Portrait of Dr Samantha Evans

Dr Samantha Evans

Lecturer in ER-HRM
Athena Swan Lead

About

Samantha Evans is currently a lecturer in ER-HRM for MSc Human Resource Management (HRM), which is accredited by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). She is a member of the People, Management and Organisation Group and the Centre for Employment, Competitiveness and Growth at Kent Business School.
Samantha is a Chartered Member of the CIPD and a member of the British Universities Industrial Relations Association. Previously she was the Academic Advisor for the HRM pathway of the MSc Management programme and before that, the Director of Studies for the BA (Hons) Employment Relations and HRM degree. 

Research interests

She is currently working on two projects, the first of which involves a team of researchers from the UK, Australia and New Zealand, working on an internationally comparative research project examining the strategies utilised by the UK and Australian retail unions to represent their members.
This study will enhance the current understanding of union strategy, particularly cross country differences in union responses in the retail sector and the representation of retail workers. The second project is examining the issue of social class and equality in organisations and the extent to which social class influences employment opportunities and career progression. 

Teaching

Samantha currently convenes Human Resource Management in Context (CB9045) and Employee Resourcing (CB8000) on the MSc HRM programme and The Management of Human Resources in Contemporary Organisations (CB681) at undergraduate level.
She also teaches on the MBA programme and has previously convened and taught across a number of modules including Learning and Development (CB8010) at postgraduate level and Managing People (CB682), The Management of Human Resources (CB519) and People and Organisations (CB300) at undergraduate level. 

Supervision

Dr Samantha Evans welcomes applications relative to her research expertise and has successfully supervised a number of postgraduate students.

Supervision Topics

  • Social class and equality 
  • Line managers and HRM 
  • Employee wellbeing 
  • Retail trade unionism 
  • Retail employment 

Past Supervisees

Tejumade Siyanbola: HRM and Employee Turnover in SMEs 

Professional

Samantha is a full Chartered Member of the CIPD.

Publications

Article

  • Evans, S., Pyman, A. and Byford, I. (2017). What are the consequences of a managerial approach to union renewal for union behaviour? A case study of USDAW. Employee Relations [Online] 39:2-18. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-06-2016-0105.
    Purpose: This paper explores the consequences of a managerialist approach to renewal for a union’s behaviour by analysing the UK’s fourth largest trade union - The Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers (USDAW).

    Design/methodology/approach: The findings draw on in-depth semi-structured interviews with union officials.

    Findings: The research findings show the significance of a managerialist approach to UDSAW’s renewal strategy and its correlation with existing renewal strategies of organising and partnership. However, this was not immune to context with tensions between agency and articulation challenging the basic concept of managerialism and influencing union behaviour.

    Research limitations/implications: The data were collected from a single case with a small sample size.

    Practical implications: Unions could benefit from a managerialist approach to insure against external challenges, but tensions between democracy and efficiency will mediate any such approach to union renewal.

