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Undergraduate Courses 2017

Biology with a Sandwich Year - BSc (Hons)

Canterbury

Overview

Biology influences our everyday lives, and is at the forefront of social change, for example, stem-cell research, the use of genetically-modified organisms, humanity’s effect on the environment, and sustainable energy and food production.

Studying Biology, you investigate, describe and analyse the structures and functions of living organisms together with how they interact with the environment.

This BSc programme provides a broad survey of the various biological disciplines, including anthropology, biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, evolution, genetics, infection and immunity, microbiology, and the physiology of animals and plants.

The 'Sandwich Year' between Stages 2 and 3, provides an excellent opportunity to gain relevant work experience in industry in the UK or abroad. During your placement you are paid by your employer and produce an independent research project.

Opportunities are also available to work in one of our research labs during the summer vacation after your second year. The Stacey Fund provides funding for 20 to 30 eight-week Summer Studentships annually. These optional projects offer an ideal opportunity to gain further hands-on research experience.

Our related programme, Biology with a Year Abroad, includes one year studying abroad.

The School of Biosciences

Biosciences at Kent is rated one of the top schools in the country by its students. The School also has a reputation for innovation. Two of our academics have recently won National Teaching Fellowship Awards; for work on the School's communication projects and introducing novel ways of using IT in lectures which enables the teaching to be captured and easily reviewed later. The facilities within the School are excellent and include a recent £1 million refurbishment of the teaching laboratories.

Independent rankings

Biosciences at Kent was ranked 8th for course satisfaction in The Guardian University Guide 2017. Furthermore, in the National Student Survey 2016, 93% of our Biology students were satisfied with the quality of teaching.

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take ‘wild’ modules from other programmes offered by the University in order that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas of interest to you or that may further enhance your employability.

Stage 1

Possible modules may include:

BI300 - Introduction to Biochemistry (15 credits)

This course will provide an introduction to biomolecules in living matter. The simplicity of the building blocks of macromolecules (amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids and purine and pyrimidine bases) will be contrasted with the enormous variety and adaptability that is obtained with the different macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids). The nature of the electronic and molecular structure of macromolecules and the role of non-covalent interactions in an aqueous environment will be highlighted. The unit will be delivered though lectures, practicals, workshops and small group teaching. Frequent feedback will be given to the students to ensure that they fully understand what is expected of them. Short tests will be used throughout the unit to test the students' knowledge and monitor that the right material has been extracted from the lectures.



Lectures:



Introduction. What is Biochemistry? The chemical elements of living matter. The central role of carbon and the special properties of water. The underlying principle in the use of monomers to construct macromolecules. The nature of weak interactions in an aqueous environment.

Nucleic Acids. Types - DNA and RNA. Chemical structure, properties of phosphodiester linkage, primary structure. Nucleic Acids. Secondary structure - Watson Crick DNA model, A and Z DNA. Tertiary structure - circular DNA, supercoiling. Stability of nucleic acids - sugar phosphate chain, base pairing, base stacking. Biological functions of Nucleic Acids. Overview of replication, transcription and translation. Role of RNA - types, post-transcriptional processing, tRNA structure, ribosomes.

Proteins. Amino acids - structure, classification, properties. Peptides and peptide bond. Secondary structure. Structural proteins. Tertiary structure - role in function. Factors determining secondary and tertiary structure. Quaternary structure. Protein Function - Myoglobin versus Haemoglobin. Haemoglobin variants. Subcellular fractionation. Protein isolation and purification. Use of Molecular Graphics packages.

Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and formation (a and ß). Polysaccharides. Storage (e.g. starch, glycogen), structural (e.g. cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans bacterial cell walls). Glycoproteins.

Lipids: lipids, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids, steroids, waxes. Membranes: lipid bilayers, hydrophobic effect, fluid-mosaic model, membrane-bound proteins. Membrane transport systems: passive transport, ionophores, active transport, double-membrane systems, porin.

General techniques in biomolecular science: spectroscopy of small molecules, chromatography and electrophoresis.



Practicals:



1. Preparation and identification of nucleic acids.

2. Protein characterisation - spectroscopy, DTNB and disulphide bonds.

3. Analysis of the sugar composition of honey and TLC separation of lipids.

4.. Chromatographic separation of proteins

5. Assessed practical.



Workshops:



1. Molecular modelling using Jmol or similar

2. Model building workshop mono and di saccharides

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI301 - Enzymes and Introduction to Metabolism (15 credits)

This course aims to introduce the 'workers' present in all cells – enzymes, and their role in the chemical reactions that make life possible.



The fundamental characteristics of enzymes will be discussed – that they are types of protein that act as catalysts to speed up reactions, or make unlikely reactions more likely. Methods for analysis of enzymic reactions will be introduced (enzyme kinetics). Control of enzyme activity, and enzyme inhibition will be discussed.



Following on from this the pathways of intermediary metabolism will be introduced. Enzymes catalyse many biochemical transformations in living cells, of which some of the most fundamental are those which capture energy from nutrients. Energy capture by the breakdown (catabolism) of complex molecules and the corresponding formation of NADH, NADPH, FADH2 and ATP will be described. The central roles of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in aerobic metabolism will be detailed. The pathways used in animals for catabolism and biosynthesis (anabolism) of some carbohydrates and fat will be covered, as well as their control. Finally how humans adapt their metabolism to survive starvation will be discussed.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI302 - Molecular and Cellular Biology I (15 credits)

This course will expose students to key themes and experimental techniques in molecular biology, genetics and eukaryotic cell biology illustrated by examples from a wide range of microbial and mammalian systems. It will cover basic cell structure, and organisation of cells into specialised cell types and complex multi-cellular organisms. The principles of the cell cycle and cell division will be outlined. The control of all living processes by genetic mechanisms will be introduced and an opportunity to handle and manipulate genetic material provided in practicals. Lectures and practicals will run concurrently as far as possible and monitoring of students' knowledge and progress will be provided by multiple-choice tetsing and feedback in workshops.



Lectures:



Functional Geography of Cells: Introduction to Cell Organisation, Variety and Cell Membranes. Molecular Traffic in Cells. Organelles involved in Energy and Metabolism. Eukaryotic Cell Cycle. Chromosome Structure & Cell Division. Meiosis and Recombination.



Molecular biology: The structure and function of genetic material. Chromosomes, chromatin structure, mutations, DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination, basic mechanisms of transcription, mRNA processing and translation.



