Portrait of Dr Mark Hampton

Dr Mark Hampton

Reader in Tourism Management

About

Dr Mark Hampton joined Kent Business School in 2005. Before that, he had lecturing posts at the universities of Surrey and Portsmouth. Dr Hampton has a PhD from the University of East Anglia. In 2005 he founded CENTICA (Centre for Tourism in Islands and Coastal Areas).
Dr Hampton has extensive field experience in South-East Asia, the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and South Atlantic and his research has been funded by the World Bank; Commonwealth Secretariat; Foreign & Commonwealth Office; DFID; SECO (Swiss overseas aid); Ministry of Tourism Malaysia; British Academy and the British Council. 

Research interests

Tourism in developing countries, especially concerning its socio-economic impacts in islands and coastal areas.
He has worked on backpackers and small-scale tourism; scuba dive tourism, island tourism, cross-border tourism, and urban enclaves. Dr Hampton has written two books (solo-authored research monographs) and co-edited another. He has written more than 40 journal papers and book chapters with publications in leading journals (including Annals of Tourism Research; World Development; Environment and Planning A; Third World Quarterly; Human Relations; The Round Table) and has given more than 90 conference papers. 

Teaching

Dr Hampton’s teaching interests broadly cover the areas of tourism planning/development and tourism management.
Specific tourism modules he has convened include CB550 Tourism Planning and Development; CB557 Tourism in Developing Countries; CB558 Contemporary Issues in Tourism; CB994 Managing Island and Coastal Tourism; CB995 Tourism Development in Asia Pacific. 

Supervision

Past Supervisees

  • Juliane Thieme: The Political Economy of Backpacker Tourism Consumption and Production in Colombia
  • Wei Lei (Shirley) Chin: An Analysis of the Tourism Cluster Development Model and the Links Between Destination Competitiveness and Socio-Economic Prosperity. The Cases of Two Small Developing Economies: Bali and Brunei
  • Joern Fricke: The Evolution of Networks in Backpacker Destinations - Case Studies from Mexico and Malaysia
  • Caroline Walsh: Volunteer Tourism and the Marine Conservation Sector in the UK
  • Bilge Daldeniz: Sustainable Tourism Development and Climate Change in Coastal Communities in Less Developed Countries: An Analysis of Small-scale Tourism in Nicaragua 


Professional

  • In 2006 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (FRGS)
  • Visiting Professor of Tourism at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Honorary Senior Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg
  • Founding Member of ISISA (International Small Island Studies Association)
  • Former Treasurer and since 2010, a member of the Advisory Council. 


Publications

Showing 50 of 87 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.

