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Biomedical Engineering - BEng (Hons)

UCAS code 3D9J

2018

This cross-disciplinary programme is designed for students with a strong interest in engineering and bio-medicine. Drawing from our established expertise in developing medical-electronic systems and from the research synergies with the School of Biosciences (eg systems biology), the programme produces engineers with a solid knowledge in biology and medical science.

2018

Overview

Nowadays, business and research environments, such as biotechnology, increasingly require engineers who can design complete solutions involving complex integrated systems. Our programme goes beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries and educates engineers that can develop systems used in medical practice and research in biology.

You undertake laboratory practicals in both electronics and biology. Throughout the programme, you carry out projects where you build bioscience-related electronic devices under the supervision of academics from engineering and biosciences. 

Our modules provide solid knowledge in mathematics, electronics, programming, mechanics, physiology and biology.

You also attend seminars delivered by experts in biomedical engineering working in private companies, research centres or NHS institutions.

It is also possible to take this programme with a year in industry. For details, see Biomedical Engineering with a Year in Industry.

Student profiles

We are sure you will find your time at Kent enjoyable and rewarding.

See what our students have to say.

Example projects

View examples of student projects.

Independent rankings

Electronic and Electrical Engineering at Kent was ranked 11th for course satisfaction in The Guardian University Guide 2018.

For graduate prospects, Electronic and Electrical Engineering at Kent was ranked 13th in The Guardian University Guide 2018.

Of Electronic and Electrical Engineering students who graduated from Kent in 2016, over 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Teaching Excellence Framework

Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.

Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.

TEF Gold logo

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  

On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take ‘wild’ modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.

Stage 1

Modules may include Credits

This course will provide an introduction to biomolecules in living matter. The simplicity of the building blocks of macromolecules (amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids and purine and pyrimidine bases) will be contrasted with the enormous variety and adaptability that is obtained with the different macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids). The nature of the electronic and molecular structure of macromolecules and the role of non-covalent interactions in an aqueous environment will be highlighted. The unit will be delivered though lectures, practicals, workshops and small group teaching. Frequent feedback will be given to the students to ensure that they fully understand what is expected of them. Short tests will be used throughout the unit to test the students' knowledge and monitor that the right material has been extracted from the lectures.

Lectures:

Introduction. What is Biochemistry? The chemical elements of living matter. The central role of carbon and the special properties of water. The underlying principle in the use of monomers to construct macromolecules. The nature of weak interactions in an aqueous environment.

Nucleic Acids. Types - DNA and RNA. Chemical structure, properties of phosphodiester linkage, primary structure. Nucleic Acids. Secondary structure - Watson Crick DNA model, A and Z DNA. Tertiary structure - circular DNA, supercoiling. Stability of nucleic acids - sugar phosphate chain, base pairing, base stacking. Biological functions of Nucleic Acids. Overview of replication, transcription and translation. Role of RNA - types, post-transcriptional processing, tRNA structure, ribosomes.

Proteins. Amino acids - structure, classification, properties. Peptides and peptide bond. Secondary structure. Structural proteins. Tertiary structure - role in function. Factors determining secondary and tertiary structure. Quaternary structure. Protein Function - Myoglobin versus Haemoglobin. Haemoglobin variants. Subcellular fractionation. Protein isolation and purification. Use of Molecular Graphics packages.

Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, stereoisomers, conformation, derivatives. Disaccharides, glycosidic bond stability and formation (a and ß). Polysaccharides. Storage (e.g. starch, glycogen), structural (e.g. cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans bacterial cell walls). Glycoproteins.

Lipids: lipids, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids, steroids, waxes. Membranes: lipid bilayers, hydrophobic effect, fluid-mosaic model, membrane-bound proteins. Membrane transport systems: passive transport, ionophores, active transport, double-membrane systems, porin.

General techniques in biomolecular science: spectroscopy of small molecules, chromatography and electrophoresis.

Practicals:

1. Preparation and identification of nucleic acids.

2. Protein characterisation - spectroscopy, DTNB and disulphide bonds.

3. Analysis of the sugar composition of honey and TLC separation of lipids.

4.. Chromatographic separation of proteins

5. Assessed practical.

Workshops:

1. Molecular modelling using Jmol or similar

2. Model building workshop mono and di saccharides

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This course will expose students to key themes and experimental techniques in molecular biology, genetics and eukaryotic cell biology illustrated by examples from a wide range of microbial and mammalian systems. It will cover basic cell structure, and organisation of cells into specialized cell types and complex multi-cellular organisms. The principles of cell cycle and cell division will be outlined. The control of all living processes by genetic mechanisms will be introduced and an opportunity to handle and manipulate genetic material provided in practicals. Lectures and practicals will run concurrently as far as possible and monitoring of students' knowledge and progress will be provided by multi-choice testing and feedback in workshops.