Techniques in Molecular and Cellular Biology: Methods in Cell Biology - light and electron microscopy; cell culture, fractionation and protein isolation/electrophoresis; antibodies, radiolabelling. Gene Cloning – vectors, enzymes, ligation, transformation, screening; hybridisation, probes and blots, PCR, DNA sequencing. Applications including recombinant protein expression, trangenics/knockouts, RNAi, genome projects, DNA typing, microarray and '…omics' studies (genome, proteome, interactome, metabolome etc).



Practical: Restriction digestion of DNA and gel analysis

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI307 - Human Physiology and Disease (15 credits)

This module considers the anatomy and function of normal tissues, organs and systems and then describe their major pathophysiological conditions. It will consider the etiology of the condition, its biochemistry and its manifestation at the level of cells, tissues and the whole patient. It will cover the diagnosis of the condition, available prognostic indicators and treatments.



It will include:



Cells and tissues, membrane dynamics, cell communication and homeostasis; Introduction to the nervous system; The immune system and inflammation; Blood cells and clotting; The cardiovascular system; the respiratory system; The digestive system, liver and pancreas and the Urinary system.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI308 - Skills for Bioscientists (15 credits)

Subject-based and communication skills are relevant to all the bioscience courses. This module allows you to become familiar with practical skills, the analysis and presentation of biological data and introduces some basic mathematical and statistical skills as applied to biological problems. It also introduces you to the computer network and its applications and covers essential skills such as note-taking and essay writing.



Topics covered in lectures/workshops:



How biosciences is taught at UKC - lectures, supervisions, problem solving classes, practicals. Effective study and listening skills, note taking and use of the library. Support networks.

General principles of analytical biochemistry - quantitative/qualitative analysis, making and recording measurements. The quality of data - random and systematic error, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

The manipulation and presentation of data - SI units, prefixes and standard form

Molarities and dilutions -concentration (molarity) and amounts (moles), dilutions.

Acids, bases and buffers in aqueous solutions - Definition of pH, acid and bases (including a revision of logarithms). Acid-base titrations. Buffer mixtures, buffering capacity and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.Dissociation of polyprotic, weak acids. Biochemical relevance of pH e.g. pH dependant ionisation of amino acids.

Spectroscopy - The range of electromagnetic radiation. Absorption and emission of radiation. Molecular absorptiometry - the use of the Beer-Lambert relationship for quantitative measurements using absolute or comparative methods (molar and specific extinction coefficients).

Reaction Kinetics. Reactions and rates of change: Factors affecting the rate of a reaction. Zero, first and second order reactions. Rate constants and rate equations (including integration). Worked examples of rates of reactions.



Statistics Descriptive statistics: definition of statistics, sampling, measurement scales, data hierarchy, summarising data, averaging, mean, mode, median, quantiles, graphical methods, displaying proportions, charts and chart junk. Parametrising distributions: coefficient of variation, normal distribution, properties of the normal curve, skewness and kurtosis, accuracy and precision.

Probability: definition, events, exclusivity and conditional probability, throwing dice and tossing coins, independent and dependent events, permutations, multiplicative rule, binomial distribution, unequal probabilities, Pascal's triangle, factorials and combinations.

Hypothesis testing: null hypothesis, p-value, normal curve, z-score and t-score, t values and confidence interval, t-tables, comparing two samples, degrees of freedom, t-tests for same and different sample sizes, paired samples, difference between means.

Correlation and covariance: two-dimensional distributions, scatter diagram, degree and limits of correlation, spurious correlation, correlation and causality, time correlation, normalising the covariance, covariance in spreadsheet calculations.

Regression: the regression line, slope and intercept parameters, regression in spreadsheet calculations, history of regression, assumptions in regression, effect of outliers, how not to use statistics.





Practicals:



1. Introduction to basic laboratory techniques-

a) preparation of buffer solutions and

b) determination of accuracy

2. pH and buffers

3. Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI321 - Biological Chemistry A (15 credits)

The principles of chemistry are an essential foundation for biochemistry. Building up from the atomic level, this module introduces periodicity, functional groups, compounds and chemical bonding, molecular forces, molecular shape and isomerism, and chemical reactions and equilibria, enabling you to understand the importance of organic chemistry in a biological context.



Phase A: Autumn Term (5 lectures, 6 x 2 hr Workshops)



Basic chemical concepts for biology will be taught and applied through examples in a workshop atmosphere. The five workshop topics covered are: (i) Atoms and states of matter (ii) valence and bonding (iii) basic organic chemistry for biologists (iv) molecular shapes and isomerism in biology and (iv) chemical reactivity and chemical equations. Workshop (vi) is for revision before the assessment test.



Phase B: Autumn Term (9 lectures, 1 x 2 hr Workshop)



Chemical and biochemical thermodynamics (6 lectures, 1 workshop). Topics covered are: (i) energetic and work, (ii) enthalpy, entropy and the laws of thermodynamics (iii) Gibbs free energy, equilibrium and spontaneous reactions, (iv) Chemical and biochemical equilibrium (including activity versus concentration and Le Chatelier’s principle). The two hour workshop is designed to be delivered as small group sessions to cover the applications and practice of thermodynamics concepts.



Chemistry applied to biological concepts (3 lectures): bonding, valence, hybridisation as well as biological applied thermodynamic process (biomolecular association/dissociation).

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI323 - Biodiversity (15 credits)

The aim of this module is to introduce the diversity of life, evolution and development of body form in a wide variety of organisms, including prokaryotes, animals and plants.



Lectures/Workshops:



The classification of the living world; hierarchical system of Linnaeus based on similarity. Relationships between living organisms, the kingdoms and domains.

Prokaryotes and basal eukaryotes: classification of the basal kingdoms and the relationship between them. Diversity of Bacteria and Archaea and "protists".

Fungi: characteristics of the major groups, classification and ecological importance.

Plants: classification and relationships including evolution from algae; the relative success of each major group. Overview of photosynthesis.

Animals: characterisation based on body plans.

Invertebrates: an outline classification of some major phyla. Evolutionary and developmental trends within invertebrates.

Vertebrates: classification and interrelationships of the groups, fundamental body plans.

An introduction to ecology and conservation and biodiversity

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI324 - Genetics and Evolution (15 credits)

This module is an introduction to Mendelian genetics and also includes human pedigrees, quantitative genetics, and mechanisms of evolution.