    Originality/value: This paper brings together the current disparate themes in the literature to propose a conceptual framework of three key elements of managerialism: leadership or centralised renewal strategies; performance management techniques; and the managerialisation of union roles. To date, these elements of managerialism have not been studied simultaneously in a research project and without such knowledge, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the true complexities of how unions organise and renew, both conceptually and empirically. Consequently, we argue that theories of union renewal need to better reflect the complexities of a hybrid approach that unions, such as USDAW, are adopting, particularly their achievements of internal leveraging.
  • Evans, S. (2016). Agency theory and performance appraisal: How bad theory damages learning and contributes to bad management practice. Management Learning [Online] 48:271-291. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507616672736.
    Performance appraisal interviews remain central to how employees are scrutinised, rewarded and sometimes penalized by managers. But they are also often castigated as ineffective, or even harmful, to both individuals and organizations. Exploring this paradox, we highlight the influence of agency theory on the (mal)practice of performance appraisal. The performative nature of HRM increasingly reflects an economic approach within which its practises are aligned with agency theory. Such theory assumes that actors are motivated mainly or only by economic self-interest. Close surveillance is required to eliminate the risk of shirking and other deviant behaviours. It is a pessimistic mind-set about people that undermines the supportive, co-operative and developmental rhetoric with which appraisal interviews are usually accompanied. Consequently, managers often practice appraisal interviews while holding onto two contradictory mind-sets, a state of Orwellian Doublethink that damages individual learning and organizational performance. We encourage researchers to adopt a more radical critique of appraisal practices that foregrounds issues of power, control and conflicted interests between actors beyond the analyses offered to date.
  • Evans, S. (2016). HRM and front line managers: the influence of role stress. International Journal of Human Resource Management [Online] 28:3128-3148. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1146786.
    With front line managers (FLMs) being critical in the delivery of human resource management (HRM) we would benefit from a better understanding of how and why these managers execute their human resources (HR) responsibilities in the way that they do. Without such knowledge we cannot fully identify the factors that contribute to the known gap between intended and implemented HRM and mediate the relationship between HRM and organizational performance. Yet FLMs have been largely overlooked in many studies of line management-HRM with very few employing a role-theoretic framework. To address this, interviews were conducted with FLMs in the retail industry to examine the relationship between their work role stressors and their implementation of HRM. FLMs were found to experience role overload, role conflict and role ambiguity, and in accordance with process role theory, engaged in role-making as a response. This resulted in FLMs deviating from intended HRM whereby role overload and conflict often brought about a renegotiation of the more intangible or costly HR policies, whereas role ambiguity undermined their ability to consistently and confidently implement HRM. The paper concludes by arguing that FLMs and their experiences of role stress are critical to our understanding of the gap between intended and implemented HRM.
  • Evans, S. (2015). Juggling on the line: Front line managers and their management of human resources in the retail industry. Employee Relations [Online] 37:459-474. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-06-2014-0066.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the interplay between the role of front line managers (FLMs) and their contribution to the reported gap between intended and actual human resource management (HRM). This paper argues that FLMs are key agents in people management and play a critical role in the gap between intended and actual employee relations (ER) and HRM. The research found that these managers held a high level of responsibility for people management, but experienced a lack of institutional support, monitoring or incentives to implement according to central policy. This provided an opportunity for them to modify or resist intended policy and the tensions inherent in their role were a critical factor in this manipulation of their people management responsibilities.
  • Lynch, S. and Smith, K. (2010). The Dilemma of Judging Volunteers: The Recruitment and Selection of Unpaid Workers. Personnel Review [Online] 39:80-95. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483481011007878.
    Purpose
    This paper provides an insight into the recruitment and selection of volunteers in the heritage sector, drawing comparisons between paid and unpaid workers to assess the implications of the findings for volunteer management.
    Design/methodology/approach
    A multi-method research design was adopted involving qualitative interviews with managers and volunteers, in conjunction with a postal survey of volunteers across twelve study sites, which were all visitor attractions in the heritage sector.
    Findings
    The findings show that the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process can be undermined by a lack of formality and supporting resources. This raises questions about the effectiveness of human resource management for volunteers, both specifically in the heritage sector as well as the wider context of volunteer management.
    Research limitations/implications
    The research was of an exploratory nature and so further investigation is needed to consider the impact of these findings on the effectiveness of volunteer recruitment and selection across a range of sectors.
    Practical Implications
    This research highlights the existing practices in place for volunteer management in the heritage sector so raising issues for managers regarding the challenge of achieving a balance between formality and informality of human resource management practices.
    Originality/value
    This research takes a micro-level approach to examining the recruitment and selection of volunteer workers. It provides a link in the literature between the management of volunteers and human resource management practices.
  • Lynch, S. and Smith, K. (2009). The Dilemma of Judging Unpaid Workers. Personnel Review [Online] 39:80-95. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483481011007878.
    Purpose - This paper seeks to provide an insight into the recruitment and selection of volunteers in the heritage sector, drawing comparisons between paid and unpaid workers to assess the implications of the findings for volunteer management.
    Design/methodology/approach - A multi-method research design was adopted involving qualitative interviews with managers and volunteers, in conjunction with a postal survey of volunteers across 12 study sites, which were all visitor attractions in the heritage sector.

    Findings - The findings show that the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process can be undermined by a lack of formality and supporting resources. This raises questions about the effectiveness of human resource management for volunteers, both specifically in the heritage sector and in the wider context of volunteer management.

    Research limitations/implications - The research was of an exploratory nature and so further investigation is needed to consider the impact of these findings on the effectiveness of volunteer recruitment and selection across a range of sectors.

    Practical implications - The research highlights the existing practices in place for volunteer management in the heritage sector so raising issues for managers regarding the challenge of achieving a balance between formality and informality of human resource management practices.

