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If you’re a logical and numerical thinker with a curiosity to explore connections between society and the business world, then this is the course for you.
By combining Accounting and Finance with Economics, you will boost your career prospects and gain a unique perspective on decision-making in the financial sector. This is your opportunity to gain the skills you need to make a difference in the world around you.
Accountants and those in financial services are essential in any business. You will learn the detail-oriented world of accountancy and finance, and how people and groups make decisions in the context of a broader economic climate. Through theoretical and practical experience, you will learn key finance and accounting principles and acquire the skills to construct and use economic models.
Access wide-ranging support through our careers and employability service, student support and wellbeing, and health services.
Our expert teaching staff appear in the top 2% of researchers worldwide.
Immerse yourself in our joint honours programme.
On successful completion of the course you’ll meet the requirements for accreditation by ACCA, ICAEW, CIMA, CPA Australia, and CIPFA.
Our typical offer levels are listed below and include indicative contextual offers. If you hold alternative qualifications just get in touch and we'll be glad to discuss these with you.
The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please note that these qualifications are not normally accepted without accompanying A levels. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.
32 points overall or 16 points at HL, including Mathematics SL or HL at 4, or Mathematical Studies at 5
Mathematics grade 5 / B
Pass all components of the University of Kent International Foundation Programme with a 60% overall average, and 70% in LZ013 Maths and Statistics if you do not hold GCSE Maths at 7/A or equivalent.
The University will consider applicants holding T level qualifications in subjects closely aligned to the course.
The University welcomes applications from Access to Higher Education Diploma candidates for consideration. A typical offer may require you to obtain a proportion of Level 3 credits in relevant subjects at merit grade or above.
This module listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.
Your first year is a compulsory introductory year, designed to provide you with a strong foundational understanding of key concepts and ideas in accounting and finance, and economics. You’ll study core areas like managerial and financial accounting while building up your numerical, statistical, and Excel skills to prepare you for the rest of your degree.
This is an introductory module to introduce students to the role and evolution of accounting
Topics to be covered may include: single entry accounting; double entry bookkeeping; financial reporting conventions; recording transactions and adjusting entries; principal financial statements; institutional requirements; auditing; monetary items; purchases and sales; bad and doubtful debts; inventory valuation; non-current assets and depreciation methods; liabilities; sole traders and clubs, partnerships, companies; capital structures; cash flow statements; interpretation of accounts through ratio analysis; problems of, and alternatives to, historical cost accounting.
The module provides an understanding of the role of management accounting in the current global scenario and develops key skills in relation to cost accumulation and determination for decision-making. Areas that will be covered are:
Identify what is management accounting and how it differs from financial accounting. Appreciate who are the users of management accounting information and how management accountants can suit their information needs for the creation of customer and shareholder value in a complex and rapidly changing international context.
Understand the different typologies of costs that can be used for decision-making purposes and how cost behaviour has a significant impact on management accounting reports. Appreciate why different costs must be used for different decisions.
Analyse the relationship between the cost structure of a business and the level of production needed to achieve the desired level of profit for the said business. Apply this knowledge to the preparation of the optimal production plan for single and multi-product businesses. Appreciate the impact of any changes in the original assumptions on the forecasted profit for a business.
Calculate the cost of products/services considering all costs involved. Allocate costs to products under different internationally recognised costing systems and understand how the choice of a costing system is linked to the activity performed by a business. Understand the differences between different methodologies of cost calculation and their impact of on decision-making.
Core areas of the syllabus are:
• Management accounting and management accountants in an international context
• Cost terms and purposes
• Cost-volume-profit analysis
• Costing systems
An indicative set of topics to be covered within the module are outlined below.
• Basic Spreadsheet Functionalities: Introduction to common spreadsheet features: workbooks, worksheets, menus, cells, rows, columns, data types, relative and absolute cell addressing, copying, basic formulae, naming cells, formatting, charts and graphs, printing.
• Data Management Facilities: sorting, filtering, data forms, pivot tables.
• What-If Analysis: scenario manager, goal seek, data tables.
• Basic Financial Analysis: Introduction to basic financial analysis and how to carry this out using spreadsheets: compound interest, discounting, NPV, IRR, loans and mortgages.
• Advanced Spreadsheet Functionalities: automating tasks and solving simple optimisation business problems.
The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.
The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.
The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.
This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules ECON5800 and ECON5810.
The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:
• Graphical and numerical analyses of data
• The principles of probability
• Probability Density Functions
• Sampling and its use in inference
• Regression and correlation
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification, or who meet the minimum entry standard. The module (or its equivalent for students without A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - ECON3040 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.
