans in the contemporary world, as well as a consideration of their historical provenance. The design exercise seeks to locate a complex building type, of mixed social use, within a developed urban fabric. The module assesses a student’s capabilities, skills, knowledge and understanding that are brought to bear on such a design. The key design skill to be demonstrated is the integration of the conflicting demands surrounding a proposal that successfully balances the requirements of client, user and the public with the cultural, technical and environmental pressures encountered. As the final statement of student competence, the design will be expected to successfully demonstrate critical and reflective awareness of process across a wide range of indicators, including awareness of fine art theories and methods of production as applied to building. The outputs required will comprise a fully designed building proposal, including design studies and technical analyses of the building and its systems. This will be presented in a crit and submitted as a document online.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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AR555 - Architectural Practice (15 credits)

This module engages students with the professional practice of architecture. Assignments will review and analyse a design project from the perspective of professional practice. A series of lecture and seminars introduce students to the subjects of professional ethics, planning and building law, practice management, and building information modelling (BIM).

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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AR597 - Dissertation (30 credits)

This module offers students the opportunity to deepen their knowledge and understanding of a particular aspect of architecture. The topic to be studied is agreed with the Module Convenor and an appropriate supervisor is nominated from the teaching staff. Moreover the dissertation will provide students with the opportunity to develop more advanced academic research and writing skills. It forms part of the research strand within the architectural curriculum, which complements the design strand of the studio. Fortnightly supervisions lead to a draft handed in towards the end of autumn term, with the draft submission of ca 4000 words (for formative assessment) at the start of the Spring Term, and final submission (for summative assessment) of the 7,000-8,000 word dissertation during the Spring Term.



Students may opt to focus their research question around making and assembling an artefact, as a piece of research-through-practice, in which case the written element may be reduced by up to 50%, by agreement with the supervisor in combination with the submission of the artefact, which it will frame and discuss theoretically.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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AR545 - Adapt and Extend (30 credits)

The adaptation and extension of existing buildings for new uses is a staple of design practice, ranging from the unobtrusive to the complete visual overhaul and updating of an existing building. The course will combine architectural design with technological and environmental solutions, on the basis of the adaptation of an existing built envelope with extensions to provide a new use. The practical design project is informed by lectures, seminars and tutorials dealing with the technical, environmental, ergonomic, regulatory, historical, theoretical and aesthetic considerations of architectural adaptation. Topics covered in the Technology & Environment curriculum include: technology transfer, dimensional coordination, movement and expansion, sustainable design for existing buildings, artificial and natural light, learning from building failures, properties of materials, forming openings in existing structures, acoustic design, integration of structure and construction, design for fire safety, structural systems (and rules of thumb) and external and internal elements of construction.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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AR548 - Modernisms (15 credits)

This module examines cultural theory, and demonstrates its applicability to the disciplines of design. The unit's motto might be see critically. This reverses the design studio ethos where you are urged to think visually. The module focuses on histories and theories of modernism, and brings the discourse of modernity up to date with a survey of post-modernism and post-structuralism. The assessed component comprises a design essay which relates the student’s concurrent design project to the main themes of the module.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Teaching & Assessment

We use a variety of learning and teaching methods, including lectures, workshops, studio-based work and field study trips. Students also attend tutorials, seminars, small group discussions and one-to-one design sessions, giving them a range of feedback opportunities to improve their skills.

Assessment is by a portfolio of work, which includes design project coursework, written assignments and examinations, alongside research papers and technical reports. We place particular emphasis on sketchbooks and notebooks assembled over the academic year, which contribute to the student’s own personal development plan.

Programme aims

The programme aims to:

  • Provide a broad education in architecture, primarily for those who will continue in architectural education and who will practice architecture.
  • Develop students’ intellectual, creative and imaginative powers within architectural design to the fullest possible extent.
  • Promote study of the practice and tradition of architecture within its social, cultural and environmental contexts, in order to develop knowledge and understanding.
  • Develop an understanding of the professional practice of architecture and in particular to develop and implement team skills.
  • Develop construction and environmental skills appropriate to architectural practice and to understand the influence of technology and the relevance of sustainability.
  • Promote the importance of an integrated approach to building design and to explore how an appropriate balance is achieved between competing demands.
  • Encourage a keen awareness of contemporary theory, technology and practice in order to provoke students’ creativity and innovation.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

Stage One

  • The critical and contextual dimensions of architecture and design with respect to cultural, social, ethical, historical and theoretical considerations.
  • Design processes and the development of a design/architectural language.
  • The influence of environmental design technology on the production of a sustainable, safe and healthy built environment.
  • Structural and constructional principles, the properties and meanings of materials, and the ways that these may inform and influence design decisions.
  • The integrative relationship between space, structure, environment and materials.
  • The history of, and current debate about, design and architecture.
  • The verbal and graphical means of communicating design solutions to both professional and non-professional audiences.
  • The relationship between the disciplines of interior design, interior architecture, and architecture.

Stage Two

  • The breadth of architecture and design within its historical, cultural and social context.
  • Design processes and the development of a design/architectural language.
  • The influence of environmental design technology on the production of a sustainable, safe and healthy built environment.
  • Structural and constructional principles, the properties and meanings of materials, and the ways that these may inform and influence design decisions.
  • Cultural theory and modernism.
  • The verbal and graphical means of communicating design solutions to both professional and non-professional audiences.
  • The relationship between the disciplines of interior design, interior architecture and architecture

 

Intellectual skills

Stage One

  • Apply the skills needed for academic study and enquiry.
  • Evaluate and research sources of information and evidence.
  • Synthesise information from a number of sources.
  • Apply strategies for appropriate selection of relevant information from a body of knowledge.
  • Utilise problem solving skills.
  • Analyse, evaluate and interpret the evidence underpinning design practice.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the legislative constraints and guidance on the development of the built environment.