Article

  • Jeyacheya, J. and Hampton, M. (2020). Wishful thinking or wise policy? Theorising tourism-led inclusive growth: supply chains and host communities. World Development [Online] 131. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.104960.
    Tourism is perceived as driving economic growth for developing countries by generating employment, income and government revenue. In debates over the relationship between economic growth and poverty alleviation, the inclusive growth paradigm emerged in World Bank, OECD and other development publications, becoming a UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 8). However, inclusive growth remains highly contested, and specifically, tourism’s role in economic growth has been little discussed. This paper contributes to the debate by interrogating tourism-led inclusive growth using evidence from developing economies in South-East Asia, a region with booming international tourism. It raises the fundamental question whether tourism-led growth can be inclusive in the short- to medium-term, drawing on evidence from fieldwork in Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Myanmar. Fieldwork utilised a rapid rural appraisal approach using qualitative methods, mainly semi-structured interviews. Although tourism can generate employment overall, this can be precarious and poorly paid, limiting opportunities for poverty alleviation. Tourism-led growth may widen inequalities in host communities and weaken backward linkages to the local economy, despite its potential for strengthening such linkages to food and non-food sectors. Remoteness and transportation also weaken such linkages. Low-income households and locally owned businesses are most affected by the construction of large-scale tourism projects – which although increasing overall tourist arrivals and expenditure - can result in the loss of land, business premises and livelihoods. In addition, privileging large capital, foreign firms and crony conglomerates is a regional trend and a major obstacle for tourism-led inclusive growth policy. Ownership patterns and destination governance also play critical roles in defining a destination’s direction/pace of development, steering it towards or away from tourism-led inclusive growth. Given tourism’s significance for many developing countries, the paper contributes to wider debates over inclusive growth both for theorising, and in its policy relevance for national development strategies and poverty alleviation.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2020). Tourism-Dependent Small Islands, Inclusive Growth, and the Blue Economy. One Earth [Online] 2:8-10. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2019.12.017.
    Tourism-dependent Small Island Developing States face a number of mounting pressures, calling into question the potential for further development of the industry. We argue that, in the short to medium term, tourism is a pragmatic strategy but that islands’ tourism dependence could be mitigated by the strengthening of economic linkages and the reduction of economic leakages.
  • Vannelli, K., Hampton, M., Namgail, T. and Black, S. (2019). Community participation in ecotourism and its effect on local perceptions of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife [Online] 24:180-193. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2019.1563929.
    Local support and involvement is often essential for effective wildlife conservation. This study assessed the impact of local involvement in ecotourism schemes on perceptions of wildlife, promotion of conservation action, types of values that communities placed on wildlife, and contexts in which wildlife are considered to be most valuable. The study used qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in seven villages in Ladakh, India, which is an important region of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) habitat. Results indicated that in these communities, ecotourism-based interventions encourage more positive perceptions of wildlife species, in particular the snow leopard. Achieving change in community perceptions of wildlife is key when implementing ecotourism schemes to enable more effective conservation, as well as generating local awareness and value for wildlife toward problematic keystone species such as the snow leopard, which are frequently the focus of human-wildlife conflict.
  • Clifton, J., Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2018). Opening the box? Tourism planning and development in Myanmar: capitalism, communities and change. Asia Pacific Viewpoint [Online] 59:323-337. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12200.
    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is emerging from almost six decades of international isolation into a period of rapid economic growth. Following moves towards increasing democratisation since 2011, Myanmar’s tourism industry has been propelled from “tourism pariah” to rising “tourism star” and is experiencing an extraordinary growth in tourism arrivals with associated revenues and investment. The unique rapidity of Myanmar’s recent transition enables an examination of how contemporary forces of globalisation and neoliberalism determine the direction and mode of tourism development from its beginnings. We show how tourism is perceived by the national government as an engine for rural development, conservation and livelihood creation for poor and rural communities. We then demonstrate how this is re-shaped by a globalised tourism industry into a socially and economically exclusive model which capitalises upon weak governance and disempowered local stakeholders. We conclude with observations which may point towards a more sustainable and responsible tourism industry.
  • Hampton, M., Jeyacheya, J. and Long, P. (2018). Can Tourism Promote Inclusive Growth? Supply Chains, Ownership and Employment in Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Journal of Development Studies [Online] 54:359-376. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2017.1296572.
    Inclusive growth is contested yet adopted by the World Bank to reduce poverty and inequality through rapid economic growth. Research has tested inclusive growth in sectors including agriculture, but few studies apply it to tourism which is significant for many developing countries. The paper interrogates tourism-led inclusive growth: supply chain, economic linkages/leakage, ownership, employment and expenditure. It draws from fieldwork in Vietnam where tourism has rapidly developed with partial economic benefits for local communities, but does not appear to fall within the inclusive growth paradigm. It is unclear if tourism-led growth will become any more inclusive in the short-to-medium term.
  • Hampton, M., Jeyacheya, J. and Lee, D. (2018). The political economy of dive tourism: precarity at the periphery in Malaysia. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment [Online] 20:107-126. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2017.1357141.
    Using a critical political economy approach and the concept of labour precarity, the international dive tourism industry in Sabah, Malaysia and its workers’ vulnerabilities are interrogated. Fieldwork data highlights dive tourism’s socio-economic impacts and the precarity of labour within the international tourism sector and also critiques it as a development strategy for a peripheral region. The paper challenges the optimistic views of labour precarity found in the existing political economy literature. Rather than identifying labour empowerment, evidence demonstrates significant worker vulnerability, uncertainty, and contingency - especially among ethnic minorities - resulting from Malaysia’s state-led rentier economy.
  • Chin, W., Haddock-Fraser, J. and Hampton, M. (2017). Destination Competitiveness: Evidence from Bali. Current Issues in Tourism [Online] 20:1265-1289. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1111315.
    Within the dynamic global tourism industry, understanding the reasons for a destination’s competitiveness is essential in order to enhance its performance, facilitate more effective destination management, and inform its overall sustainable economic development. This paper applies Kim and Wicks’ (2010) tourism cluster development model to Bali - a small, mature destination in the developing economy of Indonesia. It demonstrates that there are complex relationships between: (i) cluster actors; (ii) barriers preventing effective networking; and (iii) the significance of these interactions for the local host community. This paper contributes to the debate by addressing new and different attributes and actors such as transnational corporations (TNCs), universities, and the concept of co-opetition, as being significant attributes in Kim and Wicks’ initial model. Through a qualitative approach involving n=23 semi-structured interviews, this paper illustrates intricate issues and relationships that are identified in Bali, a small mature destination. Purposive sampling methods were employed to generate a range of key stakeholders who informed our understanding of ‘cluster actors’ in Kim and Wicks’ terms. The systematic examination of these key tourism elements provides a detailed analysis of the destination’s strengths and weaknesses, and a more nuanced understanding of what facilitates a destination’s competitive position.
  • Hampton, M. and Hamzah, A. (2016). Change, Choice, and Commercialization: Backpacker Routes in Southeast Asia. Growth and Change [Online] 47:556-571. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/grow.12143.
    South-East Asia has the oldest and largest backpacker trails. This paper examines the geographies of such flows, drawing upon the largest survey to date of backpackers in Asia using qualitative research to survey the key changes from the 1970s to the 2000s. Backpacker trails have changed significantly and new routes have emerged including the ‘northern trail’ (Bangkok - Cambodia - Vietnam - Laos). It is to be expected that routes change as backpackers constantly seek new places, pioneering for later mass tourism. However, this paper suggests that using institutionalization as a framework, these changing trails and backpacker ‘choices’ can be seen as driven by growing commercialization and institutionalization. This then operates in combination with external variables (travel innovations - low cost airlines, and new transport networks); exogenous shock (political instability, terrorism); and growing regional competition from emerging destinations such as Vietnam and Cambodia.
  • Lee, D., Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2015). The political economy of precarious work in the tourism industry in small island developing states. Review of International Political Economy [Online] 22:194-223. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09692290.2014.887590.
    International tourism is now the predominant industry driving growth in many small island developing states (SIDS). Governments of small islands in the Indian Ocean, Caribbean and Pacific have seemingly put most of their eggs into one development basket – the all-inclusive holiday in a luxury hotel, resort or cruise ship. While this industry generates employment, foreign direct investment, and income for island governments and the private sector, it also brings with it dependencies which are borne from the transnational ownership of these all-inclusive accommodations, the risks from exogenous factors - many of which are tied to the wider security of the global system - as well as the domestic economies in the source markets in Europe and North America. We reflect upon these dependencies and risks through a case study of the Seychelles based on fieldwork research conducted in 2012. Our findings highlight that the international tourism industry in the Seychelles – even in a situation of high or growing demand – creates structurally driven precarity for tourism workers who are predominantly low paid, low-skilled, and increasingly recruited from overseas. These findings provide new evidence that contributes to the growing research into tourism in IPE. Our findings highlights the precarious condition of labour in this fast growing service sector of the world economy and in so doing also adds much needed empirical insights from the South to recent debates about an emerging precariat in contemporary capitalism.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2015). Power, Ownership and Tourism in Small Islands: evidence from Indonesia. World Development [Online] 70:481-495. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.12.007.
    This paper examines the political economy of tourism development in islands and uses Gili Trawangan, Indonesia as a case study. A longitudinal study drawing from fieldwork contributes to the discussion of how different types of power shape community development, and how the effects of hosting international tourism play an explicit role. Analysis using Barnett and Duvall’s Taxonomy of Power model reveals the interplay between the types of power over time and its effects on different actors. Results raise questions for Less Developed Countries, and particularly islands, concerning the social costs of using tourism for development.
  • Daldeniz, B. and Hampton, M. (2013). Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia. International Journal of Tourism Research [Online] 15:507-520. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1897.
    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and differing economic linkages. Participation varied between locations, and obstacles to increased participation were revealed. Mainly negative socio-cultural impacts were observed with minimal participation in cultural productions (handicrafts, performances). However, positive educational impacts emerged, especially environmental awareness and English language acquisition.
  • Hamzah, A. and Hampton, M. (2013). Resilience and Non-Linear Change in Island Tourism. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment [Online] 15:43-67. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2012.675582.
    Perhentian Kecil, located off the east coast of peninsular Malaysia, is predominantly
    a small-scale tourism destination, specifically for backpackers and independent travellers. Against the context of an aggressive drive by the state government to remove small-scale tourism development in favour of formal and high-end resorts, this paper examines the local responses to the exogenous factors that had threatened the equilibrium, and hence sustainability, of the tourism systems on the island. The paper draws upon a longitudinal study with multiple visits over an extended period since the mid-1990s. Using insights from Resilience Theory, the paper argues that this island destination is an example of non-linear change rather than conventional resort evolution. The paper also discusses how the authors – as researchers –
    had to realign their research framework and approach to take into consideration the growing complexities of tourism development in small island destinations.
  • Haddock-Fraser, J. and Hampton, M. (2012). Multi-stakeholder Values on the Sustainability of Dive Tourism: Case Studies of Sipadan and Perhentian Islands, Malaysia. Tourism Analysis [Online] 17:27-41. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354212X13330406124098.
    The impact on the marine environment of the rapidly growing dive tourism industry in less developed countries is increasingly understood, but little research currently exists on its impact on overall sustainability at host sites. This article applies Social Exchange Theory to assess multistakeholders’ perspectives of dive tourism for two Malaysian islands: the Perhentians and Sipadan. We argue that multiple interest groups exist within the sites, with heterogeneous attitudes relating to dive tourism. We found that dive instructors (most knowledgeable and engaged) have the most polarized views and clearly identify links between environment, society, and development. Nondive businesses show greater engagement with economic development impact, but may not link this to environmental preservation. Tourists were surprisingly indifferent—highlighting their lack of loyalty to “place” per se or opportunities for alternative travel choices.
  • Hampton, M. and Christensen, J. (2011). Looking for Plan B: What next for island hosts of offshore finance?. Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs [Online] 100:169-181. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00358533.2011.565629.
    This paper examines offshore finance centres and tax havens that are hosted by small island economies (SIEs). In many cases, hosting offshore finance has been a lucrative activity for SIEs since the 1960s in terms of employment (direct and indirect), and overall contribution to GDP and government revenues (Hampton and Christensen, 2002). Despite the scale and reach of the global offshore economy, at present many SIE hosts face an unsettled future in light of significant international pressure from nation states, international organisations such as the EU and OECD and, increasingly, from civil society in both the developed and less developed world.

