Accounting and Finance and Economics

Accounting and Finance and Economics - BA (Hons)

UCAS code LN14

CLEARING 2018

Planning to start this September? The Clearing vacancies list will be available from 06.00 on Thursday 16 August.
2019

Studying accounting and finance together with economics helps you to develop the skills demanded by the modern accountancy profession while examining wider issues such as economic growth, sustainable development and international trade. 

Overview

Accounting and Finance

Accountants are probably best known for checking the validity of company accounts – auditing – but they also devise and operate financial systems, conduct investment analysis, advise on business start-ups, company takeovers and company rescue schemes, and handle individuals' and corporations' tax affairs.

This programme has been developed to respond to the needs and expectations of the modern accountancy profession. You will be supported to develop the confidence and skills you need to follow the path that most interests you.

Economics

Economics examines some of the profound issues in our life and times, including: economic growth and sustainable development, emerging market economies, financial and monetary crises, environmental and natural resource problems, international trade and aid to poor countries.


Independent rankings

In the National Student Survey 2016, 86% of our Accounting students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course and 92% of Economics students were satisfied with theirs.

Economics at Kent was ranked 8th in The Guardian University Guide 2017.

Accounting and Finance at Kent was ranked 16th for graduate prospects in The Complete University Guide 2017 and 18th in The Times Good University Guide 2017.

For graduate prospects, Economics at Kent was ranked 2nd in The Guardian University Guide 2017.

Of Accounting students who graduated from Kent in 2015, 94% were in work or further study within six months (Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey). The same survey found that 92% of Economics students who graduated from Kent in the same year were in work or further study within six months.

Teaching Excellence Framework

Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.

Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.

TEF Gold logo

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  

On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take ‘wild’ modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.

Stage 1

Modules may include Credits

An indicative set of topics to be covered within the module are outlined below.

• Basic Spreadsheet Functionalities: Introduction to common spreadsheet features: workbooks, worksheets, menus, cells, rows, columns, data types, relative and absolute cell addressing, copying, basic formulae, naming cells, formatting, charts and graphs, printing.

• Data Management Facilities: sorting, filtering, data forms, pivot tables.

• What-If Analysis: scenario manager, goal seek, data tables.

• Basic Financial Analysis: Introduction to basic financial analysis and how to carry this out using spreadsheets: compound interest, discounting, NPV, IRR, loans and mortgages.

• Advanced Spreadsheet Functionalities: automating tasks and solving simple optimisation business problems.

• The Art of Modelling: effective methods for designing, building and testing business models.

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15

A synopsis of the curriculum

• Role and evolution of accounting; single entry accounting

• double entry bookkeeping

• financial reporting conventions

• recording transactions and adjusting entries

• principal financial statements

• institutional requirements

• auditing; monetary items

• purchases and sales

• bad and doubtful debts

• inventory valuation

• non-current assets and depreciation methods

• liabilities

• sole traders and clubs; partnerships; companies

• capital structures

• cash flow statements

• interpretation of accounts through ratio analysis

• problems of, and alternatives to, historical cost accounting

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30

This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules EC580 and EC581.

The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:

• Graphical and numerical analyses of data

• The principles of probability

• Probability Density Functions

• Sampling and its use in inference

• Regression and correlation

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15

The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.

The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.

The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.

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30

This Stage 1 module is designed for students who have an A -Level in mathematics, AS mathematics or equivalent qualification. A first-year mathematics module (either Mode A or B) is a compulsory part of all economics degree programmes and these modules take place in the Autumn term with a statistics module following on in the Spring term. If you are unsure whether your mathematical background is equivalent to an A level pass, please consult the module convenors.

The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.

The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.

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15

The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who do not have A-Level mathematics, AS mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.

The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; and non-linear functions. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.

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15
You have the opportunity to select wild modules in this stage

Stage 2

Modules may include Credits

This module is concerned with the principles which underlie the investment and financing decision making process. Before a rational decision can be made objectives need to be considered and models need to be built. Short-term decisions are dealt with first, together with relevant costs. One such cost is the time value of money. This leads to long term investment decisions which are examined using the economic theory of choice, first assuming perfect capital markets and certainty. These assumptions are then relaxed so that such problems as incorporating capital rationing and risk into the investment decision are fully considered. The module proceeds by looking at the financing decision. The financial system within which business organisations operate is examined, followed by the specific sources and costs of long and short-term capital, including the management of fixed and working capital

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30

The module will aim to cover the following topics:

• the conceptual framework of financial reporting

• the financial reporting environment

• the regulation of financial reporting

• group accounting

• the International Accounting Standards Board

• content and application of International Accounting Standards as appropriate

• accounting standards

• accounting for transactions in financial statements

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30

This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.