    Originality/value - The research takes a micro-level approach to examining the recruitment and selection of volunteer workers. It provides a link in the literature between the management of volunteers and human resource management practices.
  • Hornibrook, S. and Lynch, S. (2006). Corporate Strategy and Operational Reality: Why Managers do what they do. Icfai Journal of Business Strategy 111:51-69.
    This paper contributes to the management debate regarding the gap between intended corporate strategy and operational reality by examining the relationships between senior executives and line managers within the multiple store retail industry. Using a case study methodology and an Agency theory perspective, the research investigates the implementation of two operational policies designed to achieve corporate strategy - employment and supplier relationship policies. The findings reveal that the incentives offered in the principal-agent relationship drove the behaviour of line managers. Managers sought to maximise their rewards by focusing efforts on surrogate measures designed to evaluate performance. The research concludes that organisational long-run considerations are counteracted by reward systems for employees that encourage behaviour that focuses on short-run sales and earnings at the expense of long term growth and development.
  • Lynch, S. (2005). The Inequality of Flexible Workers in the UK Retail Industry. International Journal of Employment Studies 13:27-56.
  • Evans, S. (2004). Managing Human Resources in the Retail Industry: the role of first-line managers. Human Resources and Employment Review.
    The notion of line managers taking on operational personnel roles has been steadily interwoven into descriptions of an HRM approach. This paper draws on case study based empirical evidence obtained from the multiple store retail industry to investigate the devolution of HR activities to line managers. The research found that line managers often diverged from company policy. Since the emphasis by the centre was often on achieving tangible goals, any manipulation of local HR led to a focus on ‘hard’ HRM techniques.
  • Evans, S. (2003). Devolution and the management of Human Resources: Evidence from the retail industry. People Management [Online]. Available at: http://www2.cipd.co.uk/pm/peoplemanagement/b/weblog/archive/2013/01/29/9350a-2003-09.aspx.
    A study involving three large retail chains has found that store managers responsible for people management tend to neglect ‘softer’ HR policies.

    The notion that line managers should take on operational HR roles has been steadily interwoven into descriptions of the HRM approach. Research has shown us that responsibility for HR practices is increasingly falling to line managers. The general tendency has been to devolve tasks such as selection, training and career development.

    There is also evidence to suggest that many line managers lack the skills and time to take on responsibilities, while some of them still see such tasks as the HR department’s job. There is also a concern that HR could become purely budget-driven. This is particularly pertinent, because few organisations seem to monitor or evaluate the standard of HR practices after responsibility for them has been devolved.
  • Evans, S. (2003). Checking out flexible working. Worldlink [Online]. Available at: http://www.wfpma.com/worldlink.

Book section

  • Lynch, S., Price, R., Pyman, A. and Bailey, J. (2011). Representing and organizing retail workers: A comparative study of the UK and Australia. In: Grugulis, I. ed. Retail Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    A comparison of the organising strategies of two retail unions USDAW and the SDA, based in the UK and Australia respectively. Despite the geographical distance these two unions face similar issues and approach them in similar ways. Both deal with feminised, youthful labour forces with low union densities and high numbers of part-time jobs. Both have to cope with high levels of turnover in their membership and both have adopted strategies of cooperation with management. The results of their campaigns are considered here.
  • Lynch, S. (2005). Retailco Case Study. In: Wilkinson, A. and Redman, T. eds. Contemporary Human Resource Management: Text and Cases. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, pp. 221-225.

