Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research

Staff ›Dr. Heejung Chung

Dr. Heejung Chung

Lecturer in Sociology and Social Policy

Telephone 01227 823624

Biographical details

I am interested in the labour market in relations to welfare states and the interaction between them. One key research interest is on the issues surrounding work-life balance and gender. More specifically, I am interested in the impact of national policies and gender norms on the level of work-family conflict of individuals and the gender gap in the conflict levels. Additionally, I am interested in the impact worker-centred working-time flexibility and job autonomy have in facilitating individuals to balance work with other aspects of life, and how that can impact companies and society.

Another key research interest of mine is labour market flexibility and employment insecurity, and again the role labour market policies have in providing security or flexiblity for individuals.

In addition, I have written on a variety of topics relating to labour market flexibility and social policy. My main research method is quantitative data analysis using cross-national/European data with multi-level modelling techniques, but I also use qualitative methods including interviews and policy analyses.

My key interests include ( and will be interested in supervising students on )
- Labour market flexibility, Employment insecurity
- Working time flexibility, Job autonomy
- Work-life balance, Work-family conflict
- Gender equality and gender norms
- Cross-national data, European data 
- Multi-level modelling, other advance quantitative methods
- European welfare states & labour market- focused on Dutch, British, Spanish cases

Currently I am writing papers in the topics of
1) Employment insecurity perceptions
2) Work-family conflict and gender gaps 
3) Flexible working time arrangements
4) Support for child care in Europe
5) Youth in the labour market after the crisis
6) Relative importance of social life and the role of the welfare state
7) Gender norm dimensions



I convene SO819: Analysis of Quantitative Data (using SPSS) for post-graduate students. This course is designed to provide students with little prior knowledge about quantitative analysis with practical knowledge of data analysis.

I also deliver lectures and seminars in SO602: Research Methods and SA 503: Key Issues in Welfare Systems for undergraduate students and SO807:Research Methods in Criminology for post-graduates.

I am also co-supervising a PhD student on Social Inclusion in South Korea.



(k) represents those written in Korean

Refereed Journal Publication
Chung, H. (forthcoming/2011) “Measuring flexicurity: Precautionary notes, a new framework, and an empirical example.” Social Indicators Research
Published online 14th Feb, 2011.

Chung, H. & van Oorschot, W. (2011) “Institutions or market powers? Explaining employment insecurity of European individuals in (the beginning of) the financial crisis.” Journal of European Social Policy. 21(4): 287-301

Chung, H. & Thewissen, S. (2011) “Falling back on old habits? A Comparison of the Social and Unemployment Crisis Reactive Policies in Germany, the UK, and Sweden.” Social Policy and Administration. 45(4): 354–370

Kerkhofs, M., Chung, H. & Ester, P. (2008)"Working time flexibility across Europe: a typology using firm-level data.Industrial Relations Journal 39(6): 569–585.

Chung, H. & Kim, J. (2003) “The Dutch Welfare Reform and Labour Market Policies: over the ‘Miracle’ towards ‘Flexicurity.’” Critical Social Welfare (상황과 복지), Vol. 14. (k)

The Next Generation Scholars of Social Welfare (2003) “Korean Welfare State Regime Argument in a Different Perspective.”Critical Social Welfare (상황과 복지), Vol. 13.(k)

Book /Book Chapters
Chung, H. & van Oorschot, W. (forthcoming/2012) “The impact of the perceived and actual unemployment benefit generosity and unemployment rates on employment security of workers” in Ervasti, H. et al. (eds.) Edward Elgar Publishing.

Meuleman, B. & Chung, H. (forthcoming/2012) “Who should care for the children? Support for 
government intervention in child care” in Ervasti, H. et al. (eds.) Edward Elgar Publishing.