Functional Geography of Cells: Introduction to Cell Organisation, Variety and Cell Membranes. Molecular Traffic in Cells. Organelles involved in Energy and Metabolism. Eukaryotic Cell

Cycle. Chromosome Structure & Cell Division. Meiosis and Recombination.

Molecular biology: The structure and function of genetic material. Chromosomes, chromatin structure, mutations, DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination, basic mechanisms of transcription, mRNA processing and translation.

Techniques in Molecular and Cellular Biology: Methods in Cell Biology - light and electron microscopy; cell culture, fractionation and protein isolation/electrophoresis; antibodies, radiolabelling. Gene Cloning – vectors, enzymes, ligation, transformation, screening; hybridisation, probes and blots, PCR, DNA sequencing. Applications including recombinant protein expression, trangenics/knockouts, RNAi, genome projects, DNA typing, microarray and '…omics' studies (genome, proteome, interactome, metabolome etc).

Practical: Restriction digestion of DNA and gel analysis (whole day)

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Subject-based and communication skills are relevant to all the bioscience courses. This module allows you to become familiar with practical skills, the analysis and presentation of biological data and introduces some basic mathematical and statistical skills as applied to biological problems. It also introduces you to the computer network and its applications and covers essential skills such as note-taking and essay writing.

Topics covered in lectures/workshops:

How biosciences is taught at UKC - lectures, supervisions, problem solving classes, practicals. Effective study and listening skills, note taking and use of the library. Support networks.

General principles of analytical biochemistry - quantitative/qualitative analysis, making and recording measurements. The quality of data - random and systematic error, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

The manipulation and presentation of data - SI units, prefixes and standard form

Molarities and dilutions -concentration (molarity) and amounts (moles), dilutions.

Acids, bases and buffers in aqueous solutions - Definition of pH, acid and bases (including a revision of logarithms). Acid-base titrations. Buffer mixtures, buffering capacity and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.Dissociation of polyprotic, weak acids. Biochemical relevance of pH e.g. pH dependant ionisation of amino acids.

Spectroscopy - The range of electromagnetic radiation. Absorption and emission of radiation. Molecular absorptiometry - the use of the Beer-Lambert relationship for quantitative measurements using absolute or comparative methods (molar and specific extinction coefficients).

Reaction Kinetics. Reactions and rates of change: Factors affecting the rate of a reaction. Zero, first and second order reactions. Rate constants and rate equations (including integration). Worked examples of rates of reactions.

Statistics Descriptive statistics: definition of statistics, sampling, measurement scales, data hierarchy, summarising data, averaging, mean, mode, median, quantiles, graphical methods, displaying proportions, charts and chart junk. Parametrising distributions: coefficient of variation, normal distribution, properties of the normal curve, skewness and kurtosis, accuracy and precision.

Probability: definition, events, exclusivity and conditional probability, throwing dice and tossing coins, independent and dependent events, permutations, multiplicative rule, binomial distribution, unequal probabilities, Pascal's triangle, factorials and combinations.

Hypothesis testing: null hypothesis, p-value, normal curve, z-score and t-score, t values and confidence interval, t-tables, comparing two samples, degrees of freedom, t-tests for same and different sample sizes, paired samples, difference between means.

Correlation and covariance: two-dimensional distributions, scatter diagram, degree and limits of correlation, spurious correlation, correlation and causality, time correlation, normalising the covariance, covariance in spreadsheet calculations.

Regression: the regression line, slope and intercept parameters, regression in spreadsheet calculations, history of regression, assumptions in regression, effect of outliers, how not to use statistics.

Practicals:

1. Introduction to basic laboratory techniques-

a) preparation of buffer solutions and

b) determination of accuracy

2. pH and buffers

3. Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry

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Lecture Syllabus

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

Resistors, voltage, current, power, Ohm's law. Ideal and non-ideal voltage and current sources. Maximum power transfer in DC circuits and load matching. Kirchoff's voltage and current laws, series and parallel connection, voltage divider. Node voltage analysis of DC circuits. Mesh analysis. Superposition, Thevenin's and Norton's theorems. Transfer functions, attenuation, gain, decibel. Equivalent circuits for subsystems.

Capacitors, inductors, and RC circuits. Harmonic signals, magnitude and phase, voltage and current vectors, voltage-current relationships. Impedance and admittance.

Simple filter circuits. Series and parallel resonant circuits.

PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

Non-inverting amplifier, inverting amplifier, voltage follower and summing amplifier (including DC off-set circuit). Differential amplifier and instrumentation amplifier. Active filter, differentiator and integrator. Comparator (zero-crossing/threshold detector) and Schmitt trigger. Ideal op-amp (the golden rules) and practical op-amp. Static and dynamic op-amp parameters. Frequency response of op-amp circuits. Open-loop and closed-loop. Negative feedback and positive feedback. Op-amp circuit simulation. Trouble-shooting and testing.