Conference or workshop item

  • Evans, S. (2016). Talent Management & Inequality:The trouble with social class. In: Talent for Tomorrow.
    Talent management & inequality
    Social class in the workplace – is there a problem?
    Should employers be concerned?
    Our research project:
    Measuring social class
    Is there (dis)advantage in the workplace associated with social class?
    Implications for talent management
    Implications for organisations
  • Evans, S. (2016). Exploring social class differences at work. In: British Universities Industrial Relations Annual Conference Hosted in University of Leeds 2016.
    This paper is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality by examining the relative impact of objective and subjective indicators of social class on explicit (e.g. salary, promotions) and implicit (e.g. career satisfaction, quality of working life, stress and well-being) career and work outcomes.
    There is increasing recognition that social class differences play a crucial role in social inequality, presenting economic, educational and occupational barriers for lower class individuals in the labour market (Ashley et al, 2015; Milburn, 2012; Nunn et al, 2007). Such differences have been inextricably linked to careers, occupational status, income differentials, employment conditions and the quality of working life (Ashley et al, 2015; Gray and Kish-Gephart, 2013; Côté 2011; Atkinson 2010; Crompton, 2010; Hughes, 2004. Yet there exists relatively little research within organisational studies or human resource management that seeks to understand and tackle the issue of social class inequalities in organisations, who themselves rarely consider social class as part of any diversity management strategy. One particular challenge for understanding the dynamic nature of social class in the workplace has been a lack of interdisciplinary enquiry. Social class has been studied predominantly by sociologists at group and societal level. While this has provided considerable knowledge around the definitions of class, the relevance of class and values and social interactions associated with social class, far less is known about its relationship with individual attitudes and behaviour in specific organisational and workplace settings (Crompton, 2010). Therefore, in our project we combine sociological and psychological perspectives to provide a more holistic view of social class inequality in the workplace.
    In particular, this paper investigates the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions, which Gray and Kish-Gephart (2013: 692) define as those who work in roles that are above or below their initial social class standing. When individuals engage in cross-class interaction they are argued to experience heightened anxiety (Crocker, Major, & Steele, 1998) and although there has been theoretical development about the contribution of class-discrepant roles to workplace inequality (Gray and Kish-Gephart, 2013), research has yet to empirically explore these theoretical propositions. In addition, individuals who traverse class boundaries within organisations are known to engage in passing and shaping, performativity and class based impression management to facilitate their ‘class travel’ and progress in their careers (Hughes, 2004; Moodley, 1999; Skeggs, 1997). Gray and Kish-Gephart (2013) introduce the concept of ‘class work’ to describe some of these behaviours and theorise that class work perpetuates class differences and inequalities at work. Despite their compelling theory of class work and how it may interact with class-discrepancy to reduce anxiety and perpetuate class norms in the workplace there has been no empirical investigation into the types of class work that individuals may engage in, the type of organisational conditions that effect the likelihood of individuals engaging in class work, or how it might serve to maintain class inequality in the workplace.
    In this paper we report on preliminary findings from a pilot study exploring the impact of social class and class work on class inequality in the workplace. Using mixed methods the study consists of a two-stage methodology to 1) quantitatively investigate the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions and the impact on their workplace anxiety and 2) to qualitatively explore their experiences of social class inequalities in the workplace and their engagement with ‘class work’. The final paper submission will include data and findings collected from the pilot study.
    Stage 1: Survey
    To capture the range of different perspectives on social class from different disciplines we used a variety of objective and subjective measures. From these two forms of class-discrepancy were calculated. We adopted affective wellbeing as an indicator of anxiety in the workplace, following existing research (e.g. Mawritz, Folger and Latham 2014). Participants were sent an online questionnaire, which took approximately 15 minutes to complete. Participation in this study was voluntary, and all participants were asked for permission to use their anonymised data for research. Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations and intercorrelations between study variables. Age was negatively related to objective social class, but positively related to objective occupational class and discrepancy, suggesting that older participants may have experienced greater ‘class travel’. Objective social class was positively related to subjective social and occupational class, but not subjective discrepancy. However objective occupational class was positively related to subjective discrepancy suggesting that individuals are more accurate in their subjective evaluations of occupational class then their subjective evaluations of general social class. Subjective class discrepancy was negatively related with negative affect, although no other significant correlations with the affective scales were found.

    --------------------------------
    INSERT TABLE 1 HERE
    --------------------------------

    To test our propositions hypothesis 1 hierarchical regressions were conducted using SPSS 22, controlling for age and gender. Findings are presented in Table 2 and show that objective class discrepancy had no significant relationship with either affective outcome. Therefore hypotheses 1 is rejected.
    --------------------------------
    INSERT TABLE 2 HERE
    --------------------------------

    This analyses was repeated for subjective class discrepancy (Table 3). There was no relationship between subjective class discrepancy and positive affect. However, findings show that subjective class discrepancy is negatively related to negative affect. This suggests that those who perceive themselves as higher social class in comparison to their colleagues experience higher levels of negative affect.
    --------------------------------
    INSERT TABLE 3 HERE
    --------------------------------

    Stage 2: Method
    This stage involves a qualitative study exploring and clarifying the measurement of social class used within the survey as well as focusing on the notion of ‘class work’. Therefore our second study uses a qualitative methodology to explore the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant roles of class work and their experiences of class work using a combination of open-ended interview questions and the critical incident technique. To date, fifteen one to one interviews lasting on average 45 minutes have been conducted. The final paper submission will include data collected from further interviews and findings.