Your second year allows you to enhance your understanding of financial systems and core areas of accounting while expanding your learning in key areas of micro and macroeconomics. You’ll explore the worlds of international financial reporting and taxation and gain an understanding of financial markets to set you up for success for the rest of your degree.
The module advances students' knowledge and skills in management accounting. By completing the module, students will be able to:
Understand the concepts of relevant costs and revenues and use them to make managerial decisions. Differentiate between short and long-term pricing decisions and learn the functioning, advantages and disadvantages of target pricing and cost-plus pricing. Use management accounting information to prepare customers profitability reports.
Learn what are the tools used for planning and controlling a company's performance in an international context and how they function. Understand what the relationship between strategic planning and budgeting is. Prepare budgeted financial statements and understand the functioning of responsibility accounting systems to stimulate managers’ motivation. Know how standards costs and targets are set to foster performance improvements. Prepare flexible budgets and use actual and standard costs information to analyse variances including yield, mix, quantity effects of inputs and volume, mix and quantity effects of sales. Prepare a performance report that reconcile actual and budgeted profit. Provide a holistic interpretation of company’s performance and provide recommendations for managers to take actions or revise the strategic plans.
Apply multiple methods to make capital investment decisions for strategy implementation. Classify environmental costs and learn the role played by environmental management controls for company’s sustainability.
Core areas of the syllabus are:
• Relevant and irrelevant costs and revenues for decision-making
• Pricing, target costing and customer profitability analysis
• Motivation, budgets and responsibility accounting
• Flexible budgets, standard costs and variance analysis for management control
• Yield, mix and quantity effects of inputs
• Volume, mix and quantity effects of sales
• Capital investment decisions
• Environmental costs and environmental management controls for sustainability
This module is designed to build upon financial accounting topics taught in previous modules and assess them at a more advanced level. It will also introduce topics, not previous taught. Areas that will be covered are:
The conceptual and regulatory framework for financial reporting – The need for a conceptual framework and the characteristics of useful information. Define what is meant by 'recognition' in financial statements and applying the recognition criteria to assets/liabilities and income/expenses.
Look at why an international regulatory framework is needed over a national regulatory framework. Review the work of the International Accounting Standards Board in setting international accounting standards and how they are moving to harmonised global accounting standards using a principles based rather than a rules based framework.
Describe the concept of a group as a single economic unit and explain and apply the definition of a subsidiary within relevant accounting standards. Prepare basic consolidated financial statements using these concepts.
Distinguish between tangible and intangible non-current assets. Review methods of valuation/revaluation including impairment of assets.
Account for current and deferred taxation within financial statements.
Account for the translation of foreign currency transactions at the reporting date.
Core areas of the syllabus are:
• A conceptual framework for financial reporting
• A regulatory framework for financial reporting
• Financial statements using historic cost and current value accounting
• Business combinations
This module will introduce the financial system, the markets within the system, various instruments and key concepts. It provides an overview of the roles of financial intermediaries, as well as the fundamental products that they trade. The module will include an historical consideration of the markets, as well as the investigation of current developments, to allow understanding of inter-relationships within the wider economy. An introduction to various financial securities will provide contexts for focus on key concepts of Finance.
This module is designed to explain the operation and scope of the UK tax system and the obligations of taxpayers and the implications of non-compliance. Areas covered are as follows:
The UK tax system including the overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy, different types of taxes, principle sources of revenue law and practice, tax avoidance and tax evasion.
Income tax liabilities including the scope of income tax, income from employment and self-employment, property and investment income, the computation of table income and income tax liability the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities.
National insurance contributions including the scope of national insurance, class 1 and 1A contributions for employed persons, class 2 and 4 contributions for self-employed persons.
Introduction to chargeable gains including the scope of taxation of capital gains, the basic principles of computing gains and losses, the computation of capital gains tax payable by individuals and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets,
Principles of Inheritance Tax and the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities.
The obligations of taxpayers and/or their agents including the systems for self-assessment and the making of returns, the time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax the procedures relating to enquiries, appeals and disputes, penalties for non-compliance.
The module helps prepare students to acquire and develop the employability and transferable skills necessary to search and successfully apply for work experience and graduate opportunities in the commercial and public sector and postgraduate study.
The curriculum builds on employability support offered at Stage 1 providing intermediate level knowledge and exercises in application writing, CVs, careers advice, interview and assessment centre techniques, numeracy and competency tests, and psychometric evaluation.
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.
The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.
Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.
Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.
