Combine the study of accounting, finance and economics to develop the skills demanded by the modern accountancy profession and the financial sector. You gain a thorough understanding of accountancy as well as wider issues such as economic growth, sustainable development and international trade.
The year in industry has enabled me to put the theory I’ve learnt into practice; it’s helped me to find a focus.
The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice.
Please note that meeting this typical offer/minimum requirement does not guarantee an offer being made.Please also see our general entry requirements.
If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.
Mathematics at grade B (or grade 6)
The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis.
If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.
The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please note that these qualifications are not normally accepted without accompanying A Levels. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.
34 points overall or 16 points at HL, including Mathematics SL or HL at 4, or Mathematical Studies at 5.
The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.
However, please note that international fee-paying students cannot undertake a part-time programme due to visa restrictions.
If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.
For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.
Please see our English language entry requirements web page.
Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme.
Duration: 4 years full-time
The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.
On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take ‘elective’ modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.
The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.
The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.
The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.
This is an introductory module to introduce students to the role and evolution of accounting
Topics to be covered may include: single entry accounting; double entry bookkeeping; financial reporting conventions; recording transactions and adjusting entries; principal financial statements; institutional requirements; auditing; monetary items; purchases and sales; bad and doubtful debts; inventory valuation; non-current assets and depreciation methods; liabilities; sole traders and clubs, partnerships, companies; capital structures; cash flow statements; interpretation of accounts through ratio analysis; problems of, and alternatives to, historical cost accounting.
An indicative set of topics to be covered within the module are outlined below.
• Basic Spreadsheet Functionalities: Introduction to common spreadsheet features: workbooks, worksheets, menus, cells, rows, columns, data types, relative and absolute cell addressing, copying, basic formulae, naming cells, formatting, charts and graphs, printing.
• Data Management Facilities: sorting, filtering, data forms, pivot tables.
• What-If Analysis: scenario manager, goal seek, data tables.
• Basic Financial Analysis: Introduction to basic financial analysis and how to carry this out using spreadsheets: compound interest, discounting, NPV, IRR, loans and mortgages.
• Advanced Spreadsheet Functionalities: automating tasks and solving simple optimisation business problems.
This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules EC580 and EC581.
The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:
• Graphical and numerical analyses of data
• The principles of probability
• Probability Density Functions
• Sampling and its use in inference
• Regression and correlation
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification, or who meet the minimum entry standard. The module (or its equivalent for students without A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who do not have A-Level mathematics, AS mathematics or an equivalent qualification and who do not meet a minimum entry standard. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; and non-linear functions. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.
In addition to the core Stage 1 mathematics curriculum, the module offers targeted support to students in order to identify gaps in their basic understanding mathematics and raise their proficiency to the level required in Stage 2.
You have the opportunity to select elective modules in this stage.
This module is concerned with the principles which underlie the investment and financing decision making process. Before a rational decision can be made objectives need to be considered and models need to be built. Short-term decisions are dealt with first, together with relevant costs. One such cost is the time value of money. This leads to long term investment decisions which are examined using the economic theory of choice, first assuming perfect capital markets and certainty. These assumptions are then relaxed so that such problems as incorporating capital rationing and risk into the investment decision are fully considered. The module proceeds by looking at the financing decision. The financial system within which business organisations operate is examined, followed by the specific sources and costs of long and short-term capital, including the management of fixed and working capital
The module will aim to cover the following topics:
• the conceptual framework of financial reporting
• the financial reporting environment
• the regulation of financial reporting
• group accounting
• the International Accounting Standards Board
• content and application of International Accounting Standards as appropriate
• accounting standards
• accounting for transactions in financial statements
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.
The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.
Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.
Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.
You spend a year in industry, supported by a dedicated placement team and a programme designed to ensure that students gain experience in the functional areas and industries of their choice. For students taking one of the specialist pathways, our strategic partnerships provide opportunities for placements in specific areas.