    Given the economic importance of hosting offshore finance for many SIEs around the world, the paper discusses the development options facing many island jurisdictions. The paper poses the fundamental question: what has changed since the major initiatives around the year 2000, and then discusses the situation facing many SIEs hosts, the changing global political economy and their shifting negotiations and alliances within it.
  • Hampton, M. (2010). Enclaves and ethnic ties: The local impacts of Singaporean cross-border tourism in Malaysia and Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography [Online] 31:240-254. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9493.2010.00393.x.
    Cross-border tourism is often proposed by governments as an incentive for economic growth, but critics have suggested that its impacts are, in fact, overplayed. This paper presents research in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle (IMS-GT). It examines the broad economic impacts
    of Singaporean cross-border tourism on local host communities in two locations: Kukup, a traditional
    Malaysian fishing village in Johor, southern Peninsular Malaysia, and Bintan in Riau Islands Province in western Indonesia. The study found that cross-border tourism generated income, employment and some local economic linkages. In Kukup clear economic benefits with increased
    income and employment were unevenly distributed between ethnic groups. The Bintan enclave development had some linkages to the island economy but was reliant on immigrant labour. Cross-border ethnic ties, particularly Chinese, also played an important role in the growth of tourism in the IMS-GT. The paper shows that cross-border tourism can be a useful addition to more conventional forms of international tourism within national tourism planning and could lead to
    significant economic benefits for local communities.
  • Lee, T., Riley, M. and Hampton, M. (2010). Conflict and Progress. Tourism Development in Korea. Annals of Tourism Research [Online] 37:355-376. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.10.001.
    This paper analyzes the political involvement and relationships that influenced the progress of a tourist heritage site in Korea. It explores the dynamics of collaboration and shows how initial advantages can become conflict and inertia over time. It outlines the continuing
    discord among interested groups, investigates the relationships that surround the developmental process, and demonstrates how perceptual differences became embedded. The paper illustrates that a structure dominated by power relations leads to conflict and inertia caused by alienation, and emphasizes the need for collaborative structures in cultural heritage tourism development.