The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.

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30

This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.

Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.

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30

Stage 3

Modules may include Credits

The work of accountants permeates all aspects of management and accountants provide information that is relevant for both managers and external stakeholders in the context of planning and controlling an organisation. This module will introduce and develop the principles and techniques used to provide appropriate financial information for managers to enable them to make better informed decisions. Topics may include:

• An introduction to management accounting

• The role of management accountants in an organisation

• Cost terms and purposes

• Cost determination

• Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis

• Measuring relevant costs & revenues for decision making

• Job order costing

• Cost allocation

• Activity based costing

• Joint and by-product costing

• Pricing, target costing and customer profitability analysis

• Motivation, budgets and responsibility accounting

• Flexible budgets, variances and management control

• Value based management and strategic management

• Performance management and management control

• Environment cost accounting: Sustainability

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30

This module is designed to build upon financial accounting topics taught in previous modules and assess them at a more advanced level. It will also introduce topics, not previous taught.

The following is an indicative list of topics to be covered:

• Accounting for complex transactions in financial statements

• Analysing and interpreting financial statements

• Valuation and forecasting

• Preparation of financial statements including those for complex groups

• Content and application of International Accounting Standards, as appropriate.

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30

This module begins with a focus on the financial system of the UK, including the major players in the markets and key interrelations. It then proceeds to cover key topics, including: advanced portfolio theory, the capital asset pricing model, arbitrage pricing theory, the implications and empirical evidence relating to the efficient market hypothesis, capital structure and the cost of capital in a taxation environment, interaction of investment and financing decisions, decomposition of risk, options and pricing, risk management, dividends and dividend valuation models, mergers and failures and evaluating financial strategies.

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30

This module will cover the following topics:

• The historical development of auditing

• The nature, importance, objectives and underlying theory of auditing

• The philosophy, concepts and basic postulates of auditing

• The regulatory and socio-economic environment within which auditing process takes place

• Auditing implications of agency theories of the firm

• Auditing implications of the efficient markets hypothesis

• The statutory and contractual bases of auditing, including auditing regulation and auditors' legal duties and liabilities

• Truth and fairness in financial reporting

• Materiality and audit judgement

• Audit independence

• The nature and causes of the audit expectation gap

• Auditors' professional ethics and standards

• Audit quality control, planning, programming, performance, supervision and review

• The nature and types of audit evidence

• Principles of internal control

• Systems based auditing and the nature and relationship of compliance and substantive testing

• The audit risk model and statistical sampling

• Audit procedures for major classes of assets, liabilities, income and expenditure

• Audit reporting.

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30

A synopsis of the curriculum

The module will aim to cover the following topics:

• The UK tax system including the overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy, different types of taxes, principal sources of revenue law and practice, tax avoidance and tax evasion.

• Income tax liabilities including the scope of income tax, income from employment and self-employment, property and investment income, the computation of taxable income and income tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities.

• Corporation tax liabilities including the scope of corporation tax, profits chargeable to corporation tax, the computation of corporation tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising corporation tax liabilities.

• Chargeable gains including the scope of taxation of capital gains, the basic principles of computing gains and losses, gains and losses on the disposal of movable and immovable property, gains and losses on the disposal of shares and securities, the computation of capital gains tax payable by individuals, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets.

• National insurance contributions including the scope of national insurance, class 1 and 1A contributions for employed persons, class 2 and 4 contributions for self-employed persons.

• Value added tax including the scope of VAT, registration requirements, computation of VAT liabilities.

• Inheritance tax and the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities. Introduction to international tax strategy, implementation, compliance and defence. An understanding of principles of normative ethics in business and in taxation from local and global perspectives.

• The obligations of taxpayers and/or their agents including the systems for self-assessment and the making of returns, the time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax, the procedures relating to enquiries, appeals and disputes, penalties for non-compliance.

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30

This module will cover the following topics:

- Features of debt instruments and risks associated with investing in these instruments

- Debt and money markets (participants, operations, trading activities)

- Fixed-income instruments (Government bonds, corporate bonds, credit ratings, high-yield bonds, international bonds, mortgage-backed securities, etc.)