Lectures/Workshops:



Genetics

An introduction to the genetics of a variety of organisms including Mendelian inheritance (monohybrid and dihybrid) and exceptions to the predicted outcomes due to incomplete dominance, co-dominance, lethal alleles, epistasis and genetic linkage, the chromosomal basis of inheritance, organelle based inheritance and epistasis. The inheritance of human genetic disease and its investigation by human pedigree analysis will also be introduced. Bacterial genetics.



Evolution

The nature of mutation, including molecular mechanisms leading to the mutation of DNA, and the role of both mutation and horizontal gene transfer in evolution. Historical views on evolution, Darwin’s observations, the fossil record to modern techniques. Microevolution, population genetics and analysis of the distribution of genes within populations and mechanisms of gene flow, genetic drift, selection and speciation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Stage 2

Possible modules may include:

BI501 - Gene Expression and Its Control (15 credits)

The module deals with the molecular mechanisms of gene expression and its regulation in organisms ranging from viruses to man. This involves descriptions of how genetic information is stored in DNA and RNA, how that information is decoded by the cell and how this flow of information is controlled in response to changes in environment or developmental stage. Throughout, the mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes will be compared and contrasted and will touch on the latest developments in how we can analyse gene expression, and what these developments have revealed.



Lectures:

A. The genome - Human genome, human chromosomes, mapping and cloning human genes, DNA testing and disease diagnosis, genome organisation, analysing genomes.

B. The gene - Gene organisation. Gene evolution. Gene transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: RNA polymerases, promoters, regulatory sequences. mRNA processing in eukaryotes: intron splicing, the spliceosome, turnover pathways, catalytic RNA. mRNA translation: tRNA, the ribosome, mechanism (initiation, elongation, termination).

C. Gene regulation - Transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes: operons. Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes: simple vs complex systems, promoters and enhancers. Post-transcriptional regulation: mRNA processing and turnover, translational control, non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic control.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI505 - Infection and Immunity (15 credits)

Medically important microbial diseases

Gatrointestional infections, Upper respiratory tract infections, Genital infections

Lower respiratory tract infections, CNS infections, Infections of the skin, Urinary tract infections, Ear and eye infections, Parasitic infections, Mycoses



Immunological Topics

Introduction to the basic concepts of innate and adaptive immunity to pathogens. Immune defense mechanisms against bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Antibody classes, antigen processing, complement, cytotoxic cells, interferons, the generation of antibody diversity. Cell communication, and the regulation of immunity by T cell. Immunopathology, including autoimmunity, allergy and transplant rejection.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI513 - Human Physiology and Disease 2 (15 credits)

This module develops a more detailed understanding of particular physiological systems and relates this to relevant disease processes and their detection. The role of research and laboratory methods in understanding human disease is also introduced at this stage.



Lecture Overview



Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive systems; Endocrine control of reproduction: Fertilisation; Early embryogenesis; Pregnancy and Parturition; Reproductive disorders



Muscle: Muscle types: skeletal, smooth and cardiac; Structure of muscle; Molecular basis of contraction; Regulation of contraction including neural control; Energy requirements of muscle; Types of movement: reflex, voluntary, rhythmic; Muscle disorders.



Nervous System Cells of the nervous system: neurons and glia; Electrical properties of neurons: action potential generation and conduction; Synaptic structure and function: transmitters and receptors. Structural organization of the central nervous system (CNS) and function of individual regions; Organization and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS): somatic motor, autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and sensory; Sensory systems: vision, hearing, taste, smell, pain. Disorders of the nervous system



Endocrine System: Endocrine glands; Classes of hormones; Mechanisms of hormone action; Regulation of hormone release; Endocrine disorders.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI532 - Skills For Bioscientists 2 (15 credits)

A. Communication Skills in Biosciences:

Essay writing, oral presentations, laboratory reports, the scientific literature and literature reviews. Working in groups.



B. Techniques in Biomolecular Science:

Immunochemistry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibody production, immuno-chromatography, ELISA and RIA.

Electrophoresis, Immunoblotting, Protein Determination, Activity Assays, Purification



C. Computing for Biologists:

Bioinformatics, phylogenetic trees, database searches for protein/DNA sequences



D. Mini-project – introduction to research skills:

Students will work in groups of eight to undertake directed experimental work (Group Project) before extending the project further through self-directed experiments working as a pair (Mini Project).



E. Careers:

The programme will be delivered by the Careers Advisory Service and will review the types of careers available for bioscience students. The sessions will incorporate personal skills, careers for bioscience graduates, records of achievement, curriculum vitae preparation, vacation work, postgraduate study, interview skills and action planning.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI546 - Animal Form and Function (15 credits)

You study the diversity of animal life throughout evolution, including elements of functional anatomy and physiology such as circulation and gaseous exchange, the digestive system, the nervous system and reproduction.



Topics:



a. Comparative physiology – in this section the diversity of different physiological systems will be studied including circulation, gaseous exchange, feeding and digestion, excretion, nervous tissue and the senses , reproduction and immunology.



b. Form and Function – in this section a diverse range of taxonomic groups and their characteristics will be studied to understand the relationship between structure and function. How these characteristics equip the animal to survive and succeed in its particular environment will be explored.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI547 - Plant Physiology and Adaptation (15 credits)

This module provides a general grounding in plant biology, including form and function, photosynthesis, phytohormones, and adaptation to the environment.

• Regulation of the cell cycle; cell division; plant cell wall structure and biogenesis; plant cell plastids (plant cell specific organelle)- biogenesis and function

• Photosynthesis – mechanism and regulation of photosynthesis, photorespiration, C3, C4 and CAM

• Adaptation of photosynthesis to the environment. Carbon allocation of photoassimilate and its regulation.

• Plant hormones and signalling, the role of auxin, phototropism, gravitropism, photoperiodism, flowering

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI548 - Microbial Physiology and Genetics I (15 credits)

This module includes a review of the structure and biosynthesis of bacterial and fungal cells, their key metabolic processes and their quest for food. You also study microbial growth, genome organisation and the structure and mechanisms of DNA?transfer.