Coursework

There are 6 assessed and 4 non-assessed laboratories.

There will be an assessed Operational amplifier mini project together with 2 non-assessed tutorials associated with the mini-project.

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Lecture Syllabus

LABORATORY PRACTICE

Introduction to the project and use of log-books. PCB manufacture. Resistor and capacitor components. Robot mechanics.

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TALK

USE OF INSTRUMENTS AND INTRODUCTION TO FAULT-FINDING

INTRODUCTION TO CAD OF PCBS AND ROBOT CIRCUITRY

CAD tools. Dos/don'ts on CAD package. Robot sensors and circuits.

ROBOTS AND C/C++ PROGRAMMING

Introduction to Robots. Introduction to C/C++ Programming.. Programming of self-built robots using C/C++ Programming and the Arduino Duemillenova Board.

PANEL Q&A

Coursework

LABORATORIES

LAB PRACTICE IN THE PROJECT LAB AND PCB CONSTRUCTION

This is designed to provide experience in the practical and management aspects of project work and is supported by lectures and weekly small group tutorials. There is a total of 42 laboratory hours over the Autumn and Spring terms. The main components are: use of the Mechanical Workshop, basic mechanical work, soldering, assembly and testing of a printed circuit board.

CAD TOOLS

A series of weekly exercises (Weeks 14 to 16) aimed at familiarising the students with the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools needed to develop the PCB circuit which will later be integrated into the robot. This practical work will be supported by three lectures given at the beginning of term.

ROBOTS

A series of weekly individual exercises, of which two are assessed. The exercises are designed to provide experience with the robot kit, and programming the robots using C/C++ language. During the second Project Week of the term, the developed PCB will be integrated into the robot and the complete design will be assessed by demonstration at the end of the term. This practical work will be supported by five lectures given towards the beginning of term. There will be a competition for the best robot, with the award of a prize.

Assignments

ASSIGNMENT 1 - THE USE OF INSTRUMENTS

A laboratory exercise using the Project Laboratory facilities.

Assessment is by completing an answer booklet.

ASSIGNMENT 2 - MECHANICAL DESIGN OF THE ROBOT BASEPLATE

Assessment of students' design and built quality of the robot baseplate.

ASSIGNMENT 3 - PCB LAYOUT

Assessment of students' PCB design.

ASSIGNMENT 4 - ROBOT PROGRAMMING EXERCISE 1

Weekly exercises of programming of robots.

ASSIGNMENT 5 - ROBOT PROGRAMMING EXERCISE 2

Weekly exercises of programming of robots.

ASSIGNMENT 6 - PCB FABRICATION

Assessment of students' hardware construction of the PCB.

ASSIGNMENT 7 - DEMONSTRATION OF ROBOT

An assessed demonstration of the robot constructed in the project.

ASSIGNMENT 8 - LOG BOOK

An assessed record of PCB design and construction.

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Lecture Syllabus

COMBINATORIAL LOGIC

The analogue world, the digital world. Digital systems design: hardware and software. An overview of digital technologies. Examples of digital systems. Combinatorial logic. AND, OR and NOT gates. Introduction to Boolean algebra. Karnaugh maps and minimisation techniques. Functional building blocks: adder, comparator, encoders and decoders. Implementation issues, programmable devices.

SEQUENTIAL LOGIC

The NAND latch, D-type FF, shift register, counters. Delays, clocks. Hierarchical design. Overview of Computer Systems. Architectural and operational properties of sequential machines, comparison with combinational circuits. Finite State Machines. Realisation of synchronous machines: design technique, approaches, examples. Algorithmic State Machines. Basic computer operation. The stored program concept.

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Lecture Syllabus

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB (4 lectures)

Introduction to MATLAB, syntax, graphs, functions, loops, logical operators, arrays and matrices.

SIMPLE FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS (4 lectures)

Revision of fundamental mathematics. Linear, polynomial, exp, log, circular functions. Odd and

even functions.

COMPLEX NUMBERS (4 lectures)

Complex Numbers: Addition, multiplication, division. Argand diagram, modulus argument

representation. De Moivre's theorem.

DIFFERENTIATION and SERIES (6 lectures)

Differentiation of simple functions, sums, products, reciprocals, inverses, function of a function.

Higher order derivatives. Maclaurin and Taylor series.

TRIGONOMETRY, VECTORS AND MATRICES (6 lectures)

Definition of a vector. Basic properties of vectors. Vector addition and subtraction. The scalar

product. Cross product. Definition of a matrix. Addition, subtraction and product. Determinant and

inverse of square matrices. Solution of simultaneous equations using matrices.