- Money market instruments (Treasury bills, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, bills of exchange, etc.)

- Fixed-income valuation (traditional approach, arbitrage-free approach, yield measures, volatility measures)

- Term-structure of interest rates and classic theories of term structure, derivation of zero-coupon yield curve

- General principles of credit analysis (credit scoring, credit risk modelling, etc.)

- Fixed-income portfolio construction and management strategies (portfolio's risk profile, managing funds against a bond market index).

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15

This module will examine how Excel can be used for financial data analysis.

A brief revision of each financial concept will be presented. The syllabus will typically cover:

Introduction to Excel:

• Basic functions, mathematical expressions

Data Analysis with Excel:

• Data analysis, charts, solver, goal seek, pitot tables and pivot charts

Financial Valuation:

• Applications of time value of money

• Applications of capital budgeting techniques in Excel (IRR, NPV, Scenario Analysis, Monte Carlo simulation)

• Company Valuation Models

Portfolio Analysis and Security Pricing:

• Portfolio models, calculations of efficient portfolios, variance-covariance matrix

• Beta coefficient estimations and security market line

• Bond Valuations

• Binomial option pricing, Black-Scholes model.

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15

This module is concerned with International Investment Banks’ products and strategies that involve the description and analyses of the characteristics of more commonly used financial derivative instruments such as forward and future contracts, swaps, and options involving commodities, interest, and equities markets. Modern financial techniques are used to value financial derivatives. The main emphasis of the module is on how International Investment Banks value, replicate, and arbitrage the financial instruments and how they encourage their clients to use derivative products to implement risk management strategies in the context of corporate applications.

In particular, students will first cover the topics related to forward, futures and swap contracts. They will then be introduced to options and various strategies thereof. Valuing options using Black-Scholes model and binomial trees is also an important part of the module. The important finance concepts of no-arbitrage and risk-neutral valuation and their implications for pricing financial derivatives are also covered in the module. This will help students to learn the techniques used in valuing financial derivatives and hedging risk exposure.

Successful completion of the module will provide a solid base for the student wishing to pursue a career in International Investment Banking and Treasury Management. The students will have the knowledge of essential techniques of risk management and financial derivative trading.

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30

This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.

The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.

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15

The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.

Important considerations within the module include:

• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?

• What is the link between money and finance?

• What explains bank runs?

• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?

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15

This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.

The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.

Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.

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15

Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:

• The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty

• Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change

• Models of the growth and development process

• The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process

• Industrialisation

• Dualism and vicious circles of poverty

• Trade and Development

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15

This dissertation is a 30-credit module based on self-directed study, which allows you to develop a complete piece of work within the general field of economics, from the initial idea through to a final written report. It is unique amongst the modules you are taking towards your degree in Economics, both in the ways that you learn and in the ways that you are assessed. Your learning will be largely independent, but is supported by structured supervision from your dissertations supervisor and weekly computing sessions to help in accessing, coding analysing and interpreting your data.

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30

This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (Stata), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.

The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.

What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.

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15

This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.

The module links theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy and includes the following topics:

Univariate Time Series Analysis

• Concepts of stochastic processes;

• Types of linear processes: Autoregressions and moving averages

• Nonstationary linear processes

• Predicting stochastic processes

• Estimation of linear time series models

Dynamic Econometric Models

• Nonsense Regressions;

• The autoregressive distributed lag model;

• Cointegration and equilibrium correction.

Multiple Time Series Models

• Vector autoregressive processes;

• Structural analysis: Causality and impulse-response analysis.

These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces students to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps students to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.

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15

The module provides insight into the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at the EU level. It introduces the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of developments to date

The emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. The nature of economic integration is such that the module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and analysis going beyond that covered in more theory focussed modules.

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15

This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.

The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:

1. The relationship between unemployment and wages

2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled

3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women

4. Government policy towards skills and education

5. Executive pay

Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.

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15

The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.

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15

The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.

The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.

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15

The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.

The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.

The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.

The topics covered in the module include:

1. Open economy macroeconomics and policy.

2. Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.

3. Microfounded models of the current account.

4. International financial flows.

5. International indebtedness.

6. International financial crises

7. International monetary arrangements.

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15

This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.

International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.