Book

  • Hampton, M. (2013). Backpacker Tourism and Economic Development: Perspectives from the Less Developed World. Routledge.
    There has been a phenomenal growth of backpacker tourism from the overland routes to India in the 1960s, to present-day backpacker tourism across the less developed world. As a result there has been significant economic development impacts of backpacker tourism upon local communities especially in areas with the largest concentrations of backpackers (South and South-East Asia particularly Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and India), as well as increasingly in Latin America.

    This volume provides a focused review of the economic development impacts of backpacker tourism in developing regions furthering knowledge on how backpacker tourism can play a crucial role in development strategies in these areas. First, it reviews the origins of the backpackers with a detailed examination of their "hippy" predecessors on the overland trail, before discussing the emergence of modern backpackers including social and cultural aspects, and how new technologies are changing their experience. It then analyses the powerful economic development impacts of backpackers on local host communities in cities and rural areas with a special focus on coastal destinations. Extensive case study material is used from backpacker destinations across Asia, Latin America and Africa. In doing so the book provides original insights into how backpacker tourism is highly significant for poverty alleviation and effective local development since it has strong linkages to the local economy, and less economic leakage than conventional tourism.

    Written by a leading academic in this area, this volume will be of interest to students of Tourism and Development Studies.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2013). Tourism and Inclusive Growth in Small Island Developing States. London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Book section