Your final year allows you to develop your specialist knowledge with the flexibility to choose modules to shape your course to your interests. Choose to do modules with an accounting and finance focus and look more closely at topics like taxation, auditing, financial and management accounting or choose to do options with more of an economic focus and look at topics including econometrics, financial economics, and economic trends (e.g. financial crises). You’ll also have the opportunity to pick modules from our wider portfolio of business-related topics. This allows you to develop your competencies in areas that matter to you and tailor your degree to suit your career goals.
This module begins by reinforcing and building on prior knowledge & understanding from stages 1 and 2 Finance. In particular, focus is given to investigating the practical applications of various theories and related models. Through interaction with the financial world, students will gather real data, question, analyse and discuss the integration of theories to specific contexts within the world of finance. A major element of the module content is the portfolio investment project, which will operate throughout the academic year and will facilitate all content within the module. The key topics covered include the application of Pricing models, the implications of and empirical evidence relating to the Efficient Market Hypothesis, the drivers of capital structure decisions in a taxation environment, the interaction of investment and financing decisions, risk management, the application of valuation models and Mergers & Acquisitions.
The module helps prepare students to acquire and develop the employability and transferable skills necessary to search and successfully apply for work experience and graduate opportunities in the commercial and public sector and postgraduate study.
The curriculum builds on knowledge and experience gained in related employability modules delivered at Stages 1 and 2, providing further guidance and more advanced practical exercises in application writing, CVs, careers advice, interview and assessment centre techniques, numeracy and competency tests, and psychometric evaluation. The aims here are to support students during their final year in applying for good graduate jobs and MSc degree programmes.
This module will cover the following topics:
• The historical development of auditing
• The nature, importance, objectives and underlying theory of auditing
• The philosophy, concepts and basic postulates of auditing
• The regulatory and socio-economic environment within which auditing process takes place
• Auditing implications of agency theories of the firm
• Auditing implications of the efficient markets hypothesis
• The statutory and contractual bases of auditing, including auditing regulation and auditors' legal duties and liabilities
• Truth and fairness in financial reporting
• Materiality and audit judgement
• Audit independence
• The nature and causes of the audit expectation gap
• Auditors' professional ethics and standards
• Audit quality control, planning, programming, performance, supervision and review
• The nature and types of audit evidence
• Principles of internal control
• Systems based auditing and the nature and relationship of compliance and substantive testing
• The audit risk model and statistical sampling
• Audit procedures for major classes of assets, liabilities, income and expenditure
• Audit reporting.
The module aims to provide students with an insight into contemporary management accounting issues at an advanced level. It takes an interdisciplinary perspective and draws on the knowledge and techniques acquired in Stages 1 and 2 core modules. Specifically, the module explores the role of management accounting within the context of strategic management and management control. The module traces and evaluates recent major changes in management accounting and aims to increase students' awareness of how management accounting is used in managing organisations and the impact of organisational and social context on management accounting practice and effectiveness.
This module is designed to build upon financial accounting topics taught in previous modules and assess them at a more advanced level. It will also introduce topics, not previous taught.
The following is an indicative list of topics to be covered:
• Accounting for complex transactions in financial statements
• Analysing and interpreting financial statements
• Preparation of financial statements including those for complex groups
• Content and application of International Accounting Standards, as appropriate.
This module is a one-term placement opportunity that allows you to teach aspects of your degree subject in a local school. Launched to coincide with Kent's 50th anniversary in 2015, it highlights the longstanding excellence of human and social science research and teaching at the University, and the important role the institution has in contributing to the local community.
If selected for this module you will spend approximately 6 hours in a Kent secondary school in the Spring term (this session excludes time to travel to and from the School, and preparation and debrief time with the teacher). Generally, you will begin by observing lessons taught by your designated teacher and possibly other teachers. Later you will act somewhat in the role of a teaching assistant by working with individual pupils or with a small group. You may take 'hotspots': brief sessions with the whole class where you explain a topic or talk about aspects of university life. Finally, you will progress to the role of "teacher" and will be expected to lead an entire lesson. Throughout the module you will be given guidance and support by a local convenor based in your academic school as well as the overall module convenor.
You will be required to keep a log of your activities and experiences at each session. You will also create resources to aid in the delivery of your subject area within the curriculum. Finally, you will devise a special final taught lesson in consultation with the teacher and with your local module convener. You must then implement and reflect on the lesson.
A synopsis of the curriculum
The module will aim to cover the following topics:
• The UK tax system including the overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy, different types of taxes, principal sources of revenue law and practice, tax avoidance and tax evasion.
• Income tax liabilities including the scope of income tax, income from employment and self-employment, property and investment income, the computation of taxable income and income tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities.