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15

This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:

• Structural macro and monetary modelling

• Reduced form macro and monetary modelling

• Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy

• Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy

• Policy interventions

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15

This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.

First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.

While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.

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15

The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions.

There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.

There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 1).

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15

The module provides an alternative to students carrying out an economics research project in the dissertation module. Some students lack the necessary analytical, quantitative and research skills necessary for a piece of original research. This module will give such students the opportunity to investigate an area of economics in depth by critically reviewing the literature on a chosen subject.

Students will be given a set of questions with readings. They can also construct their own question so long as it is approved. Each student would write a different essay. Examples of questions are: what evidence exists on the success(es) of micro lending schemes? Can active labour market policies reduce long term unemployment? Can economists explain voting behaviour? Students are taught about what is required for an extended critical review of the literature and advised about what should be contained in an essay on their topic. They are also advised about how to present a poster session.

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15

This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.

The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:

- what are the determinants of growth?

- how can we improve productivity?

- what kind of role does the government play on growth?

- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?

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15

In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals – their opportunities, constraints, and choices – to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.

The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies – such the World Bank and DfID – as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.

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15

This module introduces you to agriculture, food and natural resource economics and economics generally. A key objective is to help you develop an ability to apply economic thinking to problems in this area. The module considers various aspects of agricultural, food and resource economics including food production, economic theory related to agricultural policy, food supply chains and food prices, food economics specifically food labels and various economic aspects of natural resource management such as forestry and fisheries.

The module is divided into three parts. In Part A we examine the relationship between the economy and the agriculture. In Part B we consider aspects of food economics. In Part C we examine various issues relating to natural resource. The emphasis in all parts of the module is to understand the links between theory and practice.

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15

The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.

The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).

The topics considered in the module include:

• Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.

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15

The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.

The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.

The topics considered in the module include:

• Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.

mme.

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15

This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.

The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.

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15

The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.

1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:

2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:

3. Institutions and Development:

4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:

5. Climate Agreements:

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The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.

Topics include:

• Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems

• Optimisation Theory

• Duality

• Dynamic Models

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The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.

The module will cover the following topics:

1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts

2. Theories of financial crises

3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective

4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries

5. Early 19th century financial crises

6. The 1890s

7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed

8. The Great Depression I – Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises

9. The Great Depression II – US banking crisis

10. The Great Depression III – Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis

11. Financial crises in the 1990s

12. The Great Recessions – housing bubble, contagion, banking crisis

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Teaching and assessment

Accounting & Finance

Most modules are taught by a combination of lectures and seminars and some have a number of workshops or sessions in computer laboratories. Most of your modules involve individual study using library resources.

Most modules have an end-of-year examination that contributes either 70% or 80% to the final module mark: your coursework provides the remaining marks. Both Stage 2 and 3 marks count towards your final degree class (together with your marks from your year in industry, if applicable).

Economics

All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.

On this programme, you develop transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.

The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.

Programme aims

For programme aims and learning outcomes please see the programmes specification for each subject below. Please note that outcomes will depend on your specific module selection:


Careers

Of Accounting students who graduated from Kent in 2015, 94% were in work or further study within six months (Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey). The same survey found that 92% of Economics students who graduated from Kent in the same year were in work or further study within six months.

Recent graduates have gone into accountancy training with firms such as KPMG, Ernst & Young and PricewaterhouseCoopers; the Government Economic Service; other financial services with banks (including the 'Big Five') and private companies, or roles in journalism, management consultancy and business. 

Professional recognition

Full or partial exemption from the preliminary stage of professional accountancy examinations provided you choose the appropriate modules. 

Kent is consistently ranked highly in university league tables, which is testimony to the high academic standards achieved by its graduates.

Christine Livingston Accounting and Finance BA

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice. 

It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

New GCSE grades

If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

ABB from 3 full A levels, or BBB if A level Mathematics is included.

GCSE

Mathematics at grade B

Access to HE Diploma

The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. 

If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 16 points at HL, including Mathematics SL or HL at 4, or Mathematical Studies at 5.

International students

The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.

If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.

Meet our staff in your country

For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.

English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme. 

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Fees

The 2019/20 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £15200
Part-time £4625 £7600

For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* 

Your fee status

The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.

General additional costs

Find out more about accommodation and living costs, plus general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details. 

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. 

The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

Full-time

Part-time

The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. 

Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.