Lectures:



Introduction: The ecological, medical, scientific and commercial importance of bacteria. Bacterial evolution and taxonomy. (2 lectures)



Microbial biodiversity at the structural level: Composition of the average bacterial cell, basic bacterial cell structure in comparison to a model eukaryotic cell (yeast). Gram positive and gram negative. Archea. Organisation of DNA. Membranes and the transport of small molecules into and out of the cell. Peptidoglycan and Lps and their importance in pathogenesis. The location and function of proteins. Capsule, flagella and adhesins. (7 lectures)



Introduction to growth, fuelling and biosynthesis: Division by binary fission, including growth equations. Growth in batch and chemostat cultures; liquid vs. solid media. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors affecting growth (temperature, osmolarity, pH and antibiotics). Physiological state and balanced growth. Adaptation to extreme conditions. (3 lectures)



Microbial biodiversity at the physiological and biochemical level: The diversity in bacterial metabolism (nutrient sources (particularly carbon and nitrogen)), photosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic growth and alternative terminal electron acceptors. Fermentation. The inverse relationship between growth factor requirements and biochemical complexity. The ecological significance of bacteria. (3 lectures)



Synthesis, localisation and assembly of macromolecular structures: DNA replication and transcription. Translational and protein localisation, assembly of flagella and adhesins. Membranes, including Lps. Peptidoglycan. Antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Capsules. (4 lectures + Practical)



Signalling and physiological control: Introduction to bacterial genetics. The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to a model factor (iron availability – the Fur/RyhB regulon). Chemotaxis. (3 lectures)



Practicals:



“Antibiotics” the students investigate the effects of bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal antibiotics on bacterial growth. They are required to answer questions about the practical results as well as associated data addressing the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.



“Characterisation and identification practical” The students assess/measure factors using chromogenic / visual readouts (ideally qualitative and quantitative), relating to metabolism and virulence (e.g. Casein, Gelatine and Urea hydrolysis, fermentation of variety of carbon (carbohydrate sources), starch hydrolysis and agglutination tests with yeast. The students would collate the information together and identify / characterise the isolates (given as ABCD) and explain how they may differ in the niches they occupy.



Workshop:



“Growth and viable counts” in which the students are given numerical data + growth equations and have to define factors such as (i) dilutions needed to give specific cell numbers, (ii) generations of growth to achieve specific cells numbers (iii) growth rate/doubling time.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Year in industry

Biology offers the possibility of taking a one-year placement away from the University between Stages 2 and 3. Sandwich placements provide an excellent opportunity to gain relevant work experience in industry in the UK or abroad. You are paid by your employer and also produce an independent research project.

On a sandwich placement you acquire additional skills and gain first-hand experience of a particular type of work, which will help to inform your career decisions at the end of your degree. Students have worked at companies including: GlaxoSmithKline, MedImmune, Lonza, BASF, Eli Lilly and Bayer Crop Science.

Progression: To progress to stage 2 you must achieve an overall average of 65% in Stage 1 unless you applied before July and met the conditions of the entry offer made. If the 65% requirement is not met, you will be transferred to the equivalent 3-year programme which is identical except for the year spent away from the University.

Visit the School of Biosciences web pages for more information about the sandwich option, including comments from past students.

Possible modules may include:

BI797 - Sandwich Year Assessment (120 credits)

A placement typically is a 9-12 month internship with a commercial or public sector or charity organisation which provides opportunities for the student to develop graduate level subject-specific and generic employability skills. Choice of placement by student will be guided and facilitated at UoK with the learning outcomes listed above in mind. It is requested by UoK that the student be closely guided in work (usually with a named supervisor) involving specialist training. Placements are expected to have a scientific research focus and incorporate a project element that may be written up as a scientific report, however, the specific type of work undertaken may vary significantly from placement to placement. The research project should occupy not less than thirty percent of the sandwich year.

Credits: 120 credits (60 ECTS credits).

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Stage 3

Possible modules may include:

BI628 - Microbial Physiology and Genetics II (15 credits)

Building upon the second year course Microbial Physiology and Genetics 1, this advanced level course focuses on how physiological homeostasis is maintained in the bacterial cell in response to environmental stresses.



Lectures:

Introduction: Outline of how physiological homeostasis and adaptation is achieved in the bacterial cell.



Experimental approaches used to study microbial physiology and genetics: "Classical" and "reverse" genetics as applied to the study of bacteria. The use of reporter fusions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of gene expression. Deep sequencing and metagenomics. Protein-nucleic acid interactions.



Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacteria: Transcription and translation in bacteria and the diverse mechanisms by which they are controlled. Phase variation and quorum sensing as modes of gene regulation.



Complex signalling and physiological control: Selected examples of physiological control in microorganisms, including the Sigma E envelope stress response pathway, regulation in response to nitrogen availability and nitric oxide stress, sensing, and detoxification mechanisms.



Microbial biodiversity at the physiological and biochemical level: Diversity of respiratory adaptations. Light harvesting: purple bacteria & cyanobacteria. Photosynthetic electron transport in purple bacteria & cyanobacteria.



Practical: Practical on E. coli demonstrating how the envelope stress response factor Sigma E and it's sRNA-controlled target regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level using lacZ reporter fusions.



Symposium: Group presentation of a research paper relating to topic areas in "Complex signalling and physiological control" or "Microbial biodiversity at the physiological and biochemical level"

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI626 - Integrated Endocrinology and Metabolism (15 credits)

This module focuses on the endocrine system, one of the two great control systems of the body. In conjunction with the nervous system, these two regulatory systems are responsible for monitoring changes in an animal's internal and external environments and directing the body to make any necessary adjustments to its activities so that it adapts itself to these environmental changes.



The emphasis will be on understanding the underlying principles of endocrinology, the mechanisms involved in regulating hormone levels within tight parameters in an integrated manner and the central importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.



During the lectures each major endocrine gland or functional gland or functional group of glands will be explored in turn and specific clinical disorders will be used to illustrate the role of the endocrine organs in the maintenance of whole body homeostasis. The systems studied will include the following: thyroid gland, parathyroid gland and bone metabolism, adrenal gland, renal hormones (water and salt balance), pancreatic hormones, gut hormones and multiple endocrine neoplasia, gonadal function and infertility.



Consideration will be given to the methods available for the diagnosis of specific endocrine disease, including the measurement pf electrolyte and hormone levels, and the role of dynamic testing,



The role of the endocrine system in integrating metabolic pathways will be emphasised throughout the module and particular scenarios such as infertility, diabetes mellitus.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI642 - Cancer Biology (15 credits)

This module will develop further understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, and will explore how this knowledge may be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to tackle the disease in its variety of forms. Topics to be covered include the regulation of gene expression, the role of growth factor signalling and oncogenes/tumour suppressor genes in disease progression; the cell cycle and apoptosis; cancer stem cells and differentiation; chemo-resistance and metastasis; DNA structure and stability; tumour immunology; targeted cancer therapies and clinical trial design.