    Implications
    The findings of these studies will inform how social class operates within organisations and its contribution to employee wellbeing and workplace inequality. It will also provide a foundation for our wider project investigating the impact of social class on organisations and their employees.
  • Evans, S. and Wyatt, M. (2015). Class-discrepancy: Exploring social class differences at work. In: British Academy of Management Annual Conference.
    With increasing recognition that social class plays an important role in individuals’ workplace experiences we would benefit from a better understanding of its impact on organisations and their employees. Yet, very little research has examined social class in an organisational context. Using mixed methods we propose a two-stage methodology to 1) quantitatively investigate the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions and the impact on their workplace anxiety and 2) to qualitatively explore their engagement with ‘class work’ to mitigate this anxiety. It is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality. The research is in a developmental stage with a pilot study of the first stage of the project currently being undertaken. The final paper submission will include data collected from the pilot study and preliminary findings from the interviews.
  • Evans, S., Price, R., Byford, I., Parker, J., Bailey, J. and Pyman, A. (2013).“How is Organising Playing Out? A three country study in retail.” In: BUIRA Conference (2013).
    Trade union renewal strategies have become increasingly important in the context of challenging conditions for unions worldwide (Frege & Kelly 2003). This paper examines union renewal, and in particular, how organising strategies play out in the retail industry in three countries: the United Kingdom (UK), Australia and New Zealand (NZ). The trade unions that are the focus of this study are: the Union of Shop Distributive and Allied Workers (USDAW) in the UK, the Shop Distributive and Allied Employees’ Association (SDA) in Australia and FIRST Union in NZ. Our analysis reveals both similarities and differences in how retail unions in the three countries are organising workers. In particular, our analysis identifies an empirical puzzle: the NZ union is different with respect to organising. In this paper, we seek to explain why these differences exist: namely, union leadership and risk and urgency.
  • Lynch, S., Pyman, A., Bailey, J. and Price, R. (2009). Union Strategies in representing ’new workers’: The case of UK retail unions. In: 27th International Labour Process Conference: Work Matters.
  • Hornibrook, S. and Lynch, S. (2005). The Gap between Corporate Strategy and Operational Reality: Why Managers do what they do?. In: British Academy of Management Conference.
    This paper contributes to the management debate regarding the gap between intended corporate strategy and operational reality by examining the relationships between senior executives and line managers within the multiple store retail industry. Using a case study methodology, and an Agency theoretical perspective, the research investigates the implementation of two operational policies designed to achieve corporate strategy - employment and supplier relationship policies. The findings note that the incentives offered in the principal-agent relationship drove the behaviour of line managers. Managers sought to maximise their rewards by focusing efforts on surrogate measures designed to evaluate performance. The research concludes that organisational long run considerations are counteracted by reward systems for employees that encourage behaviour that focuses on short run sales and earnings at the expense of long-term growth and development.
  • Lynch, S. (2003). Devolution and the Management of Human Resources: Evidence From the Retail Industry. In: CIPD Professional Standards Conference.
  • Lynch, S. and Price, R. (2003). Checking out Flexible Working: A Comparative Study of UK and Australian Grocercy Retailing. In: International Employment Relations Association. International Employment Relations Association.
    Abstract

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide comparative data on the nature of labour resourcing strategies in the UK and Australia.
    Design/methodology/approach – The approach used in this research is of one case study grocery retailer in each country. The methodology adopted included interviews with managers and employees, together with a review of company documentation.
    Findings – The findings show that there were differences in the composition of workforces across the two countries and the structure of the core and peripheral internal labour markets. Groceryco(UK) relied on part time employees for numerical flexibility, while Foodco(Aus) used casual contracts. Contextual factors such as employment legislation and collective agreements, together with company strategy and individual management preferences played a role in explaining these differences.
    Research limitations/implications – The research was of an exploratory nature and limited to only two case studies and to relatively small regional areas in the UK and Australia.
    Practical implications – The research highlights the different strategies that can be used to achieve flexibility of labour. The focus by retailers on cost minimisation has resulted in the use of casual or ‘just-in-time’ labour in Australia. The UK retail industry has also witnessed the introduction of minimum and zero hour contracts which could lead to ‘just-in-time’ labour resourcing being introduced in the UK.
    Originality/value – This research takes a micro-level comparative approach to examining labour resourcing strategies in grocery retailing and as a result provides new findings of store level processes for the deployment of labour across two countries.
    Keywords – employment flexibility, labour resourcing, retailing, UK, Australia
    Paper type – Research Paper
  • Lynch, S. (2003). The Inequality of Flexibility Workers in the UK Retail Industry. In: British Universities Industrial Relations Association.
    This paper examines the phenomenon of occupational gender segregation in the retail industry, with a particular focus on part time working. The empirical data was gathered through a series of 59 interviews, and a small survey of employees, with store level managers in three UK retail organisations. The paper illustrates the extent of occupational gender segregation and considers the impact of such stereotyping on the gender pay gap, training and career development.

