Portrait of Professor Mark Connelly

Professor Mark Connelly

Professor of Modern British History

About

Mark Connelly studied for his undergraduate and PhD degrees at Queen Mary, University of London. He was then a British Academy Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Lancaster University before coming to Kent in September 1999. 

Research interests

Mark has broad interests in modern military history and warfare, culture and society. He is particularly interested in the commemoration of the two world wars with a specialism in the work of the Imperial (now Commonwealth) War Graves Commission. He is also interested in popular perceptions of war and the armed forces in Britain and the Commonwealth from the mid-19th century.

Teaching

Mark's teaching explores aspects of the First World War.

Supervision

Mark supervises postgraduate research students within the broad areas of war, society and culture particularly relating to Britain and the Commonwealth.

Professional

Mark is currently Principal Investigator for Gateways to the First World War, an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded centre to encourage public engagement with the First World War Centenary. Among other projects, this has led him to work with the Department of Culture, Media and Sport and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Publications

Showing 50 of 71 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.

Article

  • Connelly, M. (2014). Putting the Falkland Islands on the Silent Screen: The Battles of the Coronel and Falkland Islands. The Falkland Islands Journal 10:22-33.
  • Connelly, M. (2013). HMS Vanguard and the Royal Tour of South Africa. Quarterly Bulletin of the National Library of South Africa:8-16.
  • Connelly, M. (2011). The Army, the Press and the Curragh Incident, March 1914. Historical Research [Online] 84:535-557. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2281.2010.00549.x.
    This article explores the connection between the army, the press and the Unionist party during the so-called ‘Curragh incident’ of March 1914 in which certain army officers expressed their unwillingness to impose Home Rule on Ireland. Although there is much scholarship on this aspect of Irish history, there has been no study of the crucial role played by the press and the army's attempts to use it for political purposes. This article centres upon a thorough examination of a broad range of newspapers and other supporting material in order to provide a fresh perspective on the crisis.
  • Connelly, M. and Donaldson, P. (2010). South African War (1899-1902) memorials in Britain: a case study of memorialization in London and Kent. War and Society [Online] 29:20-46. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1179/204243410X12674422128830.
  • Connelly, M. (2009). Ghosts of Christmas Past. BBC Knowledge Magazine:36-43.
  • Connelly, M. (2009). Season of Goodwill. BBC Who Do You Think You Are Magazine:68-73.
  • Connelly, M. (2009). The Ypres League and the commemoration of the Ypres salient, 1914-1940. War in History [Online] 16:51-76. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0968344508097617.
    This article explores British visions of Ypres between 1914 and 1940, and concentrates on the work of the crucial interwar remembrance movement, the Ypres League. The city of Y pres became a crucial symbol of all Britain was fighting for during the course of the First World War, and rapidly developed a holy aura. Led by the league, the horrors of industrial warfare were commuted into a spiritual quest in which British and imperial troops were purified by their experiences in the Y pres salient. After the war, British people visited Y pres in large numbers in order to imagine the sufferings of the servicemen and gain a spiritual benefit often with the assistance of the Y pres League and its publications. This reflected a culture of high diction and ritual greatly at odds with the idea that the twenties and thirties saw the dawn of an age disillusioned with the values of 1914. The British also became resident in Y pres in considerable numbers, and the article explores the relationship between the local population and the immigrants. By exploring the nature of war commemoration through the detailed case study of one particular site, it is intended to deepen the historiography of commemoration studies.
  • Connelly, M. (2008). Shop till you drop: How the annual Christmas spending spree was a victorian innovation. BBC History Magazine 9:31-35.
  • Connelly, M. and Willcox, D. (2005). Are you tough enough? The image of the special forces in British popular culture, 1939-2004. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television [Online] 25:1-25. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01439680500064918.