Topics:

A. The Molecular Biology of Cancer: Regulation of gene expression; Growth factor signalling and oncogenes; Growth inhibition and tumour suppressor genes; the Cell Cycle and apoptosis.

B. Cancer stem cells and differentiation; chemo-resistance and metastasis.

C. Tumour immunology; targeted cancer therapies and clinical trial design.

D. DNA structure and stability: mutations versus repair.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI643 - Neuroscience (15 credits)

The module is divided into three roughly equal sized units, each dealing with a specific aspect of neurobiology. Throughout, both the normal system and diseases and disorders that arise as a consequence of abnormalities will be covered.



Unit 1: Development of the Nervous System



Looks at how the complex and intricately wired nervous system develops from a simple sheet of neuroepithelial cells by addressing the cellular and molecular basis of:

Neurulation (formation of the brain and spinal cord)

Nerve cell proliferation (Neurogenesis)

Differentiation and survival of nerve cells

Axon growth and guidance

Synapse formation (Synaptogenesis)



Unit 2: Signalling at the Synapse



Considers the molecules and mechanisms involved in transmission of signals between nerve cells:

Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

Molecular mechanisms of transmitter release

Neurotransmitter receptors and transporters



Unit 3: The Brain and Behaviour



Explores how the nervous system controls a variety of behaviours including:

Learning and memory

Sleep and dreaming

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI622 - Advanced Immunology (15 credits)

Since the discovery of HIV, great progress has been made in our understanding of the immune system. This module looks at topical aspects of this subject, with emphasis on the regulation of the immune response and dysfunctional immune systems in disease states.



Lectures:



Introduction to the immune systems of the body



Antigen processing and presentation:

Role of antigen presenting cells especially dendritic cells; processing and presentation of endogenous and exogenous antigens and virus evasion; immunotherapies



Transplantation immunology:

Basis of tolerance and graft rejection; clinical aspects of transplant rejection; general and specific immunosuppressive therapies



Autoimmunity:

The induction of tolerance to self; causes leading to autoimmunity; role of antibody; clinical examples of autoimmune disease



Hypersensitivity:

Type I (IgE-mediated); type II (antibody-mediated cytotoxic); type III (immune-complex mediated) and type IV hypersensitivity; clinical manifestations and therapies for hypersensitivity, the hygiene hypothesis, clinical examples of diseases



Role of cytokines in the immune system:

Properties of cytokines; cytokine receptors; cytokine-related diseases including inherited immunodeficiencies; the therapeutic applications of cytokines and their receptors



Cell migration and inflammation:

Lymphocyte recirculation; role of adhesion molecules; neutrophil and lymphocyte extravasation; the inflammatory process; chronic inflammatory diseases



Tumour immunology:

Tumour-specific and -associated antigens; immune response to tumours; tumour evasion of immune responses; cancer immunotherapy



Applied immunology - immunotherapy: vaccines; immunodiagnostics; immunoaffinity



Feedback session on Assessments 1 and 2 (Spring Term)

Revision session (Spring Term)

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI604 - Biological Membranes (15 credits)

Cells and subcellular compartments are separated from the external milieu by lipid membranes with protein molecules inserted into the lipid layer. The structure and function of these two components are diverse, ranging from regulatory functions to maintaining the structure of the cell.



Topics:



Review of the fluid mosaic model for membrane organisation:

Experimental evidence for fluidity – lateral/rotational/flip-flop.



Membrane proteins:

Types: integral vs peripheral, and their experimental definition. Asymmetry and sidedness.

Bitopic and mono-topic, general review of synthetic mechanisms (signal sequences etc.) for bitopic protein synthesis.



Structures of channel and carrier proteins and some mechanisms and diseases.

Monotopic membrane proteins: exposed on one side of the membrane e.g. squalene-hopene cyclase, ras, fatty acylated proteins, GPI-linked (sticky fingers and greasy feet).

Peripheral membrane proteins. Interaction with the lipid bilayer via pleckstrin homology and other domains.

Generation of bitopic and monotopic proteins by differential exon usage in a single gene, e.g. NCAM.



Membrane lipids:

Types: phospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols; in vivo distributions.

Formation of bilayers: evidence for bilayer structures.

Sidedness and asymmetry of lipids: dynamics, and phases

Rafts and caveolae: structural evidence and relation to signalling.

Pointers to membrane lipid metabolism: phospholipases and signalling; metabolic defects and Tay-Sachs disease.



The in vivo structure of a mammalian plasma membrane:

The red cell membrane: observation of the requirements of such a membrane and how those requirements are not met in certain disease states (spherocytosis, elliptocytosis and pyropiokilocytosis). The putative CO2 metabolon. Structure of the red cell membrane and its associated cytoskeleton: the spectrin/ankyrin/actin system.



The membrane skeleton as a mechanism for restricting the mobility of membrane proteins in the plane of a membrane: relationship to non-erythroid cells, examples including cardiomyocyte membrane cytoskeleton and long QT syndrome resulting from ankyrin defects.



Practicals:

An exploration of the red cell membrane focusing on the anion transporter. The practical will include computer analysis of the sequence of the anion transporter to predict its structure in relation to experimental data from the practical.



Workshop: exam preparation.



Supervisions: problem solving based on past exam papers.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI606 - Pathogens & Pathogenicity (15 credits)

You study the molecular basis for microbial pathogenesis in relation to bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. Topics include host-pathogen interactions, therapeutic strategies, vaccination and the role of viruses in the development of cancer.



Lectures:



Bacterial pathogens



Microbial pathogenicity: variations on a common theme.

Methodology of studying bacterial pathogenesis.

Virulence factors including toxins and adhesins.

Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

Applications of virulence factors in the treatment and prevention of disease.



Viral pathogens



Viruses and Human Disease - transmission and spread, overview of important human virus infections, mechanisms of transmission (Aerosol, Oro-fecal, Sexual etc.), epidemiology - patterns of endemic and epidemic disease.



Mechanisms of Pathogenesis - spread in the body, disease mechanisms, mechanisms of cell killing (Herpes simplex and Polio), immunopathology and auto-immune disease.



Virus infection – long term consequences for the host, escape through mutation and natural selection, disabling the immune system, avoidance mechanisms.



Viruses and Cancer - mechanisms of virus transformation (EBV, Retroviruses & Papilloma), viruses and human cancer (Cervical carcinoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma & Burkitt Lymphoma).



Human fungal pathogens



Fungi and Human Disease - overview of major human fungal infections, clinical picture, diagnosis and mechanisms of transmission, epidemiological aspects of fungal infections.