The placement allows you to experience, first hand, many of the issues addressed in the taught programme and to use the tools, techniques and applications in a real business setting. It will become a vital component of your CV and will give you a distinct advantage over other business graduates.
The Year in Industry to which the module relates provides a structured opportunity to combine appropriate developmental work experience or entrepreneurial activity with academic study. The Year in Industry experience allows students to develop and reflect on managerial and / or professional practice in real and often complex situations, and to integrate this with the study of the relevant subject(s) of their main programme. Where relevant, they develop, reinforce and apply professional and / or technical expertise in an employment or entrepreneurial context.
The ability to integrate this work based learning with the modules of Stages 1, 2 and 3 is a high level cognitive task. The particular combination of the student's degree programme and choice of modules together with the great variety of increasingly diverse Year in Industry situations make the "curriculum" of each Year in Industry unique. The unifying features, with which the project for this module is concerned are integration of theory and practice, and the development of the student as an independent learner and reflective practitioner.
This background is why the report for the module has to be linked to the Year in Industry portfolio.
The assembly, content and organisation of this activity are assessed in BUSN6990 Year in Industry Experience. This module assesses how effectively the student can use this to demonstrate integration of theory and practice, self-assessment of achieved learning and reflection on this.
The Year in Industry experience provides you with a structured opportunity to combine work experience or entrepreneurial activity with academic study.
The Year in Industry allows students to develop and reflect on managerial and/or professional practice in real and often complex situations, and to integrate this with the study of the relevant subject(s) of your main degree programme.
Where relevant, students develop, reinforce and apply professional and/or technical expertise in an employment or entrepreneurial context. The placement portfolio requires students to document their experiences in relation to both their university studies as well as to a wide range of employability skills.
In addition, the portfolio allows demonstration of professional development through the collection and presentation of relevant evidence.
To be able to undertake this module it is necessary for the student to secure a placement or to have validated a Business Start-Up during Stage 2.
The Business Start-Up should build on the student's planned business activity as developed and validated by the ASPIRE Business Start-Up Journey.
The particular combination of the student’s degree programme and choice of modules together with the great variety of increasingly diverse Year in Industry situations make the "curriculum" of the Year in Industry essentially unique.
This module documents and assesses the evidence of Year in Industry learning being achieved.
The work of accountants permeates all aspects of management and accountants provide information that is relevant for both managers and external stakeholders in the context of planning and controlling an organisation. This module will introduce and develop the principles and techniques used to provide appropriate financial information for managers to enable them to make better informed decisions. Topics may include:
• An introduction to management accounting
• The role of management accountants in an organisation
• Cost terms and purposes
• Cost determination
• Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis
• Measuring relevant costs & revenues for decision making
• Job order costing
• Cost allocation
• Activity based costing
• Joint and by-product costing
• Pricing, target costing and customer profitability analysis
• Motivation, budgets and responsibility accounting
• Flexible budgets, variances and management control
• Value based management and strategic management
• Performance management and management control
• Environment cost accounting: Sustainability
This module is designed to build upon financial accounting topics taught in previous modules and assess them at a more advanced level. It will also introduce topics, not previous taught.
The following is an indicative list of topics to be covered:
• Accounting for complex transactions in financial statements
• Analysing and interpreting financial statements
• Preparation of financial statements including those for complex groups
• Content and application of International Accounting Standards, as appropriate.
This module begins with a focus on the financial system of the UK, including the major players in the markets and key interrelations. It then proceeds to cover key topics, including: advanced portfolio theory, the capital asset pricing model, arbitrage pricing theory, the implications and empirical evidence relating to the efficient market hypothesis, capital structure and the cost of capital in a taxation environment, interaction of investment and financing decisions, decomposition of risk, options and pricing, risk management, dividends and dividend valuation models, mergers and failures and evaluating financial strategies.