Book

  • Connelly, M. and Goebel, S. (2018). Ypres. [Online]. Oxford University Press. Available at: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/ypres-9780198713371?cc=gb&lang=en&.
    The following is the book jacket text written by Mark Connelly: In 1914 Ypres was a sleepy Belgian city admired for its magnificent Gothic architecture. The arrival of the rival armies in October 1914 transformed it into a place known across the world with each combatant ascribing the place with a set of values and images. It is now at the hub of First World War battlefield tourism with much of its economy devoted to serving the needs and interests of people from across the world. The surrounding countryside is dominated by memorials, cemeteries and museums many of which were erected in the 1920s and 1930s, but are being added to constantly as fascination with the region increases. This work explores the ways in which Ypres has been understood and interpreted by Britain and the Commonwealth, Belgium, France and Germany, including the variants developed by the Nazis, looking at the way in which different groups have struggled to impose their own narratives on the city and the region around it. It explores the city’s growth as a tourist destination and examines the sometimes tricky relationship visitors had with local people as well as the behaviour of the visitors themselves who hovered between being respectful pilgrims and tourists intent on being shocked, thrilled and excited. The result of new and extensive archival research across a number of countries, this book offers an innovative overview of the development of a critical site of Great War memory.
  • Connelly, M., Bowman, T. and Beckett, I. (2017). The British Army and the First World War. [Online]. Cambridge University Press. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/history/military-history/british-army-and-first-world-war?format=PB.
    This is a major new history of the British army during the Great War written by three leading military historians. Ian Beckett, Timothy Bowman and Mark Connelly survey operations on the Western Front and throughout the rest of the world as well as the army's social history, pre-war and wartime planning and strategy, the maintenance of discipline and morale and the lasting legacy of the First World War on the army's development. They assess the strengths and weaknesses of the army between 1914 and 1918, engaging with key debates around the adequacy of British generalship and whether or not there was a significant 'learning curve' in terms of the development of operational art during the course of the war. Their findings show how, despite limitations of initiative and innovation amongst the high command, the British army did succeed in developing the effective combined arms warfare necessary for victory in 1918.
  • Goebel, S. and Connelly, M. (2016). Ypres. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Connelly, M. (2015). The Great War, Memory and Ritual: Commemoration in the City and East London, 1916-1939. [Online]. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell & Brewer. Available at: http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=14664.
    The modern idea that the Great War was regarded as a futile waste of life by British society in the disillusioned 1920s and 1930s is here called into question by Mark Connelly. Through a detailed local study of a district containing a wide variety of religious, economic and social variations, he shows how both the survivors and the bereaved came to terms with the losses and implications of the Great War. His study illustrates the ways in which communities as diverse as the Irish Catholics of Wapping, the Jews of Stepney and the Presbyterian ex-patriate Scots of Ilford, thanks to the actions of the local agents of authority and influence - clergymen, rabbis, councillors, teachers and employers - shaped the memory of their dead and created a very definite history of the war. Close focus on the planning of, fund-raising for, and erection of war memorials expands to a wider examination of how those memorials became a focus for a continuing need to remember, particularly each year on Armistice Day.
  • Connelly, M. (2015). Celluloid War Memorials: British Instructional Films Battle Reconstructions, 1921-1929. [Online]. UK: Exeter University Press. Available at: https://www.exeterpress.co.uk/en-gb/Book/820/Celluloid-War-Memorials.html.
    The films made by the British Instructional Films (BIF) company in the decade following the end of the First World War helped to shape the way in which that war was remembered. This is both a work of cinema history and a study of the public’s memory of WW1.

    By the early twenties, the British film industry was struggling to cope with the power of Hollywood and government help was needed to guarantee its survival. The 1927 Cinematograph Films Act was intended to support the domestic film industry by requiring British cinemas to show a quota of domestically produced films each year. The Act was not the sole saviour of British cinema, but the government intervention did allow the domestic industry to exploit the talents of an emerging group of younger filmmakers including Michael Balcon, Walter Summers and Alfred Hitchcock, who directed the most influential of these BIF war constructions.