INTEGRATION (4 lectures)

Revision. Indefinite integrals. Definite integrals and interpretation as an area. Evaluation using

substitution and integration by parts.

SETS, PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS (6 lectures)

Sets and elements. Basic set operations. Probability and probability distributions. Mean, standard

deviation and variance. The Normal distribution.

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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS (6 lectures + 3 examples classes)

Introduction to differential equations.

First order DE and methods of solution.

Initial conditions and solutions of RC and RL circuits.

Homogeneous second order differential equations. General solution.

Initial conditions, particular solution and examples of RLC circuits.

Non homogeneous 2nd order differential equations.

SIGNAL ANALYSIS (6 lectures + 3 examples classes)

Odd, even and periodic functions

Integration of Trig. Functions.

The Fourier Series.

Examples of the Fourier series for simple functions

The concept of discrete spectrum and Paserval's Theorem

The complex Fourier series and examples.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ANALYSIS (12 lectures + 4 examples classes)

Partial differentiation

Multidimensional integrals

Introduction to partial differential equations

Laplace, Poisson and Wave equations. Boundary conditions and initial conditions

Introduction to electromagnetism and fields

Electrostatic examples. Fields around common transmission lines. Capacitance.

Amperes law and magneto-statics field examples. Inductance.

The wave equation for transmission lines. Time harmonic solutions

Reflections and wave propagation

Introduction to Maxwell's equations and EM wave propagation

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Stage 2

Modules may include Credits

Lecture Syllabus

MECHANICS AND MATERIALS:

Stress and strain

Axially loaded members

Torque loaded members

Stresses in bending beams.

Equations of stress and strain transformation

MECHANICS OF BIOMATERIALS:

Morphology and histology, physical properties, mechanics and function of bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and muscles.

MECHANICS OF IMPLANTS:

Materials for implantation

Biocompatibility

Tissue integration

Implant evaluation and testing

Implant problems

Principles of tissue engineering

Coursework

LABORATORY CLASSES

There will be 6 x 2-hour laboratory classes.

EXAMPLES CLASSES

There will be 1 x 2-hour example class

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Lecture Syllabus

AC CIRCUITS

The phasor concept. Phasor relationships for R, L and C elements. Circuit laws using phasors. AC power. Instantaneous power. Average power. Effective value of a sinusoidal waveform. Maximum power transfer and conjugate matching. The transformer. Using transformers in circuit matching.

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

Semiconductors, conductors and insulators. Conduction in semiconductors. N-type and P-type semiconductors. The PN junction. Biasing the PN junction, current voltage characteristics. The PN diode, ideal and practical models. The Zener diode. Optical diodes. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and Field Effect Transistor (FET). Basic operation, characteristics, parameters and biasing. The transistor as an amplifier. The transistor as a switch. Transistor packages.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

Purpose, structure and classification of measurement systems. Systematic characteristics (range and span, errors and accuracy, linearity, sensitivity and hysteresis). Noise and noise reduction. Calibration, traceability and standards. Power supplies, regualtion and isolation.

SENSING DEVICES

Introduction of a range of sensors and transducers. Resistive sensors. Capacitive sensors. Ultrasonic sensors. Electromagnetic sensors. Optical sensors. Radiological sensors. Semiconductor sensing elements. Measurement of temperature, pressure, displacement, force and flow.

PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNALS

Body temperature. The circulation, blood flow and blood pressure. Muscles and the EMG.The heart, the ECG and micovolt cardiac potentials. Speech and speech therapy. Hearing and audiology.

MEDICAL DEVICES

Special requirements for medical instrumentation – size and weight, noise, isolation, and safety. Physiological measurement examples – temperature, flow, EMG, ECG, Audiometry, instrumentation for Speech Therapy. Regulatory and manufacturing requirements – CE marking and MHRA Medical Device Registration.

Coursework

EXAMPLES CLASS – GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

Two assessed classes.

EXAMPLES CLASS – SENSING DEVICES

Two assessed classes.

EXAMPLES CLASS – PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNALS

An unassessed demonstration of examples of physiological measurement.

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Lecture Syllabus

IMAGES AND IMAGE PROCESSING

Introduction to the module. Scope, philosophy and range of relevant applications. Vision as a physiological, psychological and computational process. Image representation, spatial and amplitude digitisation, resolution, colour in images, and computational implications. Array tessellation, connectivity, object representation, binarisation and thresholding. Image histograms and properties, image quality. Image enhancement processing and filtering. Histogram modification techniques and contrast enhancement. Image subtraction, simple motion detection, skeletonisation. Image segmentation, edge-based and region-based methods, multi-attribute segmentation, the Hough transform and its generalisation. Shape descriptors and feature measurement. Morphological operators for image processing. Principles of simple image coding and implications. Case studies.