Mechanisms of Pathogenesis - adherence, invasion of eukaryotic cells, morphogenesis, virulence factors: Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum.



Whole genome analysis of fungal pathogens



Host resistance to infection and antifungal chemotherapy - host defense mechanisms to fungal infections, role of the humoral and cellular immune response, antifungal chemotherapy: azoles, polyenes, echinocandines and antimetabolites, future developments for the treatment of fungal infections.



Eukaryotic pathogens (parasites)



Parasites and pathogenicity, transmission and diversity.



Definitions on parasitic lifestyle.



Investigations on worldwide parasitic outbreaks (e.g. malaria, trypanosomiasis, cryptosporidiosis) and their socio-economical effects.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI602 - Cell Signalling (15 credits)

This module begins by overviewing the principles of cell signalling and the diverse mechanisms used by cells to communicate, considering the main modes of cell-cell communication (adhesion and gap junctions; ligand-receptor complexes), the major classes of signalling molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors) and the receptor types upon which they act. It then focuses on nuclear, G-protein coupled, and enzyme linked receptors covering in molecular detail these receptors and their associated signal transduction pathways.



Introduction :

Principles of cell signalling

Cell adhesion and cell communication (adhesion and gap junctions)

Signalling molecules: hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors

Receptor types: Nuclear, G-protein coupled, Ion-channel linked, Enzyme-linked.



Nuclear receptors: cellular location and molecular organisation of receptors, structure-function-activity relationships, receptors as sequence-specific DNA binding proteins.

G protein coupled receptors: receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins, guanine binding proteins, effectors (e.g. adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C), second messengers (e.g. cAMP, IP3, DAG), protein kinases and phosphatases.

Receptor tyrosine kinases e.g. epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) family and insulin receptor, and their varied roles in cellular metabolism, cell behaviour, development and disease.



Practical: Characterisation of G-protein coupled receptors using a cAMP-linked reporter gene assay.



Workshop: Overview of the module in preparation for revision/exam.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI644 - Biology of Ageing (15 credits)

The module overviews the importance of studying ageing, the organisms and methods used to do so. It considers how organisms age, together with providing a detailed understanding of the processes and molecular mechanisms that govern ageing.



Introduction

Importance and principles of ageing research

Why do organisms age and theories of ageing: e.g. Damage theory, telomeres, genetics and trade off theories.

How ageing and lifespan is measured.

Overview of processes and pathways controlling ageing.



Methods in ageing research

Model Organisms: Benefits and problems associated with studying ageing in model organisms, including: yeast, worms, flies, mice, primates.

Systems approaches to studying ageing: e.g. high throughput DNA/RNA sequencing, high throughput proteomics and, metabolomics. Pros and cons of these methods, what we have learned from them?



Signalling pathways that control ageing

Insulin signalling pathway and Target of Rapamycin (ToR) pathway.

Organisation of pathways and the molecules involved, how they were discovered to be implicated in lifespan and ageing, ways of modelling and studying their molecular detail in animals e.g. genetic/ epistasis analysis.

The processes downstream of these pathways that allow them to control lifespan/ageing e.g. stress resistance, autophagy, reduced translation, enhanced immunity etc.

Cross-talk between pathways.

Dietary restriction, lifespan and ageing.

How dietary restriction works in different organisms, what signalling pathways and processes it affects.



Diseases of ageing

What these are e.g. Alzheimer's, Huntington's.

Overview of 'normal ageing' associated processes e.g. muscle weakening.

How they can be studied in model organisms and the importance of ageing research for treating these disorders.



Ethics of ageing research

Pros and cons of studying ageing with a goal of extending human lifespan e.g. insurance, health system, social, psychological implications.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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DI501 - Climate Change and Conservation (15 credits)

This module will inform students how climate has influenced the diversity of life on Earth, from past to present, and its likely future impacts. We will begin with a summary of the physical science basis of contemporary climate change and the role that anthropogenic factors have played since the commencement of the industrial era. We will then explore the biological and ecological impacts of climate change on individual organisms, populations and communities, with particular emphasis given to understanding how species are responding. The module will then explore how conservation biologists are using particular interventions to ameliorate the most harmful and destabilising effects of climate change. From a more general perspective, the social, economic and political ways in which climate change can be mitigated will be assessed

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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DI503 - Evolutionary Genetics and Conservation (15 credits)

Genetics forms the basis of the diversity of life on earth, and is fundamental to biodiversity, speciation, evolutionary ecology, and has become recognized to be vital to the successful restoration of endangered species. An understanding of the evolutionary processes that foster biodiversity and genetic diversity is essential for modern conservation biologists, across timescales ranging from a few generations to millions of years. Students will gain an understanding of the importance of genetic processes and evolutionary mechanisms within the context of conservation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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SE561 - Biology and Human Identity (15 credits)

The module is designed as a bridging module between more biological elements of the BSc programme and the more socio-cultural anthropology courses students take as part of that programme. Being largely a broad survey of human evolutionary biology and identity, it will serve to introduce the more biological students to arguments and materials that will place their biological understanding within a broader framework of ideas about what makes people who and what they are and encourage them to explore the socio-cultural aspects of biological science. For the more socio-cultural BA students the module provides an opportunity to consolidate biological understanding from the Foundations of Biological Anthropology module and learn how to assess the assumptions and limitations of biology in the understanding of human behaviour. We will cover topics such as the human fossil record, human variation, what makes us human and ecological adaptation. By the end of the module the student should have knowledge of the basic principles of biological anthropology, an understanding of human identity, and be able to relate those ideas to wider concepts in biology. The student will be given an overview of the hominin fossil record and its interpretation, and receive in depth study of the different biological and social aspects that define us as human and the evolution of human life histories. The student will be introduced to the genetic and phenotypic variation of the modern human species, how humans have adapted to particular environments, and the importance diet played in human evolution. The student will also acquire some of the practical skills of data collection currently used by biological anthropologists.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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SE582 - Comparative Perspectives in Primate Biology (15 credits)

This module will provide the fundamental theoretical and comparative perspective that lies at heart of biology, with a particular focus on the order Primates. Particular attention will be paid to the evolutionary history of the primates and comparative primate (skeletal) anatomy, both placed in an evolutionary ecological context (e.g. a consideration of dentition in relation to diet and feeding; post-cranial anatomy in relation to locomotion and phylogenetic trends). Extensive use of casts of primate skeletal material will provide hands-on ‘experiential’ learning. The module will provide a detailed treatment of natural and sexual selection as key components of evolutionary theory that shape the adaptations of organisms, and the way adaptations are used to make sense of the diversity of organisms with particular reference to the primates. It complements, and is complemented by, SE580 Primate Behaviour and Ecology.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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CB612 - New Enterprise Startup (15 credits)

The curriculum is based on the Small Firms Enterprise Development Initiative (National Standards-setting body for small business) Standards for Business Start-up, but has been expanded to include contemporary issues such as Intellectual Property and recent legislation. It will include the following areas of study:

• Why firms become insolvent – economic financial and operational reasons for business failure, risks & liabilities, skills requirements for business ownership, self-development planning, sources of advice and support for businesses

• The new business planning process and format, developing & evaluating the business idea, producing a business plan for potential lenders.