    This book shows that the films are micro-histories revealing huge amounts about perceptions of the Great War, national and imperial identities, the role of cinema as a shaper of attitudes and identities, power relations between Britain and the USA and the nature of popular culture as an international contest in its own right.
  • Bowman, T. and Connelly, M. (2012). The Edwardian Army: Recruiting, Training, and Deploying the British Army, 1902-1914. [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199542789.do.
    The period 1902-1914 was one of great change for the British army. The experience of the South African War (1899-1902) had been a profound shock and it led to a period of intense introspection in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the force. As a result of a series of investigations and government-led reorganisation, the army embarked on a series of reforms to improve its recruitment, standards of professionalism, training, and preparation for war. Until now many of the studies covering this period have tended to look at the army in a top-down manner, and have often concluded that the reform process was extremely beneficial to the army leading it to be the most efficient force in Europe by the outbreak of war in 1914. Bowman and Connelly take a different approach. The Edwardian Army takes a bottom-up perspective and examines the many difficulties the army experienced trying to incorporate the reforms demanded by government and the army's high command. It reveals that although many good ideas were devised, the severely overstretched army was never in a position to act on them and that few regimental officers had the opportunity, or even the desire, to change their approach. Unable to shake-off the feeling that the army's primary purpose was to garrison and police the British Empire, it was by no means as well prepared for European continental warfare as many have presumed.
  • Connelly, M. (2012). Christmas: A Social History. London: I. B. Tauris.
  • Connelly, M. (2006). Steady The Buffs!: A Regiment, a Region, and the Great War. [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278602.001.0001.
    This book fully revises standard regimental history by establishing the framework and background to the regiment's role in the Great War. It tests the current theories about the British Army in the war and some of the conclusions of modern military historians. In recent years, a fascinating reassessment of the combat performance of the British Army in the Great War has stressed the fact that the British Army ascended a ‘learning curve’ during the conflict resulting in a modern military machine of awesome power. Research carried out thus far has been on a grand scale with very few examinations of smaller units. This study of the battalion of the Buffs has tested these theoretical ideas. The central questions addressed in this study are: the factors that dominated the officer-man relationship during the war; how identity and combat efficiency was maintained in the light of heavy casualties; the relative importance of individual characters to the efficiency of a battalion as opposed to the ‘managerial structures’ of the BEF; the importance of brigade and division to the performance of a battalion; the effective understanding and deployment of new weapons; the reactions of individual men to the trials of war; and the personal and private reactions of the soldiers' communities in Kent. This book adds a significant new chapter to our understanding of the British army on the Western Front, and the way its home community in East Kent reacted to experience. It reveals the way in which the regiment adjusted to the shock of modern warfare, and the bloody learning curve the Buffs ascended as they shared the British Expeditionary Force's march towards final victory.
  • Connelly, M. (2005). The Red Shoes. [Online]. London: I. B. Tauris. Available at: http://www.ibtauris.com/Books/The%20arts/Film%20TV%20%20radio/Films%20cinema/Film%20theory%20%20criticism/The%20Red%20Shoes%20Turner%20Classic%20Movies%20British%20Film%20Guide.aspx?menuitem={477DA164-4C3C-4B51-87A3-EBBD8774C73D}.
    Since its release in 1948 "The Red Shoes" has come to be regarded not only as a British classic, and as perhaps the most widely loved of all of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger' collaborations, but as a highlight of world cinema. Its fantastic - and indeed fantastical - mixture of dance, music, colour and light has inspired audiences across the decades. The first comprehensive study of the film that marks the pinnacle of the directors' remarkable relationship, Connelly's book offers fresh insights into this intriguing and beguiling work and into the characters at the heart of the story: the Svengali-like impresario and his obsession, the ingenue dancer embodied by the brilliant Moira Shearer. According to many accounts the most successful British film ever made, it is fitting that "The Red Shoes" should be celebrated in 2005, the centenary of Powell's birth.
  • Connelly, M. (2005). The Red Shoes. London: I B Tauris & Co Ltd.