  • Jeyacheya, J. and Hampton, M. (2016). Dive Tourism and the Entrepreneurial Process in the Perhentian Islands, Malaysia. In: Sustainable Island Tourism: Seasonality, Competitiveness and Quality of Life. Wallingford: CABI, pp. 135-152.
    Dive tourism is a high growth, niche sector for island and coastal developing nations and is propelled predominantly by local tourism entrepreneurs and small businesses. This chapter examines dive tourism in peninsula Malaysia and particularly the factors influencing the entrepreneurial process. Much research on tourism entrepreneurs is derived from analysing business in the developed world, and has focused on the individual, not the process. Significantly less research exists for middle income and less developed countries despite the critical role tourism plays in national development planning. Similarly, a significant amount of dive tourism research has emerged from the science disciplines, but less so has originated from the social science community. This chapter contributes primarily to the initial knowledge gap by drawing upon extensive fieldwork interviews in the Perhentian islands. The findings broadly reveal dive tourism as a low cost industry that is transforming into a strategically competitive one. A more nuanced analysis reveals that the factors influencing the dive tourism entrepreneurial process are embedded within the social and historical context of Malaysia.
  • Hampton, M. (2015). ‘Backpackers’; ‘Island Tourism’ and ‘Less Developed Countries’. In: The Encyclopedia of Sustainable Tourism. Wallingford: CABI. Available at: http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780641430.
    These three sections are invited contributions to the Encyclopaedia drawing upon research and fieldwork, especially as further developed in the monograph on backpacker tourism in the less developed world (Hampton, 2013)
  • Walsh, C., Haddock-Fraser, J. and Hampton, M. (2012). Accessible Diving Tourism. In: Buhalis, D., Ambrose, I. and Darcy, S. eds. Accessible Tourism Practice: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism. Clevedon: Channel View Publications, pp. 180-192.
  • Hampton, M. and Christensen, J. (2012). Looking for Plan B? What next for island hosts of offshore finance?. In: Clegg, P. and Killingray, D. eds. The Non-Independent Territories of the Caribbean and Pacific: Continuity and Change. University of London, UK: School of Advanced Study, University of London.
  • Hampton, M. (2010). Not Such a Rough or Lonely Planet? Backpacker Tourism: An Academic Journey. In: Hannam, K. and Diekmann, A. eds. Beyond Backpacker Tourism: Mobilities and Experiences. Clevedon: Channel View Publications, pp. 8-20.
  • Daldeniz, B. and Hampton, M. (2010). VOLUNtourists versus volunTOURISTS: a true dichotomy or merely a differing perception?. In: Benson, A. M. ed. Volunteer Tourism: Theory Framework to Practical Applications. Routledge.

Conference or workshop item

  • Hampton, M. (2016). The Evolution of Research Methods in Tourism: Personal Reflections. In: International Seminar: The Evolution of Research Methods in Architecture and Planning.
    Tourism research has evolved significantly since the phenomenon of tourism started to be studied by academics from the 1930s. Initial work mainly considered domestic tourism but as international tourism expanded rapidly from the 1950s, academic research turned to examine these growing international tourist flows. The paper briefly reviews the location of tourism and tourist academics within universities and the early pioneers’ work on international tourism from the 1970s exemplified by Hills (Geography), Archer (Economics) and Cohen (Sociology). The paper then examines main tourism research trends noting the growth of high level ‘systems’ type work in the 1980s such as Britton’s application of dependency theory to tourism or Leiper’s work on the international tourism system, before noting the continuing rise of managerial/business perspectives from the 1990s and the relative decline of research on geographical/spatial aspects such as resort morphology. This section ends by observing the twin trends in some major tourism journals of either ‘hard’ positivism or ‘fuzzy’ post-modernity (both arguably of little interest to policy-makers) and the relative difficulties of placing applied research with leading journals. The next section discusses applied tourism research and ethnographic type approaches using examples from my own projects in Indonesia and Malaysia and discusses some of the key findings on tourism and local economic development. The paper ends by noting the growing pressures on academics from funding rationing, the growing ‘bureaucratic burden’ including the rise of managerialism, and the challenge stemming from powerful ethics committees and seemingly risk-adverse universities that risk affecting the ability of academics to raise difficult questions.
  • Thieme, J., Hampton, M. and Zigan, K. (2016). Analysing Backpacker Tourism in Rural Colombia: Towards a Political Economy Framework. In: ATLAS Annual Conference on Tourism, Lifestyles and Locations.. Available at: http://www.atlas-euro.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=q6iiKmLMg8Q%3d&tabid=248&language=en-US.
    Tourist arrivals have grown at more than 5% in Latin America, growing at 12% in Colombia in 2014 (UNWTO). Although little official data exists, it seems that backpacker tourism is a thriving segment in Latin America. Both the improved security and the improved economic situation in those countries means that more people are able to travel within Latin America, though the impacts of tourism development there have not been sufficiently explored yet. This paper introduces a new framework to analyse tourism development and its impacts on rural, local communities in Less Developed Countries (LDCs), adopting a Political Economy approach, building on Ferguson's (2011) and Mosedale's (2011) work. The new framework combines the consumption and production side of tourism, a shortcoming of the perceived dichotomy as identified by Ateljevic (2001). For a deeper understanding of the impacts of production and consumption on a local community in a rural setting, the social, cultural and political embeddedness of all the actors of the researched communities are investigated. The study also looks at the links between the local and global actors who are brought together through tourism development in an LDC, and the resulting power structures in the communities. The paper discusses the elements of the framework in detail, and shows their usefulness in understanding the political economy underlying tourism development in rural communities that rely heavily on tourism. The paper builds on extensive fieldwork (n = 53 interviews) in two rural communities in Colombia to test the framework. On the consumption side, the initial analysis of regional and international backpackers and their travel behaviour revealed tendencies for different preferences such as geographical destination or length of stay for Latin Americans in comparison to Western backpackers. On the production side, small- and medium-sized enterprises catering to these types of tourists, their development, and their relationship within each other and within their community are investigated. The resulting insights reveal the complex relationships and social, cultural and political interdependencies of the actors, which seem to influence the development of the community.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2014). Dive tourism, communities and small islands: lessons from Malaysia and Indonesia. In: Research Seminar.
    Coastal tourism is growing rapidly across South-East Asia, especially in small islands. Islands and coastal areas face significant issues of how to manage the rapid growth of tourism whilst retaining economic benefits for the local host community. First, the paper sets the context and charts the scale and significance of international dive tourism, especially in less developed countries. The paper draws upon extensive fieldwork in small island destinations in Malaysia and Indonesia and explores how to research this area and the particular practicalities of fieldwork. Next the paper analyses the main socio-economic impacts of dive tourism drawing upon findings published in Haddock-Fraser and Hampton (2012); Daldeniz and Hampton (2013) and Hamzah and Hampton (2013) before introducing new analysis that is 'work in progress.' Finally, the paper concludes by considering lessons for other destinations in South-East Asia learning from success, and helping avoid mistakes being repeated.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2014). Hot beaches, cool cities. Tourism and Economic Development in South-East Asia. In: Research Seminar.
    International tourism is booming across South-East Asia with rapid growth rates and more than 93 million international arrivals in 2013 (UN WTO, 2014). Long-established destinations such as Thailand and Indonesia face growing competition from new destinations such as Vietnam, Cambodia and, most recently, Myanmar. As a region, South-East Asia hosts a great variety of tourism forms, from luxury, high-end resorts to backpackers and independent travellers and specialist eco-tourism and homestays.