This module will cover the following topics:
• The historical development of auditing
• The nature, importance, objectives and underlying theory of auditing
• The philosophy, concepts and basic postulates of auditing
• The regulatory and socio-economic environment within which auditing process takes place
• Auditing implications of agency theories of the firm
• Auditing implications of the efficient markets hypothesis
• The statutory and contractual bases of auditing, including auditing regulation and auditors' legal duties and liabilities
• Truth and fairness in financial reporting
• Materiality and audit judgement
• Audit independence
• The nature and causes of the audit expectation gap
• Auditors' professional ethics and standards
• Audit quality control, planning, programming, performance, supervision and review
• The nature and types of audit evidence
• Principles of internal control
• Systems based auditing and the nature and relationship of compliance and substantive testing
• The audit risk model and statistical sampling
• Audit procedures for major classes of assets, liabilities, income and expenditure
• Audit reporting.
A synopsis of the curriculum
The module will aim to cover the following topics:
• The UK tax system including the overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy, different types of taxes, principal sources of revenue law and practice, tax avoidance and tax evasion.
• Income tax liabilities including the scope of income tax, income from employment and self-employment, property and investment income, the computation of taxable income and income tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities.
• Corporation tax liabilities including the scope of corporation tax, profits chargeable to corporation tax, the computation of corporation tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising corporation tax liabilities.
• Chargeable gains including the scope of taxation of capital gains, the basic principles of computing gains and losses, gains and losses on the disposal of movable and immovable property, gains and losses on the disposal of shares and securities, the computation of capital gains tax payable by individuals, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets.
• National insurance contributions including the scope of national insurance, class 1 and 1A contributions for employed persons, class 2 and 4 contributions for self-employed persons.
• Value added tax including the scope of VAT, registration requirements, computation of VAT liabilities.
• Inheritance tax and the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities. Introduction to international tax strategy, implementation, compliance and defence. An understanding of principles of normative ethics in business and in taxation from local and global perspectives.
• The obligations of taxpayers and/or their agents including the systems for self-assessment and the making of returns, the time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax, the procedures relating to enquiries, appeals and disputes, penalties for non-compliance.
This module will cover the following topics:
- Features of debt instruments and risks associated with investing in these instruments
- Debt and money markets (participants, operations, trading activities)
- Fixed-income instruments (Government bonds, corporate bonds, credit ratings, high-yield bonds, international bonds, mortgage-backed securities, etc.)
- Money market instruments (Treasury bills, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, bills of exchange, etc.)
- Fixed-income valuation (traditional approach, arbitrage-free approach, yield measures, volatility measures)
- Term-structure of interest rates and classic theories of term structure, derivation of zero-coupon yield curve
- General principles of credit analysis (credit scoring, credit risk modelling, etc.)
- Fixed-income portfolio construction and management strategies (portfolio's risk profile, managing funds against a bond market index).
This module will examine how Excel can be used for financial data analysis.
A brief revision of each financial concept will be presented. The syllabus will typically cover:
Introduction to Excel:
• Basic functions, mathematical expressions
Data Analysis with Excel:
• Data analysis, charts, solver, goal seek, pitot tables and pivot charts
• Applications of time value of money
• Applications of capital budgeting techniques in Excel (IRR, NPV, Scenario Analysis, Monte Carlo simulation)
• Company Valuation Models
Portfolio Analysis and Security Pricing:
• Portfolio models, calculations of efficient portfolios, variance-covariance matrix
• Beta coefficient estimations and security market line
• Bond Valuations
• Binomial option pricing, Black-Scholes model.
This module is concerned with International Investment Banks’ products and strategies that involve the description and analyses of the characteristics of more commonly used financial derivative instruments such as forward and future contracts, swaps, and options involving commodities, interest, and equities markets. Modern financial techniques are used to value financial derivatives. The main emphasis of the module is on how International Investment Banks value, replicate, and arbitrage the financial instruments and how they encourage their clients to use derivative products to implement risk management strategies in the context of corporate applications.