• Financial aspects – budgetary planning & control, cash-flow and working capital, understanding financial accounting and key financial documents, break-even analysis, credit control and debt recovery, understanding PAYE & VAT.

• Market research, competition and barriers to market entry, identifying customers, market segmentation, planning the sales & marketing processes, customer perceptions & customer care, developing quality standards for the business

• Legal issues: reporting requirements, UK & EU law relevant to small businesses, business formats & trading status and their respective risks and liabilities, insurance, insolvency; patents, copyrights and IPR.

• Planning & employing staff, planning and obtaining premises, physical & financial resources; phased implementation of the business plan.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI620 - Virology (15 credits)

This module surveys the full replication cycle of a broad range of viral families, including newly emerging infectious diseases. The module includes interactive discussions on a number of recent scientific publications that highlight the relevant and important issues in the field of virology today.



Part A: survey of viral families and their properties

Virus families and taxonomy

Viral structure

Viral genomics

Virus replication (overview)

Virus transmission

Viral diseases and host interactions

Anti-viral therapeutics and vaccination



Part B: detailed examination of the different mechanisms of viral replication

Entry

Protein synthesis

Genome replication

Assembly

Budding

Transmission



Part C: fundamental methods in virus research

Key historical methods

Current standard techniques

Novel methods



Part D: virology research design

Grant writing

Oral presentation

Research review and evaluation

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI638 - Bioinformatics and Genomics (15 credits)

The past decade has seen significant advances in our ability to obtain biological data, be it protein structures or genome sequences. The bioinformatics element of this module will focus on modelling the structure, interactions and function of proteins. The genomics element will introduce the basic concepts of genome sequencing and what we have learnt from the sequencing of over 1000 different organisms. Finally the module will combine both elements to use protein modelling to identify how genetic variants (e.g. mutations) lead to disease. The lectures will teach the theory and the computer workshops will introduce some of the many web servers available to perform bioinformatics analyses.



Topics:



A. Bioinformatics Data sources & Sequence analysis:

Databases and data availability. Using sequence data for analysis – sequence searching methods, multiple sequence alignments, residue conservation, Phylogenetics, Protein domains and families (e.g. Pfam, Interpro).



B. Protein Bioinformatics Methods

Protein structure and function prediction. Prediction of binding sites/interfaces with small ligands and with other proteins. Bioinformatics analyses using protein data.



C. Genomics

An introduction to DNA analysis methods moving onto omics approaches, primarily focussing on the data available from DNA sequencing – how it can be used to compare genomes (comparative and functional genomics). Metagenomics and transcriptomics will also be covered.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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BI639 - Frontiers in Oncology (15 credits)

BI639 Frontiers in Oncology

This module introduces the basic principles of cancer biology and cancer therapy. It will explain the characteristics of cancer and why the development of more effective anti-cancer therapies is so extremely challenging. The module includes interactive discussions on a number of recent scientific publications that highlight the relevant and important issues at the frontiers of cancer research today.



Part A: survey of the leading issues in oncology

origin of cancer

cancer biology

cancer therapies



Part B: fundamental methods applied in oncological research

Key historical methods

Current standard techniques

Novel methods



Part C: oncology research design

Grant writing

Oral presentation

Research review and evaluation

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Teaching & Assessment

Teaching includes lectures, laboratory classes, workshops, problem-solving sessions and tutorials. You have an Academic Adviser who you meet with at regular intervals to discuss your progress, and most importantly, to identify ways in which you can improve your work further so that you reach your full potential.

Most modules are assessed by a combination of continuous assessment and end-of-year exams. Exams take place at the end of the academic year and count for 50% or more of the module mark. Stage 1 assessments do not contribute to the final degree classification, but all stage 2 and 3 assessments do, meaning that your final degree award is an average of many different components. On average, 29% of your time is spent in an activity lead by an academic; the rest of your time is for independent study.

The Sandwich Year is assessed by a presentation and a written report and contributes 10% to the overall mark.

Programme aims

The programme aims to:

  • instil a sense of enthusiasm for the application of different methods and disciplines to biology, confront the scientific, moral and ethical issues and engage in critical assessment of the subject material covered
  • provide a broad and balanced foundation of the science that underpins biology and methodology in a modern society including a detailed knowledge of the biological techniques and methods of assay, analysis and examination used by biologists and biomolecular and organismal knowledge required for understanding of life at all levels of complexity
  • provide a stimulating, research-active environment in which students will be supported and motivated to achieve their academic and personal potential
  • educate students in the theoretical and practical aspects of biology
  • provide students with the ability to undertake an independent research project
  • prepare students for further study, or training, and employment in biology and non-biology based careers, by developing their transferable and cognitive skills
  • develop the qualities needed for employment in situations requiring the exercise of professionalism, independent thought, personal responsibility and decision making in complex and unpredictable circumstances
  • provide an opportunity to gain experience as a biologist working in a professional environment such as industry, hospital research laboratories and government research laboratories
  • develop employment-related skills, including an understanding of how to relate to the  structure and function in an organisation, via a sandwich year
  • provide access to as wide a range of students as practicable.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the chemistry that underlies biochemical reactions and the techniques used to investigate them
  • the principles that determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules and be able to explain detailed examples of how structure enables function
  • the molecular basis of genetics, and be able to explain some detailed examples
  • gene expression, with a detailed knowledge of specific examples, such as the structure, arrangement, expression, and regulation of genes and relevant experimental methods
  • a wide range of cells (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) and be able to explain critically how they develop and how their properties suit them for their biological function, and how they could be investigated experimentally
  • suitable experimental methods for the investigation of relevant areas of biochemistry, organismal biology, ecology and molecular biology
  • the chemical and thermodynamic principles underlying biological catalysis and the role of enzymes and other proteins in determining the function and fate of cells and organisms
  • the analysis of the impact of external influences on growth, development and reproduction, and explain reproductive strategies
  • the interactions of structure and metabolic function at cellular and organismal levels
  • the significance of internal and external influences on the integration of metabolism for survival and health
  • the methods and principles underlying taxonomy and classification
  • the principles and processes governing interactions of organisms and their environment
  • the way a professional biologist can contribute to the organisation in which they work.