    This paper explores the rise of international tourism from its earliest days in the colonial period through the overland 'hippy trail' to the emergence of modern mass tourism and integrated resorts. The paper then discusses the main socio-economic impacts of the rapid growth of tourism in the region and highlights key sectors such as ecotourism, conventional mass tourism and the growth of regional and domestic tourism. The paper ends by considering the future of tourism in South-East Asia.
  • Hampton, M. (2014). ‘Socio-economic impacts of tourism in less developed countries.’. In: International Research Guest Lecture.
    Tourism remains a key driver in many less developed countries and has been used as an engine for economic and social development. This paper outlines the key socio-economic impacts of international tourism using case study material from research projects undertaken in South-East Asia and the Indian Ocean with examples cited from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Seychelles and Vietnam. The paper examines economic linkages to local communities, the benefits (and costs) of hosting small-scale tourism, and the challenge of minimising economic leakages from less developed countries.
  • Hampton, M. (2013). A Hidden Jewel. Backpacker Tourism: Understanding and Growing a Key Sector. In: Tourism Talks: Inaugural Session, IRDA (Iskandar Regional Development Authority).
    In many developing destinations backpacker tourism is often a hidden, but surprisingly important and fast-growing sector. This lecture from a leading international academic expert, presents recent research which shows the signifi?cant impacts of backpacker tourism and how this can drive local economic development.Backpackers and independent travellers are typically 'under the radar' of tourism policy makers, yet international research has shown this sector to have extensive and powerful economic linkages to many local businesses.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2013). Bio-rock and roll? Dive Tourism and Island Communities: the case of Gili Trawangan, Indonesia. In: Second IGU Conference on Coastal, Island and Tropical Tourism Incorporating the Second International Dive Tourism Expert Meeting.
    Tourism in Gili Trawangan, located off Lombok, Indonesia, appears to be moving upmarket, progressing up the resort life cycle (Butler, 1980). The destination has changed from being a backpackers’ ‘party island’ (Hampton and Hampton, 2009) to increasingly hosting dive tourism and more upmarket tourists. This paper reports part of a longitudinal study that began with fieldwork in the 1990s (Hampton, 1998) and was updated with more recent fieldwork in late 2011.

    Direct fast boat access from Bali has facilitated rapidly growing tourist arrivals and the number of dive operators has increased significantly, as has the supply of accommodation, restaurants and other facilities. The island’s coral reefs and marine resources have been under pressure from rapid tourism growth, and local responses have included forming an NGO - Gili Eco Trust – to better manage the resource (Graci, 2013). However, Indonesia’s changing political economy demonstrates a complex mix of actors and influences, with divergence between adat (traditional law) and commercial pressures, and this acts in combination with layers of governance under decentralisation. The result is that island tourism, and dive tourism in particular, is operating within a challenging and fast-changing political economy which has serious implications for future sustainability of this island destination.
  • Hampton, M. (2012). Inclusive Growth & Tourism Development in Small Island Developing States. In: Second Global Biennial Conference on Small States.
  • Hampton, M. (2012). Tourism in Small Island States: Risks and Opportunities. In: Sustainable Economic Growth in Small Island States: Challenges and Opportunities.
  • Hampton, M. (2012). Tourism data: issues and the way ahead. In: World Bank and Commonwealth Secretariat Expert Meeting ‘Data for Growth: Focus on Remittances and Tourism.’.
  • Hampton, M. (2011). Grockles and Horror-cars: Tourism, Heritage and Economic Development in Islands. In: IGU Tourism Commission ‘The Changing World of Coastal, Island and Tropical Tourism.
  • Hampton, M. (2011). Island Narratives: Dive Tourism in Malaysia. In: Expert Workshop on Marine Tourism in Less Developed Countries.
  • Hampton, M. (2011). Coastal and Cruise Ship Tourism Sub-functions. In: Intermediate Hearing on Blue Growth.
  • Hampton, M. (2011). Tourism in Islands and Small States: Reflections from the Field. In: World Bank and Commonwealth Secretariat ‘Expert Meeting on Growth and Development in Small States’.
  • Hampton, M. and Hamzah, A. (2010). Socio-Economic Impacts of Dive Tourism, evidence from Perhentian and Sipadan. In: Expert Workshop on Dive Tourism.