ANALYSING IMAGES

Principles of image analysis and understanding. Representation of objects and scenes. The concept of formalised pattern recognition. Pattern descriptors and pattern classes, preprocessing and normalisation. Feature extraction and imager characterisation. Texture analysis as an example of object description – texture descriptors, analysis using co-occurrence matrices. Basic decision theory and the Bayesian classifier. Cost and risk, minimum risk and minimum error-rate classification, rejection margins and error-rate trade-off, canonical descriptions of classifier structure. Implementation considerations and approaches to estimation of class-conditional feature distributions. Minimum distance classifiers. Alternative classification strategies. Case studies.

SECURITY AND BIOMETRICS

Introduction to security issues. Alternative approaches to personal identification, access control and data security, and applications in industrial, media, commercial and other related scenarios. Fundamentals of biometrics, biometric modalities, user requirements and user acceptability, template construction. Physiological and behavioural features, static and dynamic analyses, error sources and performance measures. False acceptance and false rejection measures, equal error rate, ROC descriptions. Variability and stability of biometric data, template ageing and related issues in enrolment and deployment. Characterisation of typical common modalities: face recognition, fingerprint processing, iris recognition, and automatic signature verification, and their underlying technologies. Usability issues, the human interface, system integration. Testing and evaluation of biometric systems. Revocable biometrics. Applications of biometric systems. Case studies.

NEURAL NETWORK PROCESSING

The concept of neural networks as architectures for image analysis. Exploration of techniques for automated learning and generalisation with artificial neural networks. Fundamentals of neural network design, basic design philosophy and application of neural networks to practical problems. Example: perceptrons and the perceptron learning algorithm.

Coursework

EXAMPLES CLASSES

There will be 4 assessed examples classes, one for each lecture series.

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Lecture Syllabus

INTRODUCTION TO LABVIEW

Support in the use of LabView for interfacing LabView between a PC and external hardware.

LABVIEW DAQ DEMONSTRATION

Demonstration a DAQ device in the Project Lab.

LABVIEW DAQ INTERFACE BOARD

Introduction a DAQ interface device and its use for A/D and D/A conversion and digital I/O.

INTERFACING

Support in the use of the project PC-based hardware and software, including sensors, transducers, analogue I/O, digital I/O, event handling, data manipulation, data visualisation and the design of user interfaces.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project planning, project proposal, information search, risk assessment, documentation, use of logbooks, group management.

REPORT WRITING

Writing project reports for the second and third year projects.

PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

Presentation skills for the second and third year projects.

Coursework

GROUP PROJECT

This is a group project with a large element of practical work including both hardware and software. It is based around an engineering application of a PC. It has the following features:-

(1) Each group is supervised by a member of academic staff who provides a brief description of the engineering application.

(2) The group responds to the original brief by producing a written specification for the work required.

(3) Project support is provided by weekly meetings with the supervisor and by the lectures.

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Lecture Syllabus

INTRODUCTION TO SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

Introduction to MATLAB functions for signals and systems. Introduction to signals and systems. Time-domain models. Frequency-domain models. Periodic signals and the Fourier Series. Non-Periodic Signals and the Fourier Transform.

Simple Continuous Time systems. Convolution. Impulse Response. Filtering of Continuous Time Signals. Sampling and Discrete-Time signals. The Sampling Theorem. Aliasing.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

The Laplace Transform and its application to signals and systems.

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS

Why control? Feedback. Review and revision of the Laplace Transform. The Transfer Function. Introducing Feedback into a system. Root Locus analysis. Proportional control systems, Integral control systems Derivative control systems. Introduction to the PID controller.

Coursework

EXAMPLES CLASS - INTRODUCTION TO SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

One assessed Examples Class.

WORKSHOPS - MATLAB FOR SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

Directed study, including one marked assignment.

EXAMPLES CLASS - INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS

One assessed Examples Class.

WORKSHOPS - MATLAB FOR CONTROL

Directed study examples, including one marked assignment.

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INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C

An introduction to the use computers and the process of programming them.

Variable declaration. Executable statements.

Data Types, Expressions.

Operators, precedence and associativity.

Logical Expressions and the if statement.

Decision steps in algorithms.

Nested-if statements.

Switch statements.

CORE C

Repetition and loops in Programs. Conditional loops. Nested control structures.

Top-down design with functions.

Modular programming.

Arrays. Multi-dimensional arrays. Strings.

Using indexed for loops to process arrays.

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING WITH C

Programming in the large. Program life-cycle.

Pseudo code.

File input and output.

Recursion.

Binary files.

Case studies

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A. Communication Skills in Biosciences: Essay writing, oral presentations, laboratory reports, the scientific literature and literature reviews. Working in groups.

B. Techniques in Biomolecular Science: Immunochemistry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibody production, immuno-chromatography, ELISA and RIA.