Intellectual skills

You gain the following intellectual abilities:

  • the ability to recognise and apply subject-specific theories, paradigms, concepts or principles. For example, the relationship between genes and proteins, or the nature of essential nutrients in microbes, cells, plants and animals
  • the ability to analyse, synthesise and summarise information critically, including published research or reports
  • obtain and integrate several lines of evidence to formulate and test hypotheses
  • apply subject knowledge and understanding to address familiar and unfamiliar problems
  • recognise the moral and ethical issues of investigations and appreciate the need for ethical standards and professional codes of conduct.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in the following:

  • designing, planning, conducting and reporting on investigations, which may involve primary or secondary data such  as from a survey database. Data may be obtained through individual or group projects; obtaining, recording, collating and analysing data using appropriate techniques in the field and/or laboratory, working independently or in a group in a responsible, safe and ethical manner. For example, students must pay due attention to risk assessment, and procedures for obtaining informed consent
  • an appreciation of the complexity and diversity of life processes through the study of organisms, their molecular, cellular and physiological processes, their genetics and evolution, and the interrelationships between them and their environment
  • the ability to handle biological material and chemicals in a safe way, thus being able to assess any potential hazards associated with biological experimentation
  • perform risk assessments prior to the execution of an experimental protocol
  • to be able to use basic and advanced experimental equipment in executing the core practical techniques used by biologists
  • to find information on biological topics from a wide range of information sources and maintain an effective information retrieval strategy
  • to be able to plan, execute and assess the results
  • to identify the best method for presenting and reporting on biological investigations using written, data manipulation/presentation and computer skills
  • be aware of the employment opportunities for biology graduates.

Transferable skills

You gain transferable skills in the following:

  • identifying individual and collective goals and responsibilities and performing in a manner appropriate to these roles
  • recognising and respecting the views and opinions of other team members, negotiating skills
  • evaluating performance as an individual and a team member, and evaluating the performance of others
  • developing an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of science and of the validity of different points of view
  • receiving and responding to a variety of sources of information: textual, numerical, verbal and graphical
  • communicating about their subject to a variety of audiences using different formats and approaches
  • citing and referencing work in an appropriate manner
  • sample selection, recording and analysing data in the field and/or the laboratory, validity, accuracy, calibration, precision, replicability and uncertainty during collection
  • preparing, processing, interpreting and presenting data, using appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques, statistical programmes, spreadsheets and programs for presenting data visually
  • solving problems by a variety of methods including the use of computers
  • using the internet and other electronic sources critically as a means of communication and a source of information
  • to be able to work independently using effective time management and organisation skills
  • identifying and working towards targets for personal, academic and career development
  • developing an adaptable, flexible, and effective approach to study and work
  • the ability to function effectively in a working environment.

Careers

Our students are in high demand after graduation. Our emphasis on laboratory skills and the teaching of biology at a molecular level allows students to successfully compete for graduate training positions and research-based employment and the Sandwich Year option will further enhance your employability in these areas by providing you with a period of professional practice. Also, the analytical and problem solving skills we teach are attractive to a wide range of careers outside of science.

Recently, our graduates have gone into jobs in lab-based research, government agencies, teaching, scientific publishing, marketing and information technology. Typically, about 30% of our biology graduates take a higher degree after graduation, either a one-year MSc or a three/four year PhD.

For more information on the services Kent provides you to improve your career prospects visit www.kent.ac.uk/employability.

Professional recognition

Our Biology degree programme is accredited by the Royal Society of Biology (RSB).

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications, typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact the Admissions Office for further advice. It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

ABB including Biology or Human Biology grade B including the practical endorsement of any science qualifications taken.

GCSE

Mathematics grade C

Access to HE Diploma

The University of Kent will not necessarily make conditional offers to all access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. If an offer is made candidates will be required to pass the Access to Higher Education Diploma with 36 level 3 credits at distinction and 9 at merit, and to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits in particular subjects at distinction or merit grade.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The university will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF;OCR) on a case by case basis. Typical offers when made are Distinction*, Distinction, Distinction.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 16 points at HL including Biology 5 at HL or 6 at SL and Mathematics 4 at HL or SL

International students

The University receives applications from over 140 different nationalities and consequently will consider applications from prospective students offering a wide range of international qualifications. Our International Development Office will be happy to advise prospective students on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about our country-specific requirements.

Please note that if you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes through Kent International Pathways.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. Our funding opportunities for 2017 entry have not been finalised but will be updated on our funding page in due course.

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

The Government has confirmed that EU students applying for university places in the 2017 to 2018 academic year will still have access to student funding support for the duration of their course.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications as specified on our scholarships pages.

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

Enquire or order a prospectus

Resources

Read our student profiles

Contacts

Related schools

Enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

Fees

The 2017/18 tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £16480

As a guide only, UK/EU/International students on an approved year abroad for the full 2017/18 academic year pay an annual fee of £1,350 to Kent for that year. Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status. Please note that for 2017/18 entrants the University will increase the standard year in industry fee for home/EU/international students to £1,350.

The Government has announced changes to allow undergraduate tuition fees to rise in line with inflation from 2017/18.

In accordance with changes announced by the UK Government, we are increasing our 2017/18 regulated full-time tuition fees for new and returning UK/EU fee paying undergraduates from £9,000 to £9,250. The equivalent part-time fees for these courses will also rise from £4,500 to £4,625. This was subject to us satisfying the Government's Teaching Excellence Framework and the access regulator's requirements. This fee will ensure the continued provision of high-quality education.

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact information@kent.ac.uk

Key Information Sets


The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.

The University of Kent makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in its publicity materials is fair and accurate and to provide educational services as described. However, the courses, services and other matters may be subject to change. Full details of our terms and conditions can be found at: www.kent.ac.uk/termsandconditions.

*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills or Research Council UK) they will be increased up to the allowable level.

Publishing Office - © University of Kent

The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NZ, T: +44 (0)1227 764000

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