In particular, students will first cover the topics related to forward, futures and swap contracts. They will then be introduced to options and various strategies thereof. Valuing options using Black-Scholes model and binomial trees is also an important part of the module. The important finance concepts of no-arbitrage and risk-neutral valuation and their implications for pricing financial derivatives are also covered in the module. This will help students to learn the techniques used in valuing financial derivatives and hedging risk exposure.
Successful completion of the module will provide a solid base for the student wishing to pursue a career in International Investment Banking and Treasury Management. The students will have the knowledge of essential techniques of risk management and financial derivative trading.
This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.
The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.
The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.
Important considerations within the module include:
• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?
• What is the link between money and finance?
• What explains bank runs?
• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?
This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.
The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.
Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.
Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:
• The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty
• Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change
• Models of the growth and development process
• The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process
• Dualism and vicious circles of poverty
• Trade and Development
This dissertation is a 30-credit module based on self-directed study, which allows you to develop a complete piece of work within the general field of economics, from the initial idea through to a final written report. It is unique amongst the modules you are taking towards your degree in Economics, both in the ways that you learn and in the ways that you are assessed. Your learning will be largely independent, but is supported by structured supervision from your dissertations supervisor and weekly computing sessions to help in accessing, coding analysing and interpreting your data.
This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (Stata), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.
The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.
What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.
This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.
The module links theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy and includes the following topics:
Univariate Time Series Analysis
• Concepts of stochastic processes;
• Types of linear processes: Autoregressions and moving averages
• Nonstationary linear processes
• Predicting stochastic processes
• Estimation of linear time series models
Dynamic Econometric Models
• Nonsense Regressions;
• The autoregressive distributed lag model;
• Cointegration and equilibrium correction.
Multiple Time Series Models
• Vector autoregressive processes;
• Structural analysis: Causality and impulse-response analysis.
These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces students to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps students to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.
The module provides insight into the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at the EU level. It introduces the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of developments to date
The emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. The nature of economic integration is such that the module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and analysis going beyond that covered in more theory focussed modules.
This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.
The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:
1. The relationship between unemployment and wages
2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled
3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women
4. Government policy towards skills and education
5. Executive pay
Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.
The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.
The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.
The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.
The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.
The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.
The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.
The topics covered in the module include:
1. Open economy macroeconomics and policy.
2. Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.
3. Microfounded models of the current account.
4. International financial flows.
5. International indebtedness.
6. International financial crises
7. International monetary arrangements.
This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.
International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.
This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:
• Structural macro and monetary modelling
• Reduced form macro and monetary modelling
• Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Policy interventions
This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.
First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.
While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.
The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions.
There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.
There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 1).
The module provides an alternative to students carrying out an economics research project in the dissertation module. Some students lack the necessary analytical, quantitative and research skills necessary for a piece of original research. This module will give such students the opportunity to investigate an area of economics in depth by critically reviewing the literature on a chosen subject.
Students will be given a set of questions with readings. They can also construct their own question so long as it is approved. Each student would write a different essay. Examples of questions are: what evidence exists on the success(es) of micro lending schemes? Can active labour market policies reduce long term unemployment? Can economists explain voting behaviour? Students are taught about what is required for an extended critical review of the literature and advised about what should be contained in an essay on their topic. They are also advised about how to present a poster session.
This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.
The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:
- what are the determinants of growth?
- how can we improve productivity?
- what kind of role does the government play on growth?
- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?
In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals – their opportunities, constraints, and choices – to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.
The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies – such the World Bank and DfID – as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.
The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.
The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).
The topics considered in the module include:
• Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.
The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.
The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.
The topics considered in the module include:
• Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.
This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.
The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.
The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.
1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:
2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:
3. Institutions and Development:
4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:
5. Climate Agreements:
The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.
• Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems
• Optimisation Theory
• Dynamic Models
The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.