Book section

  • Connelly, M., Fox, J., Schmidt, U. and Goebel, S. (2019). “Power and persuasion”: Propaganda into the twenty-first century. In: Connelly, M. L., Fox, J., Schmidt, U. and Goebel, S. P. eds. Propaganda and Conflict: War, Media and Shaping the Twentieth Century. Bloomsbury Academic. Available at: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/propaganda-and-conflict-9781788314039/.
  • Connelly, M., Fox, J., Schmidt, U. and Goebel, S. (2019). Introduction [part I to III]. In: Connelly, M. L., Fox, J., Schmidt, U. and Goebel, S. P. eds. Propaganda and Conflict: War, Media and Shaping the Twentieth Century. Bloomsbury Academic. Available at: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/propaganda-and-conflict-9781788314039/.
  • Connelly, M. (2018). The Great War in British and Australian cinema, 1914-40. In: Locicero, M. ed. Two Sides of the Same Bad Penny. Gallipoli and the Western Front, a Comparison. Helion. Available at: https://www.helion.co.uk/two-sides-of-the-same-bad-penny-gallipoli-and-the-western-front-1915-a-comparison.html.
    A comparative study of the way the British and Australian film industries reacted to the Great War and the various war films they produced.
  • Connelly, M. (2018). Ripples of the Somme: commemorating and remembering the battle, 1916-2016. In: Jones, S. ed. At All Costs: The British Army on the Western Front 1916. Helion, pp. 474-496. Available at: https://www.helion.co.uk/browse-title-series-more/the-wolverhampton-military-studies-series/books-in-series/at-all-costs-the-british-army-on-the-western-front-1916.html.
    A study of the way the Battle of the Somme has been commemorated over the last one hundred years.
  • Connelly, M. (2017). The British Army and the First World War: Various chapters: Introduction, Chapter 6: The Western Front, 1914, Chapter 7: The Western Front, 1915, Chapter 8: The Western Front, 1916, Chapter 9: The Western Front, 1917, Chapter 10: The Western Front, 1918. In: The British Army and the First World War. Cambridge University Press. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/history/military-history/british-army-and-first-world-war?format=PB.
  • Connelly, M. (2016). The British media and the image of the Empire in 1917. In: Turning Point Year: The British Empire at War in 1917. University of British Columbia Press.
  • Connelly, M. (2015). The Battles of the Coronel and Falkland Islands (1927) and the struggle for the cinematic image of the Great War. In: Kurschinski, K., Mari, S., Robinet, A., Symes, M. and Vance, J. F. eds. The Great War: From Memory to History. Wilfred Laurier University Press, pp. 305-328.
  • Connelly, M. (2014). Trench warfare: Britain and the memory of the Great War. In: Heroisches Elend: Der Erste Weltkrieg Im Intellektuellen, Literarischen Und Bildlichen Bewusstsein Der europäischen Kulturen. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Connelly, M. (2014). La Significance de Dunkerque pour les Britanniques. In: Martens, S. and Prausser, S. eds. La Guerre De 1940: Se Battre, Subir, Se Souvenir. Villeneuve-d’Ascq, France: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.
  • Connelly, M. (2014). Propaganda, Memory and Identity: the Battle of the Falkland Islands, December 1914. In: Welch, D. ed. Propaganda, Power and Persuasion. From World War I to Wikileaks. London: I. B. Tauris.
  • Connelly, M. (2013). Lieutenant-General Sir James Grierson. In: Jones, S. ed. Stemming the Tide. Officers and Leadership in the British Expeditionary Force 1914. Solihull: Helion.
  • Connelly, M. (2013). Rommel as media icon. In: Rommel: A Reassessment. Pen and Sword.
  • Connelly, M. (2012). The issue of surrender in the Malayan campaign, 1941-2. In: Afflerbach, H. and Strachan, H. eds. How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 341-351.
  • Connelly, M. (2011). The Cenotaph. In: Musgrove, D. ed. 100 Places That Made Britain. London: Random House/BBC Books, pp. 367-371.
  • Connelly, M. (2010). British reactions to the strategic air campaign, 1939-1945. In: Primoratz, I. ed. Terror from the Sky: The Bombing of German Cities in World War II. Berghahn.
  • Connelly, M. and Goebel, S. (2009). Zwischen Erinnerungspolitik und Erinnerungskonsum. Der Luftkrieg in Grossbritannien. In: Arnold, J., SüßD. and Thiessen, M. eds. Luftkrieg: Erinnerungen in Deutschland Und Europa. Go?ttingen, Germany: Wallstein.
  • Connelly, M. and Goebel, S. (2009). Zwischen Erinnerungspolitik und Erinnerungskonsum: Der Luftkrieg in Großbritannien. In: Arnold, J., SüßD. and ThießenM. eds. Luftkrieg: Erinnerungen in Deutschland Und Europa. Göttingen: Wallstein, pp. 50-65.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). We Can Take It! Grosbritannien und die Erinnerung an die Heimatfront im Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: Echternkamp, J. and Martens, S. eds. Der Zweite Weltkrieg in Europa: Erfahrung Und Erinnerung. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schoningh.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). Trafalgar: back on the map of British popular culture? Assessing the 2005 Bicentenary. In: Hoock, H. ed. History, Commemoration and National Preoccupation: Trafalgar 1805-2005. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). Gallipoli (1981) : ’a poignant search for national identity’. In: Glancy, M., Harper, S. and Chapman, J. eds. The New Film History: Sources, Methods, Approaches. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 41-54.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). Bomber Harris: Raking through the ashes of the Strategic Air Campaign against Germany. In: Paris, M. ed. Repicturing the Second World War. Representations in Film and Television. United Kingdom: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 162-176.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). Trafalgar: Back on the map of British popular culture? Assessing the 2005 bicentenary. In: Hoock, H. ed. History, Commemoration, and National Preoccupation: Trafalgar 1805-2005. Oxford: British Academy/Oxford University Press. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5871/bacad/9780197264065.001.0001.
  • Connelly, M. (2007). "We can take it!" : Grossbritannien und die Erinnerung an die Heimatfront im Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: Echternkamp, J. and Martens, S. eds. Der Zweite Weltkrieg in Europa: Erfahrung Und Erinnerung. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh.