Stage Two

  • Develop further the skills needed for academic study and enquiry.
  • Evaluate research and a variety of types and sources of information and evidence critically.
  • Synthesise information from a number of sources in order to gain a coherent understanding of theory and practice.
  • Apply strategies for appropriate selection of relevant information from a wide source and large body of knowledge.
  • Utilise problem solving skills to generate sophisticated design solutions.
  • Analyse, evaluate and interpret the evidence underpinning design practice critically and initiate change in practice appropriately.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the legislative constraints and guidance on the development of the built environment.

Subject-specific skills

Stage One

  • Understand creative design skills such as a consistent and methodological approach within a theoretical context.
  • An awareness of the advantages of collaborative working practices.
  • Test and analyse architectural and technical design options against developed briefs.
  • The ability to manipulate both colour and light to modify the character of space and surface.
  • An ability to plan in response to functional, spatial, aesthetic, technical and social requirements, within the scope and scale of a wider environment
  • Demonstrate the ability to communicate verbally and graphically, using appropriate media and drawing conventions.

Stage Two

  • Understand creative design skills such as a consistent and methodological approach within a theoretical context.
  • Work both as a creative and imaginative individual and as part of a team within the area of architectural design.
  • Adopt a critical attitude towards the design brief.
  • The ability to measure, predict and analyse sound, light and thermal factors in buildings and to respond to them creatively.
  • An ability to plan both in the horizontal plane and in section in response to functional, spatial, aesthetic, environmental requirements, within the scope and scale of a wider environment.
  • The ability to use verbal and graphical means of advanced communication including physical models, computer and 3D drawings.

Transferable skills

Stage One

  • Research and consider sophisticated design problems in the light of contemporary criticism.
  • The ability to analyse information and experiences, formulate independent judgements, and articulate reasoned arguments through reflection, review and evaluation.
  • Develop an ability to solve design problems and articulate solutions comprehensibly in visual, oral, and written forms.
  • An ability to engage in design thinking which is logical and imaginative.
  • Acquire independent judgement, critical self awareness and ability to identify strengths and weaknesses. Ability to manage time effectively.

Stage Two

  • Research and consider sophisticated design problems in the light of contemporary criticism.
  • The ability to analyse information and experiences, formulate independent judgements, and articulate reasoned arguments through reflection, review and evaluation..
  • Develop an ability to solve design problems and articulate solutions comprehensibly in visual, oral, and written forms.
  • An ability to engage in design thinking which is logical and imaginative
  • Acquire independent judgement, critical self awareness and ability to identify strengths and weaknesses.
  • Ability to manage time effectively.

Careers

Our two programmes prepare you for work at Part 1 (BA) and Part 2 (MArch) level. Having completed 24 months (minimum 12 months post-Part 2), you are eligible to be considered for Part 3 of the ARB/RIBA professional practice examination, leading to full professional registration as an architect.

However, our programmes are founded on transferable skills that prepare students for work in many other industries, such as the design, graphics and visualisation professions.

Professional recognition

The BA (Hons) Architecture (Part 1) and MArch (Part 2) programmes are fully prescribed by the ARB and have been validated by RIBA for the maximum period.

Entry requirements

All candidates will need to provide confirmation of i) observational skills ii) artistic conceptual and creative thinking iii) analyses of colour form and space.

They must do so via either a) a formal qualification such as A level grade B in Art or Art Design or Design & Technology, or IB Visual Arts HL 5 or SL 6 or b) a portfolio which can cover: a range of forms including painting, drawing, design, photography, models and textile design. The portfolio can be in digital form with images, in JPEG format and documents in PDF.

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications, typical requirements are listed below, students offering alternative qualifications should contact the Admissions Office for further advice. It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

AAB. Only one general studies and critical thinking can be accepted against the requirements

GCSE

Mathematics grade C

Access to HE Diploma

The University of Kent will not necessarily make conditional offers to all access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. If an offer is made candidates will be required to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF;OCR) on a case by case basis please contact us via the enquiries tab for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall including Mathematics 4 at HL or SL

International students

The University receives applications from over 140 different nationalities and consequently will consider applications from prospective students offering a wide range of international qualifications. Our International Development Office will be happy to advise prospective students on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about our country-specific requirements.

Please note that if you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes through Kent International Pathways.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. Our funding opportunities for 2017 entry have not been finalised. However, details of our proposed funding opportunities for 2016 entry can be found on our funding page.  

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. Details of the scholarship for 2017 entry have not yet been finalised. However, for 2016 entry, the scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications as specified on our scholarships pages. Please review the eligibility criteria on that page. 

Enquire or order a prospectus

BA (Hons) - ARB/RIBA Part 1

Resources

Read our student profiles

Contacts

Related schools

Enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

Fees

The 2017/18 tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £16480

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact information@kent.ac.uk

The Government has announced changes to allow undergraduate tuition fees to rise in line with inflation from 2017/18.

The University of Kent intends to increase its regulated full-time tuition fees for all Home and EU undergraduates starting in September 2017 from £9,000 to £9,250. This is subject to us satisfying the Government's Teaching Excellence Framework and the access regulator's requirements. The equivalent part-time fees for these courses will also rise by 2.8%.

Key Information Sets


The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.

The University of Kent makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in its publicity materials is fair and accurate and to provide educational services as described. However, the courses, services and other matters may be subject to change. Full details of our terms and conditions can be found at: www.kent.ac.uk/termsandconditions.

*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills or Research Council UK) they will be increased up to the allowable level.

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The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NZ, T: +44 (0)1227 764000