Electrophoresis, Immunoblotting, Protein Determination, Activity Assays, Purification

C. Computing for Biologists: Bioinformatics, phylogenetic trees, database searches for protein/DNA sequences

D. Mini-project – introduction to research skills: Students will work in groups of eight to undertake directed experimental work (Group Project) before extending the project further through self-directed experiments working as a pair (Mini Project).

E. Careers: The programme will be delivered by the Careers Advisory Service and will review the types of careers available for bioscience students. The sessions will incorporate personal skills, careers for bioscience graduates, records of achievement, curriculum vitae preparation, vacation work, postgraduate study, interview skills and action planning.

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This module will consider the anatomy and function of normal tissues, organs and systems and then describe their major pathophysiological conditions. It will consider the etiology of the condition, its biochemistry and its manifestation at the level of cells, tissues and the whole patient. It will cover the diagnosis of the condition, available prognostic indicators and treatments.

It will include:

Cells and tissues

Membrane dynamics

Cell communication and homeostasis

Introduction to the nervous system

The cardiovascular system

The respiratory system

The immune system and inflammation

Blood cells and clotting

The digestive system, liver and pancreas

The Urinary system

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Stage 3

Modules may include Credits

Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive systems; Endocrine control of reproduction; Fertilisation; Early embryogenesis; Pregnancy and Parturition; Reproductive disorders.

Muscle: Muscle types: skeletal, smooth and cardiac; Structure of muscle; Molecular basis of contraction; Regulation of contraction including neural control; Energy requirements of muscle; Types of movement: reflex, voluntary, rhythmic; Muscle disorders.

Nervous System Cells of the nervous system: neurons and glia; Electrical properties of neurons: action potential generation and conduction; Synaptic structure and function: transmitters and receptors; Structural organization of the central nervous system (CNS) and function of individual regions; Organization and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS): somatic motor, autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and sensory; Sensory systems: vision, hearing, taste, smell, pain. Disorders of the nervous system.

Endocrine System: Endocrine glands; Classes of hormones; Mechanisms of hormone action; Regulation of hormone release; Endocrine disorders.

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Lecture Syllabus

INTRODUCTION TO THE 3RD YEAR PROJECT

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES

POSTER DESIGN

REPORT WRITING

Coursework

LITERATURE REVIEW

ORAL PRESENTATION

INTERIM REPORT

POSTER DESIGN AND PRESENTATION

LABORATORIES

Students are expected to work two full days a week designing, building and testing their hardware and/or software.

SUPERVISIONS

Weekly meetings are held with the project supervisor throughout the year.

LITERATURE REVIEW

A literature review report is submitted in the beginning of the Autumn Term giving an introduction to the chosen project and the definition of the state-of-the-art in the field.

ORAL PRESENTATION

An oral presentation is required in the middle of the Autumn Term outlining the project and how it will be implemented (i.e., project plan- Gantt Chart).

INTERIM REPORT

The interim report is submitted at the end of the Autumn Term reporting the progress against the Gantt Chart of the project during the term.

POSTER DESIGN AND PRESENTATION

The poster is required at the end of the Lent Term giving an outline of the project. The poster presentation is required in the beginning of the Summer Term.

FINAL PROJECT REPORT, VIVA AND DEMONSTRATION

The final project report is submitted at the end of the Lent Term and is subject to a viva voce examination and demonstration. The final report is a formal documentary description of the project, including the introduction in the field, definition, aim and objectives of the project, detailed technical approaches, design, implementation and experimental results of the work completed.

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Lecture Syllabus

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS:

Stress and strain

Axially loaded members

Torque loaded members

Stresses in bending beams.

Equations of stress and strain transformation

MECHANICS OF BIOMATERIALS:

Morphology and histology, physical properties, mechanics and function of bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and muscles.

MECHANICS OF IMPLANTS:

Materials for implantation

Biocompatibility

Tissue integration

Implant evaluation and testing

Implant problems

Principles of tissue engineering

Coursework

LABORATORY CLASSES

There will be 3 x 2-hour laboratory classes.

EXAMPLES CLASSES

There will be 3 x 2-hour example class

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15

Lecture Syllabus

PRODUCT DESIGN and PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Eight hours of lectures covering specification and design considerations for electronic products including the use of design and manufacturing standards, product safety considerations, sustainable manufacture and product qualification. PCB design, fabrication and assembly techniques are discussed, including electrostatic damage in the field and the production environment, assembly techniques (surface mount and conventional) and inspection, test and reworking during the manufacturing procedure, plus design verification.

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

Eight hours of lectures introducing techniques for managing electromagnetic compatibility of products in design, manufacture and use. This includes electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the near and far field-regions, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and EMC testing, conducted EMI and filtering, signal conductors and grounding schemes. Students are introduced to the European EMC directive.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Four hours of lectures providing an introduction to the principles of good project management and systems engineering, including project planning and review, governance, risk management and product safety management. The lectures will also introduce the use of management Standards such as ISO 9000, commercial and contractual considerations, ethical considerations, and managing intellectual property.