Edited book

  • Connelly, M.L., Fox, J., Schmidt, U. and Goebel, S.P. eds. (2019). Propaganda and Conflict: War, Media and Shaping the Twentieth Century. [Online]. Bloomsbury Academic. Available at: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/propaganda-and-conflict-9781788314039/.

Monograph

  • Connelly, M. (2016). Celluloid War Memorials. The British Instructional Films Company and the Memory of the Great War. Exeter Press. Available at: https://www.exeterpress.co.uk/en/Book/9/820/Celluloid-War-Memorials.html.
    Introduction
    Chapter One: Forging an identity: The Battle of Jutland (1921) and Armageddon (1923)
    Chapter Two: Twisting the dragon’s tail: Zeebrugge (1924)) (
    Chapter Three: Filming the holy ground of British arms: Ypres (1925)
    Chapter Four: Retreating to Victory: Mons (1926)
    Chapter Five: Praising the not-so-silent service: The Battles of Coronel and Falkland Islands (1927)
    Epilogue and conclusion

Performance

  • Brooks, H. and Connelly, M. (2017). The St. Barnabas Hostels’ Pilgrimage, 1923. [Live Performance].
    In this fifteen minute dramatized reading, all of the texts have been drawn from St. Barnabas Pilgrimages, 1923 (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, n.d.). Extracts from the book include material from the Daily Express coverage of the pilgrimage; the testimony of Mrs William McLean to the People’s Journal; Mary Macleod Moore’s account for the Toronto Saturday Night. Macleod Moore was the London correspondent for the paper and for the Montreal Gazette. She had travelled extensively behind the lines during the war reporting on conditions. B.S. Browne was a member of the Ypres League.

Review

  • Connelly, M. (2007). Ypres: The first battle, 1914. War in History [Online] 14:116-118. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0968344506072127.
    The article reviews the book "Ypres: The First Battle, 1914," by Ian F. W. Beckett.