• Corporation tax liabilities including the scope of corporation tax, profits chargeable to corporation tax, the computation of corporation tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising corporation tax liabilities.
• Chargeable gains including the scope of taxation of capital gains, the basic principles of computing gains and losses, gains and losses on the disposal of movable and immovable property, gains and losses on the disposal of shares and securities, the computation of capital gains tax payable by individuals, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets.
• National insurance contributions including the scope of national insurance, class 1 and 1A contributions for employed persons, class 2 and 4 contributions for self-employed persons.
• Value added tax including the scope of VAT, registration requirements, computation of VAT liabilities.
• Inheritance tax and the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities. Introduction to international tax strategy, implementation, compliance and defence. An understanding of principles of normative ethics in business and in taxation from local and global perspectives.
• The obligations of taxpayers and/or their agents including the systems for self-assessment and the making of returns, the time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax, the procedures relating to enquiries, appeals and disputes, penalties for non-compliance.
This module will cover the following topics:
- Features of debt instruments and risks associated with investing in these instruments
- Debt and money markets (participants, operations, trading activities)
- Fixed-income instruments (Government bonds, corporate bonds, credit ratings, high-yield bonds, international bonds, mortgage-backed securities, etc.)
- Money market instruments (Treasury bills, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, bills of exchange, etc.)
- Fixed-income valuation (traditional approach, arbitrage-free approach, yield measures, volatility measures)
- Term-structure of interest rates and classic theories of term structure, derivation of zero-coupon yield curve
- General principles of credit analysis (credit scoring, credit risk modelling, etc.)
- Fixed-income portfolio construction and management strategies (portfolio's risk profile, managing funds against a bond market index).
This module will examine how Excel can be used for financial data analysis.
A brief revision of each financial concept will be presented. The syllabus will typically cover:
Introduction to Excel:
• Basic functions, mathematical expressions
Data Analysis with Excel:
• Data analysis, charts, solver, goal seek, pitot tables and pivot charts
• Applications of time value of money
• Applications of capital budgeting techniques in Excel (IRR, NPV, Scenario Analysis, Monte Carlo simulation)
• Company Valuation Models
Portfolio Analysis and Security Pricing:
• Portfolio models, calculations of efficient portfolios, variance-covariance matrix
• Beta coefficient estimations and security market line
• Bond Valuations
• Binomial option pricing, Black-Scholes model.
This module is concerned with International Investment Banks’ products and strategies that involve the description and analyses of the characteristics of more commonly used financial derivative instruments such as forward and future contracts, swaps, and options involving commodities, interest, and equities markets. Modern financial techniques are used to value financial derivatives. The main emphasis of the module is on how International Investment Banks value, replicate, and arbitrage the financial instruments and how they encourage their clients to use derivative products to implement risk management strategies in the context of corporate applications.
In particular, students will first cover the topics related to forward, futures and swap contracts. They will then be introduced to options and various strategies thereof. Valuing options using Black-Scholes model and binomial trees is also an important part of the module. The important finance concepts of no-arbitrage and risk-neutral valuation and their implications for pricing financial derivatives are also covered in the module. This will help students to learn the techniques used in valuing financial derivatives and hedging risk exposure.
Successful completion of the module will provide a solid base for the student wishing to pursue a career in International Investment Banking and Treasury Management. The students will have the knowledge of essential techniques of risk management and financial derivative trading.
This module develops your ability to solve economics problems and to analyse economic data using computational techniques. It will teach you to apply numerical optimisation methods to a range of economics and econometrics problems, develop an understanding of numerical and computational methods through their practical applications, and develop an ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of different methods for different applications. The module builds upon the Level 4 modules Introduction to Object Orientated Programming (CO320), and Programming for Artificial Intelligence (Python programming) (CO359) and will further develop students' understanding of programming languages commonly used in economic analysis, including at least one of Python, R and/or Julia.
This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.
The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.
The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.
Important considerations within the module include:
• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?
• What is the link between money and finance?
• What explains bank runs?
• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?
This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.
The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.
Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.
Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:
• The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty
• Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change
• Models of the growth and development process
• The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process
• Dualism and vicious circles of poverty
• Trade and Development
This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (e.g., Stata or R), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.
The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.
What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.
This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.
The module gives an introduction to univariate time series analysis, dynamic econometric modelling and multiple time series, linking theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy.
All topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces you to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps you to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.
The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:
1 The relationship between unemployment and wages
2 The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled
3 The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women
4 Government policy towards skills and education
5 Executive pay
Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.
The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.
The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.
The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.
The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.
The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.
The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.
The topics covered in the module include:
• Open economy macroeconomics and policy.
• Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.
• Microfounded models of the current account.
• International financial flows.
• International indebtedness.
• International financial crises
• International monetary arrangements.
This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.
International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.
This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:
• Structural macro and monetary modelling
• Reduced form macro and monetary modelling
• Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Policy interventions.
The module focuses on the role of the government in the economy. It uses the tools of microeconomics and empirical analysis to study the impact of government policies on individual behaviour and the distribution of resources in the economy. The module explores the economic arguments for and against government intervention in the economy, also introducing insights from behavioural economics into the analysis and design of public policies.
This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.
First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.
While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.
The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions
There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.
This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.
The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:
• what are the determinants of growth?
• how can we improve productivity?
• what kind of role does the government play on growth?
• why are there differences in the level of income among countries?
The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.
The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).
The topics considered in the module include:
• Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.
The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.
The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.
The topics considered in the module include:
• Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.
The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.
1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications
2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts
3. Institutions and Development
4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict
5. Climate Agreements
This module covers a variety of the mathematical methods and their application to economic theory. The module starts off with a review and extension of stage 1 calculus, including integration. We examine production functions, returns to scale and their relation to firm profits. The module then covers dynamic systems where students learn to solve second-order difference equations, and, in so doing, learn about complex numbers. We use this analysis to generate insights about monetary policy. Matrix algebra is explored and used to analyse multiple equation dynamic systems. We then cover more optimisation theory, using Lagrangians to solve problems with equality and inequality constraints. Building on matrix algebra, we use Hessians to examine when we have found a genuinely desired optimum. Some of the further economic ideas we analyse are efficiency wages and monopsony power in the labour market, the duality theory of cost minimisation, and consumer theory, including Roy's identity and Shephard's Lemma.
The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.
The module will cover the following topics:
1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts
2. Theories of financial crises
3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective
4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries
5. Early 19th century financial crises
6. The 1890s
7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed
8. The Great Depression I – Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises
9. The Great Depression II – US banking crisis
10. The Great Depression III – Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis
11. Financial crises in the 1990s
12. The Great Recessions – housing bubble, contagion, banking crisis.
This module applies various aspects of environmental economic theory in combination with mathematical and statistical methods to provide students with an understanding of the link between economic theory and policy application. It introduces students to fundamental key skills used by environmental economists in the application of economics to real world environmental issues.
The main focus will be on how economic theory is applied to real world environmental issues and how this can be demonstrated using EXCEL. Therefore, it continues the development of students' use of information technology within a structured environment. This module will provide students with an enhanced understanding of how economic theory can be translated into practical policy advice.
The module introduces students to a variety of environmental economic practical issues. Alongside formal lectures, computer workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing.
Examples of topics the module may cover include:
• Pollution control instruments – will consider taxes and permits using market simulation and potentially the development of equilibrium displacement models;
• Non-market evaluation – will consider stated and revealed preference approaches to non-market valuation, consider experimental design, survey design and delivery and data analysis using linear regression and binary choice models;
• Renewable resource management – will consider fisheries and/or forestry management as a dynamic programming problem using the EXCEL solver; and
• Non-renewable resource management – will consider oil reserve management as a dynamic programming problem using the EXCEL solver.
Most modules are taught by a combination of lectures and seminars and some have a number of workshops or sessions in computer laboratories. Most of your modules involve individual study using library resources.
Most modules have an end-of-year examination that contributes either 70% or 80% to the final module mark: your coursework provides the remaining marks. Both Stage 2 and 3 marks count towards your final degree class (together with your marks from your year in industry, if applicable).
All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.
On this programme, you develop transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.
The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.
For a student studying full time, each academic year of the programme will comprise 1200 learning hours which include both direct contact hours and private study hours. The precise breakdown of hours will be subject dependent and will vary according to modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
Methods of assessment will vary according to subject specialism and individual modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
For programme aims and learning outcomes please see the programme specification.
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The 2024/25 annual tuition fees for this course are:
For details of when and how to pay fees and charges, please see our Student Finance Guide.
For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.*
The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.
Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details.
At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence.
The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of A*AA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages.
Our ASPIRE labs offer a unique and exciting entrepreneurial education via informal drop in sessions and our Business Start-up journey.
ASPIRE offers a unique and exciting entrepreneurial journey to develop your business idea, designed to inspire and encourage creativity.
If you are from the UK or Ireland, you must apply for this course through UCAS. If you are not from the UK or Ireland, you can apply through UCAS or directly on our website if you have never used UCAS and you do not intend to use UCAS in the future.
We welcome applications from students all around the world with a wide range of international qualifications.
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