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Four hours of lectures will aim to introduce the importance of financial management for engineering covering the principles and importance of corporate finance and financial management within the business and project. The lectures will also provide an introduction to accountancy and financial statements; discuss entrepreneurship and introduce the financial liabilities of companies and directors; the treatment of assets and the evaluation of net present value will also be considered.

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Lecture Syllabus

AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

ADC and DAC, The sampling Theorem, The Discrete Fourier Transform, The Fast Fourier Transform, The z-Transform, pole-zero diagrams, Transfer Functions, Stability

DIGITAL FILTERS AND DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN

An introduction to digital filters. FIR Filters: design, implementation and applications, Windowing Functions, IIR Filters: design implementation and applications. Matlab Tools for Filter Design and implementation. Applications of DSP. Hardware architectures for DSP

FEEDBACK CONTROL

Implications of digital implementation of feedback control systems. Analogue design using Root Locus analysis and Bode Plots. Controller Emulation Methods. Direct digital design of feedback control systems.

APPLICATIONS OF FEEDBACK CONTROL

Case Studies: Motor Speed Control; Position Control; Aircraft Pitch Control; Robot Control - for example

Coursework

EXAMPLES CLASS

Digital Control Design

WORKSHOP

Two assessed directed study MATLAB DSP examples.

WORKSHOP

Directed study MATLAB CONTROL examples.

LABORATORY

DSP Experiment.

LABORATORY

Control Experiment using MATLAB.

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The aim of the module in Medical Physics is to provide a primer into this important physics specialisation. The range of subjects covered is intended to give a balanced introduction to Medical Physics, with emphasis on the core principles of medical imaging, radiation therapy and radiation safety. A small number of lectures is also allocated to the growing field of optical techniques. The module involves several contributions from the Department of Medical Physics at the Kent and Canterbury Hospital.

SYLLABUS:

Radiation protection (radiology, generic); Radiation hazards and dosimetry, radiation protection science and standards, doses and risks in radiology; Radiology; (Fundamental radiological science, general radiology, fluoroscopy and special procedures); Mammography (Imaging techniques and applications to health screening); Computed Tomography (Principles, system design and physical assessment); Diagnostic ultrasound (Pulse echo principles, ultrasound imaging, Doppler techniques); Tissue optics (Absorption, scattering of light in the tissue); The eye (The eye as an optical instrument); Confocal Microscopy (Principles and resolutions); Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and applications; Nuclear Medicine (Radionuclide production, radiochemistry, imaging techniques, radiation detectors); In vitro techniques (Radiation counting techniques and applications); Positron Emission Tomography (Principles, imaging and clinical applications); Radiation therapies (Fundamentals of beam therapy, brachytherapy, and 131I thyroid therapy); Radiation Protection (unsealed sources); Dose from in-vivo radionuclides, contamination, safety considerations.

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A. Bioinformatics Data sources & Sequence analysis:

Databases and data availability. Using sequence data for analysis – sequence searching methods, multiple sequence alignments, residue conservation, Phylogenetics, Protein domains and families (e.g. Pfam, Interpro).

B. Protein Bioinformatics Methods

Protein structure and function prediction. Prediction of binding sites/interfaces with small ligands and with other proteins. Bioinformatics analyses using protein data.

C. Genomics

An introduction to DNA analysis methods moving onto omics approaches, primarily focussing on the data available from DNA sequencing – how it can be used to compare genomes (comparative and functional genomics). Metagenomics and transcriptomics will also be covered.

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Teaching and assessment

Teaching/learning

Lectures; tutorial lectures; demonstrator-led examples classes; tutor-led small group supervisions; project work; laboratory experiments and computer-based assignments.  Case studies on industry hot topics and emerging technologies. In particular the first, second and third-year projects give hands-on experience of electronic design and project management.

Problem-solving workshops allow you to develop skills in applying biomedical knowledge to solution of problems. Practical classes teach specific laboratory skills and demonstrate how they can be used to investigate biomedical systems.

Assessment

Written unseen examinations; assessed coursework in the form of examples, class assignments, laboratory write-ups, assessed project work, assignments and essays and class tests.