Thesis

  • Davies, J. (2017). A Very Haven of Peace: The Role of the Stately Home Hospital in First World War Britain.
    This thesis examines the role of the stately home hospital during the First World War. It assesses the social and cultural importance of these institutions, as well as the place that they, and their patients, held within wartime society. It argues that the establishment of a hospital in a stately home communicated a high level of patient care, reminding people all over the Empire how much Britain valued the sacrifices of its wounded. However, some members of the soldiery misinterpreted the value bestowed upon them by their status as war heroes. Consequently, the stately home hospital became a site of physical and emotional clashes between the wounded and the medical authorities. By placing these medical establishments in their social, cultural, political, and imperial contexts, this thesis delineates the myriad of ways that the space of the stately home hospital affected the experience of wounding and how a number of different people interacted with the institution and utilised it for many different purposes.
    The domestic nature of these private residences meant that they straddled the military and civilian spheres, which convoluted the position of the wounded soldier, the medical staff, and ancillary workers within. In addition, the space was home to a variety of non-military personnel who presented the wounded with a variety of different opportunities that transcended normal military spaces. This thesis explores these opportunities to discuss the important position stately home hospitals held within First World War Britain. Due to the historic role of the stately home in British social, cultural and political life, the experience of recovering within these walls was socially loaded. This thesis argues that the establishment of hospitals in these buildings was an important statement to the wounded and their families.
  • Evans, D. (2016). How Far Were the Lines Between Frontline and the Home Front Blurred in East Kent (Canterbury) During the Great War 1914-1918?.
    A socio-cultural investigation into the connections and breakdown between the home front and front lines, between civilians and soldiers. East Kent (in particular Canterbury) is investigated as a micro study to test the argument that civilians became soldiers at home. The study focuses on civilian identity constructs during 1914 - 1919 across local studies of war enthusiasm, everyday life, tribunals and gendered reactions to war in East Kent.
  • Thornton, J. (2015). Government Media Policy During the Falklands War.
    This study addresses Government media policy throughout the Falklands War of 1982. It considers the effectiveness, and charts the development of, Falklands-related public relations’ policy by departments including, but not limited to, the Ministry of Defence (MoD). The literature of the 1980s concerning the media during the conflict still dominates the historiography of the subject. This thesis is the first significant reappraisal of the work offered during the decade in which the war occurred. It is informed by recently released archive material and newly conducted interviews, and boasts an extensive analysis of the content of the printed press during the conflict.

    There are a number of central hypotheses contained in this research (as well as many lesser theories). This thesis argues that media policy observed by the MoD in relation to the Task Force journalists was ill-prepared, reactionary, driven by internal MoD motivation and that ultimately, control of policy was devolved to the men on the ground. This thesis advances that MoD media policy in Britain, while as reactive as that rolled out to the Task Force, became more effective as the war progressed. The MoD failed to adequately cater for the British media until the middle of May 1982, at which time a number of sensible and potentially successful initiatives were introduced – specifically the News Release Group and the Military Briefing Group. It is also the contention of this work that the machinery developed centrally, by the Cabinet Office and No.10 Press Office in the form of the South Atlantic Presentation Unit and Information Group, had the potential to be successful additions to the regular organisation of Government. However, neither had enough authority and were plagued by departmental rivalries. While the media-related initiatives of the MoD ultimately became more successful, those of wider Government became less effective. Finally, this thesis provides a serious analysis of the printed press in order to substantiate the hypothesis that much of what had been argued about the printed press was generalised and oversimplified – its reliance on Argentine source material, its jingoistic nature, the dominance of reports on armed conflict and its aversion to a diplomatic settlement.
  • Bundock, M. (2014). Herne Bay 1830-1880 a Failed Seaside Resort?.
    This thesis sets out to examine Herne Bay’s success or otherwise as a seaside resort in the period during the nineteenth century, with a specific focus on the period from 1830 until around 1880. The significance of these dates centres upon the involvement of speculators and the building of the first deep sea pier that opened in 1832 closely followed by the passing of an Improvement Act in 1833. The effect of the 1833 Act was to provide a form of governance over the town’s affairs with varying effectiveness until this was reformed in the early 1880s as a result of provisions contained within the Public Health Act 1875. This time period also includes important transport developments that had a significant effect upon the town.
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