The module will cover the following topics:
1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts
2. Theories of financial crises
3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective
4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries
5. Early 19th century financial crises
6. The 1890s
7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed
8. The Great Depression I – Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises
9. The Great Depression II – US banking crisis
10. The Great Depression III – Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis
11. Financial crises in the 1990s
12. The Great Recessions – housing bubble, contagion, banking crisis
This module applies various aspects of environmental economic theory in combination with mathematical and statistical methods to provide students with an understanding of the link between economic theory and policy application. It introduces students to fundamental key skills used by environmental economists in the application of economics to real world environmental issues.
The main focus will be on how economic theory is applied to real world environmental issues and how this can be demonstrated using EXCEL. Therefore, it continues the development of students' use of information technology within a structured environment. This module will provide students with an enhanced understanding of how economic theory can be translated into practical policy advice.
The module introduces students to a variety of environmental economic practical issues. Alongside formal lectures, computer workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing.
Examples of topics the module may cover include:
• Pollution control instruments – will consider taxes and permits using market simulation and potentially the development of equilibrium displacement models;
• Non-market evaluation – will consider stated and revealed preference approaches to non-market valuation, consider experimental design, survey design and delivery and data analysis using linear regression and binary choice models;
• Renewable resource management – will consider fisheries and/or forestry management as a dynamic programming problem using the EXCEL solver; and
• Non-renewable resource management – will consider oil reserve management as a dynamic programming problem using the EXCEL solver.
The 2020/21 annual tuition fees for this programme are:
For details of when and how to pay fees and charges, please see our Student Finance Guide.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £9,250.
For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.*
The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £1,385.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £1,385.
Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status.
Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details.
You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.
Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.
At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence.
The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages.
The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either mathematics or a modern foreign language. Please review the eligibility criteria.
Most modules are taught by a combination of lectures and seminars and some have a number of workshops or sessions in computer laboratories. Most of your modules involve individual study using library resources.
Most modules have an end-of-year examination that contributes either 70% or 80% to the final module mark: your coursework provides the remaining marks. Both Stage 2 and 3 marks count towards your final degree class (together with your marks from your year in industry, if applicable).
All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.
On this programme, you develop transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.
The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.
For a student studying full time, each academic year of the programme will comprise 1200 learning hours which include both direct contact hours and private study hours. The precise breakdown of hours will be subject dependent and will vary according to modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
Methods of assessment will vary according to subject specialism and individual modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
The programme aims to:
You gain a knowledge and understanding of:
You gain the following intellectual skills:
You gain the following subject-specific skills:
You gain the following transferable skills:
All University of Kent courses are regulated by the Office for Students.
Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.
Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.
For graduate prospects, Accounting and Finance at Kent ranked 8th in The Complete University Guide 2021 and scored over 90% in The Times Good University Guide 2020.
Recent graduates have entered into accountancy training with the Government Economics Service or with firms such as:
Our graduates have also gone to work in:
The Backpack to Briefcase scheme provides bespoke career and skills development events and activities for all Kent Business School students. Available from first year through to graduation, Backpack to Briefcase is designed to prepare you for a successful career after university.
The University also has a friendly Careers and Employability Service which can give you advice on how to:
As part of your degree, you also develop a number transferable skills that are useful in any career. These include the ability to:
You can gain additional skills by signing up for one of our Kent Extra activities, such as learning a language or volunteering.
Provided you choose the appropriate modules, your degree can earn you full or partial exemption from the preliminary stage of professional accountancy examinations. .
The Start now button below takes you to Kent's short form, which you need to fill in and submit. We'll review your application and let you know if we can offer you a place. If you wish to accept our offer, you need to confirm this via UCAS Track. To do so, you'll need the following:
Discover Uni is designed to support prospective students in deciding whether, where and what to study. The site replaces Unistats from September 2019.
Discover Uni is jointly owned by the Office for Students, the Department for the Economy Northern Ireland, the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales and the Scottish Funding Council.
Find out more about the Unistats dataset on the Higher Education Statistics Agency website.