Programme aims

The programme aims to:

  • Educate students to become engineers who are well equipped for professional careers in development, research and production in industry and universities, and who are well adapted to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing subject.
  • Produce professional engineers skilled in Biomedical engineering with a well-balanced knowledge of Electronic System Engineering.
  • Provide proper academic guidance and welfare support for all students.
  • Create an atmosphere of co-operation and partnership between staff and students, and offer the students an environment where they can develop their potential.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • Mathematical principles relevant to bioengineering
  • Scientific principles and methodology relevant to bioengineering
  • Advanced concepts of instrumentation and systems engineering.
  • The value of intellectual property and contractual issues
  • Business and management techniques which may be used to achieve engineering objectives
  • The need for a high level of professional and ethical conduct in engineering 
  • Current manufacturing practice with particular emphasis on product safety and EMC standards and directives
  • Characteristics of materials, equipment, processes and products 
  • Appropriate codes of practice, industry standards and quality issues
  • Contexts in which engineering knowledge can be applied 
  • The structure, function and control of the human body
  • The main metabolic pathways used in biological systems in catabolism and anabolism, understanding biological reactions in chemical terms
  • The variety of mechanisms by which metabolic pathways can be controlled and the way that they can be co-ordinated with changes in the physiological environment
  • The main principles of cell and molecular biology, biochemistry and microbiology
  • Immunological disease/disorders
  • The main methods for communicating information on biomedical sciences

Intellectual skills

You gain the following intellectual abilities:

  • Analysis and solution of problems in bioengineering using appropriate mathematical methods
  • Ability to apply and integrate knowledge and understanding of other engineering and bioscience disciplines to support study of bioengineering
  • Use of engineering and bioscience principles and the ability to apply them to analyse key bioengineering processes
  • Ability to identify, classify and describe the performance of systems and components through the use of analytical methods and modelling techniques
  • Ability to apply and understand a systems approach to bioengineering problems
  • Ability to investigate and define a problem and identify constraints including cost drivers, economic, environmental, health and safety and risk assessment issues
  • Ability to use creativity to establish innovative, aesthetic solutions whilst understanding customer and user needs, ensuring fitness for purpose of all aspects of the problem including production, operation, maintenance and disposal
  • Ability to demonstrate the economic and environmental context of the engineering solution
  • Integrate scientific evidence, to formulate and test hypotheses
  • Recognise the moral and ethical issues of biomedical investigations and appreciate the need for ethical standards and professional codes of conduct

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in the following:

  • Use of mathematical techniques to analyse problems in bioengineering.
  • Ability to work in an engineering laboratory environment and to use a wide range of electronic equipment, workshop equipment and CAD tools for the practical realisation of electronic circuits
  • Ability to work with technical uncertainty
  • Ability to apply quantitative methods and computer software relevant to engineering in order to solve bioengineering problems
  • Ability to design electronic circuits or systems to fulfil a product specification and devise tests to appraise performance.
  • Awareness of the nature of intellectual property and contractual issues and an understanding of appropriate codes of practice and industry standards
  • Ability to use technical literature and other information sources and apply it to a design 
  • Ability to apply management techniques to the planning, resource allocation and execution of a design project and evaluate outcomes
  • Ability to prepare technical reports and presentations.

Transferable skills

You gain transferable skills in the following:

  • Ability to generate, analyse, present and interpret data
  • Use of Information and Communications Technology
  • Personal and interpersonal skills, work as a member of a team
  • Communicate effectively (in writing, verbally and through drawings)
  • Learn effectively for the purpose of continuing professional development
  • Ability for critical thinking, reasoning and reflection
  • Ability to manage time and resources within an individual project and a group project

Careers

Nowadays, health care is facing new challenges that require complex solutions. Business and research environments, such as Biotechnology, increasingly require engineers who can design complete solutions involving complex integrated systems.

There is strong evidence of the need for bioengineers and of the sector’s growth: the European Alliance of Medical and Biological Engineering and Science (EAMBES) state that the sector is vital not only for the health and well-being of European citizens but also for the ‘wealth’ of the European economy; they assert the sector growth rate is about 5-7% per year. The United States Department of Labor predicts that the field of bioengineering is projected to grow by over 70% in the ten year period ending in 2018.

The new course at EDA seeks to expand the portfolio of undergraduate degree programmes at Kent, exploiting research synergies such as the Centre for Molecular Processing, Computational Biology Centre and Kent Health, working collaboratively across Schools and ensuring focus on employability in high-demand areas is maintained.

Professional recognition

Accreditation will be applied for from the Engineering Council.

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice. 

It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

New GCSE grades

If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

ABB including Mathematics and Biology or Chemistry grade B plus Electronics/Physics/Computing AS or A level grade B

Access to HE Diploma

The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. 

If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 16 points at HL, including Mathematics (not Mathematics Studies) 5 at HL or 6 at SL and Biology 5 at HL or 6 at SL

International students

The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.

If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.

Meet our staff in your country

For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.

English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme. 

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Fees

The 2018/19 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £18400

For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* 

Your fee status

The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.

Additional costs

There are no mandatory course-specific costs but please refer to our general additional costs page.

General additional costs

Find out more about accommodation and living costs, plus general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details. 

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. 

For 2018/19 entry, the scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. 

Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.