Monograph

  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2014). Coastal Tourism and Local Impact at Ngapali Beach: Initial Findings. University of Kent.
    This short report summarises the initial findings of the scoping study carried out in Ngapali Beach, Rakhine State, Myanmar, during November 2014. From this scoping study, a few initial recommendations can be offered. Ngapali beach has – at present – a Unique Selling Point of its unspoilt beautiful beaches and low rise, unobtrusive hotel development with relatively small numbers of hotels and associated tourism infrastructure. At present it seems that the relatively low numbers of higher spending tourist in the area are having minimal negative social impacts, and significant positive impacts on the local host community.

    Instead of permitting unrestricted mass tourism at Ngapali, our initial findings suggest that lessons can be learnt from the case of the Seychelles and adapted for the context of coastal Myanmar. We suggest a model we call ‘Seychelles Plus’ be explored, that is, an emphasis on an upmarket resort offer of four/five star hotels plus boutique hotels combined with strong and effective economic linkages to the local economy to benefit the host community.
  • Hampton, M., Jeyacheya, J. and Lee, D. (2014). The Political Economy of Precarious Work in the Tourism Industry in Small Island Developing States. Kent Business School.
    International tourism is now the predominant industry driving growth in many small island developing states (SIDS). Governments of small islands in the Indian Ocean, Caribbean and Pacific have seemingly put most of their eggs into one development basket – the all-inclusive holiday in a luxury hotel, resort or cruise ship. While this industry generates employment, foreign direct investment, and income for island governments and the private sector, it also brings with it dependencies which are borne from the transnational ownership of these all-inclusive accommodations, the risks from exogenous factors - many of which are tied to the wider security of the global system - as well as the domestic economies in the source markets in Europe and North America. We reflect upon these dependencies and risks through a case study of the Seychelles based on fieldwork research conducted in 2012. Our findings highlight that the international tourism industry in the Seychelles – even in a situation of high or growing demand – creates structurally driven precarity for tourism workers who are predominantly low paid, low-skilled, and increasingly recruited from overseas. These findings provide new evidence that contributes to the growing research into tourism in IPE. Our findings highlights the precarious condition of labour in this fast growing service sector of the world economy and in so doing also adds much needed empirical insights from the South to recent debates about an emerging precariat in contemporary capitalism.
  • Hamzah, A. and Hampton, M. (2012). Tourism Development and Non-Linear Change in Small Islands: Lessons from Perhentian Kecil, Malaysia. University of Kent.
    Perhentian Kecil, located off the east coast of peninsula Malaysia, is predominantly a small-scale tourism destination, specifically for backpackers and independent travellers. Against the context of an aggressive drive by the state government to remove smallscale tourism development in favour of formal and high-end resorts, this paper examines the local responses to the exogenous factors that had threatened the equilibrium, and hence sustainability, of the tourism systems on the island. The paper draws upon a longitudinal study with multiple visits over an extended period since the mid 1990s. Using insights from Resilience Theory the paper argues that this island destination is an example of non-linear change rather than conventional resort evolution. The paper also discusses how the authors - as researchers - had to realign their research framework and approach to take into consideration the growing complexities of tourism development in small island destinations.
  • Daldeniz, B. and Hampton, M. (2011). Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Passive Impacts? Case Studies from Malaysia. KBS Working Paper 245, University of Kent.
    For many Less Developed Countries international tourism has long been considered a driver for economic development (OECD, 1967). However, tourism has also been heavily criticised for its negative environmental and cultural impacts and significant economic leakages due to the dependence of many host countries on large trans-national corporations (Mowforth and Munt, 2003). Specialist tourism forms such as eco-tourism or small-scale locally owned tourism have been promoted in response to these criticisms,with benefits advocated for local communities, greater cultural awareness by tourists and
    more controllable environmental impacts (Weaver, 2001; Scheyvens, 2002; Hampton,2005).
    Using local participation approaches, this Working Paper examines dive tourism
    as a form of niche tourism and assesses its impacts on local host communities. It investigates whether, or to what extent, active local participation is possible, and how far host communities are merely exposed to ‘passive’ impacts of dive tourism.
    The study covered three research locations in Malaysia and revealed that many
    aspects of local community life were affected by dive tourism. Besides physical changes such as new infrastructure, the study showed varied economic impacts for local communities through the existence (or lack of)employment/business opportunities, and differing levels of economic linkages, notably the purchase of goods and services between the dive industry and host villages. Local participation varied between locations and a number of obstacles to increased participation were revealed. Furthermore, impacts
    on local culture and society were observed as well as a lack of participation in possible cultural productions (handicrafts, performances) by local host communities. As a consequence of the dive industry’s initiatives however, positive educational impacts were noted, especially concerning environmental awareness and English language acquisition.
  • Hampton, M. and Hamzah, A. (2010). The Changing Geographies of Backpacker Tourism in South-East Asia. KBS. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/kbs/research/working-papers.html.
    South-East Asia has the oldest backpacker trails. This paper examines the geographies of such flows, drawing upon the largest survey to date of backpackers in Asia using
    qualitative research in a longitudinal study from the 1970s to the 2000s. Backpacker trails have changed significantly and new routes have emerged including the ‘northern
    trail’ (Bangkok - Cambodia - Vietnam - Laos). Changing routes are to be expected (backpackers constantly seek new places, pioneering for later mass tourism),however, this paper suggests that fundamentally, these changing trails are due to external variables combining travel innovations (low cost airlines, and other new transport networks); exogenous shock (political instability and terrorism); and
    growing regional competition, specifically emerging ‘exotic’ destinations such as Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Key words: backpackers; small-scale tourism; travel choice; motivation