    Occupational gender segregation, both vertical and horizontal, is prevalent in the industry (Broadbridge 1995; Craig and Wilkinson 1985; Dawson et al 1987; Freathy 1993; Sparks 1991), and this paper illustrates how line managers consciously perpetuate gender segregation. The research found that managers’ negative views of female part time workers detrimentally impacted on opportunities of selection, development and progression, resulting in women being particularly disadvantaged in terms of pay, training, and career development. As a result such perceptions played an important role in determining the occupation, pay and position of female workers in the retail industry.
  • Lynch, S. (2002). Gender Segregation in the Retail Industry. In: DTI Gender Research Forum.
    This paper examines the phenomenon of occupational gender segregation in the retail industry, with a particular focus on part time working. The empirical data was gathered through a series of 59 interviews, and a small survey of employees, with store level managers in three UK retail organisations. The paper illustrates the extent of occupational gender segregation and considers the impact of such stereotyping on the gender pay gap, training and career development.

    Occupational gender segregation, both vertical and horizontal, is prevalent in the industry (Broadbridge 1995; Craig and Wilkinson 1985; Dawson et al 1987; Freathy 1993; Sparks 1991), and this paper illustrates how line managers consciously perpetuate gender segregation. The research found that managers’ negative views of female part time workers detrimentally impacted on opportunities of selection, development and progression, resulting in women being particularly disadvantaged in terms of pay, training, and career development. As a result such perceptions played an important role in determining the occupation, pay and position of female workers in the retail industry.
  • Lynch, S. (2001). The Realities of Managing Human Resources in the Retail Industry: The Role of First-Line Managers. In: University of Westminster Research Seminar Series.

Internet publication

  • Evans, S. (2016). Well-Being Interventions - Do They Actually Work During Critical Organisational Change? [Blog]. Available at: https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/kent-business-matters/2016/10/06/wellbeing-interventions-do-they-work-during-critical-organisational-change/.
    The research findings suggest that there are benefits to be gained from investing in employee well-being - even during the most difficult of circumstances – as such interventions will still have a positive impact on employees’ physical and mental health and help to improve working lives.

Monograph

  • Evans, S. (2016). Sophrology, Organisational Change & Employee Well-Being. Kent Business School.
    This report focuses on one case study organisation and their offering of sophrology to support employees during a period of significant change. Research was conducted in the head office of a FTSE 100 international financial services group who is in the process of closing its London operation and making redundancies over a two year period. The organisation has been mindful of its responsibilities towards its employees and offered a number of employee well-being initiatives alongside more traditional outplacement services. The support for well-being included sophrology sessions for a small number of staff. Research was conducted by Dr Samantha Evans of Kent Business School to assess the value and use to employees of the sophrology sessions on offer.
  • Lynch, S. (2007). Employment Flexibility in UK and Australian Food Retailing. University of Kent Canterebury. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/kbs/research/working-papers.html.
  • Lynch, S. and Smith, K. (2007). The Dilemma of Judging Volunteers: The Recruitment and Selection of Unpaid Workers. University of Kent Canterbury. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/kbs/research/working-papers.html.
  • Hornibrook, S. and Lynch, S. (2006). Corporate Strategy and Operational Reality: Why Managers Do What They Do. Kent Business School. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/kbs/pdf/Hornibrook-and-Lynch-No-107.pdf.
    This paper contributes to the management debate regarding the gap between intended corporate strategy and operational reality by examining the relationships between senior executives and line managers within the multiple store retail industry. Using a case study methodology and an Agency theory perspective, the research investigates the implementation of two operational policies designed to achieve corporate strategy - employment and supplier relationship policies. The findings reveal that the incentives offered in the principal-agent relationship drove the behaviour of the line managers. Managers sought to maximise their rewards by focusing efforts on surrogate measures designed to evaluate performance. The research concludes that organistional long-run considerations are counteracted by reward systems for employees that encourage behaviour that focuses on short-run sales and earnings at the expense of long-term growth and development.
  • Lynch, S. (2004). Line Managers and Their Management of Human Resources: Evidence from the Retail Industry. Kent Business School. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/kbs/pdf/Lynch-No-41.pdf.
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