Research report (external)

  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2012). Cruise Ship Tourism in Small States: Final Report. Commonwealth Secretariat, London.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2012). Local Tourism Supply Chains in Small States: Sharing Best Practice. Final Report. Commonwealth Secretariat, London.
  • Hampton, M. and Jeyacheya, J. (2012). Tourism and Inclusive Growth in Small Island Developing States: Final Report. The World Bank, Washington DC.

Review

  • Hampton, M. (2012). Book review. Island Studies Journal 7:294-295.

Thesis

  • Cameron, S. (2017). Ecotourism’s Dirty Laundry? Exploring the Relationship Between Participation, Equity and Conservation Around Protected Areas in Madagascar.
    This research project set about to explore different stakeholder perceptions on the subject of local participation in, and benefits from, tourism around the Ranomafana and Andringitra National Parks in Madagascar, and regarding conservation outcomes.
    Findings from n=47 semi-structured interviews, supplemented by information collected using other qualitative research techniques, point to low levels of local participation - whether in the tourism development process or in the benefits of tourism. Reasons for this include historical socio-economic factors and the perpetuation of unequal power dynamics. Although non-financial benefits of tourism are recognised, barriers to local contact with tourists were found to limit these.
    Expressions of discontent triggered by national park entrance fee rises revealed entrenched feelings of local resentment and anger concerning the suspension of ecotourism revenue-sharing. This policy had previously partially compensated for a dearth of direct benefits from tourism. Local residents' sentiments were of deceit and alienation from 'The Park'. Dissatisfaction was also linked to the national park organisation's management style, particularly concerning guide and porter treatment.
    A situation of increasing inequality and insecurity around these protected areas was indicated, combined with uncontrolled environmental degradation - particularly in Ranomafana National Park. Findings infer a causal link between equity in policies and conservation outcomes; highlighting the importance of perceptions of fairness in meeting forest protection goals. They also question the effectiveness of promoting ecotourism as an 'alternative livelihood' to compensate for the interdiction of local forest use after protected area creation.

Forthcoming

  • Chin, W. and Hampton, M. (2020). The relationship between destination competitiveness and residents’ quality of life: lessons from Bali. Tourism and Hospitality Management.
    This study examined whether increasing tourism competitiveness in destination like Bali translates into increasing social welfare for the host communities. The paper uses a framework introduced by Kim and Wicks (2010) to investigate how destination competitiveness has affected residents’ livelihoods and quality of life in Bali. Fieldwork took place over four weeks in Bali using a rapid rural appraisal approach with qualitative data collection techniques. A total number of 28 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out during June with an average duration of 1.5 hours. Besides doing interviews, direct observations and notes were taken to ensure self-reflection in qualitative fieldwork, and then interview data were analysed using Nvivo software. Respondents were selected using convenience sampling and contacts with key stakeholders in the tourism industry including government officials who were made using snowballing technique. Key themes that emerged through the interviews suggest that socio-economic prosperity is not guaranteed although a destination appears successful. The findings show that the economic prosperity that is normally perceived from a successful competitive destination like Bali does not always translate to increased social welfare. The tourism competitiveness framework leading to better socio-economic prosperity is partially demonstrated. Our research found that Bali’s success has brought an improvement in quality of life for the Balinese but only to a limited extent. Our paper is the first attempt to investigate the link between destination competitiveness and host community quality of life as seen on the Kim and Wicks model.
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