Chung, H. (2011). 'Work-Family Conflict across 28 European Countries: A Multi-level Approach'. In S. Drobnic & A. Guillén (Eds.), Work-Life Balance in Europe. The role of job quality (pp. 42-68). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chung, H. (2009) Flexibility for Whom? Working time flexibility practices of European companies. ReflecT, Tilburg University Ph.D. Dissertation. 

Bekkers, S. and Chung, H. (2009) “Restructuring Organisations while Striving for Flexicurity: Connecting the European Level to National Contexts” in Moreau, M.A. (ed.) Building Anticipation of Restructuring in Europe. PE Lang Publishers.pp.303~330.

Kerkhofs, M., Chung, H. & Ester, P. (2008) “Working Time Flexibility Across Europe” in Ester, P., Muffels, R., Schippers, J. & Wilthagen, T. (eds.) Innovating European Labour Markets:Dynamics and Perspectives, Edward Elgar. pp.163~189.

Chung, H. (2008) “Provision of Work-life Balance Arrangements in European Companies: Public vs. Private” in Keune, M., Leschke J., & Watt, A. (eds.) Privatisation and liberalisation of public services in Europe: An analysis of economic and labour market impacts. Brussels: ETUI.

Chung, H. (2007) “Flexibility for employers or for employees? A new approach to examining labour market flexibility across Europe using company level data” in Jørgensen, H. & Madsen, P. K. (eds.) Flexicurity and Beyond: Finding a new agenda for the European Social Model, Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing. pp. 243~277.

Reports & Peer-reviewed discussion/working papers
van Oorschot, W. & Chung, H. (2011) “Employment insecurity of European individuals (during the financial crisis), a multi-level approach" ReflecT Research paper series. No.4. Tilburg University: Tilburg.

Chung, H. & van Oorschot, W. (2010) “Employment insecurity of European individuals (during the financial crisis), a multi-level approach” RECwowe working paper series 14/2010. University of Edinburgh: Edinburgh.

Muffels, R., Wilthagen, T., Chung, H. & Dekker, R. (2010) Towards a Methodology to Monitor and Analyse Flexicurity and Work-Life Balance Policies in the Member States of the EU. Report for the European Commission.

Chung, H., Muffels, R., & Wilthagen, T. (2009) Defining and testing flexicurity indicators in Europe: How well performs the Dutch labour market comparably. OSA report A236: OSA: Tilburg.

Chung, H. & Tijdens, K. (2009) "Working time flexibility components of companies in Europe" AIAS working paper series. AIAS: Amsterdam.

Wilthagen, T., Bekker, S., Chung, H. & Rabhi, M. (2009) Decent work in the Netherlands. A report for the ILO project on Decent work in Europe. ILO, Geneve.

Muffels, R., Chung, H., Fouarge D., Klammer, U., Lijkx, R., Manzoni, A. & Wilthagen, T., (2008) Flexibility and security over the life course, European Foundation, Office for Official Publications: Luxembourg.

Klammer, U., Wilthagen, T., Chung, H., & Thiel, A. (2008) “Take it or leave it: flexible working-time arrangements and the synchronization of business cycle and life cycle”, Working Paper of the European Foundation. Office for Official Publications: Luxembourg.

Chung, H. (2008) “Do institutions matter? Explaining the use of working time flexibility arrangements of companies across 21 European countries using a multilevel model focusing on country level determinants”, WZB Discussion paper 2008-107. WZB: Berlin.

Chung, H., Kerkhofs, M. & Ester, P. (2007) Working Time Flexibility in European Companies, European Foundation, Office for Official Publications: Luxembourg.

Chung, H. & Muffels, R. (2007) Contract flexibility and working time arrangements: Constructing a typology. Tilburg University working paper. Tilburg University: Tilburg.

Other professional publications 
Chung, H. (2008)“Towards a future that works: The reform advice from the Dutch commission for labour market participation”(original title: 일하는 미래를 향하여: 네덜란드 노동참여위원회 노동시장 개혁 권고안)International Labor Brief, Vol.6 No.5 , Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2008) "Comparison between Danish and Dutch Flexicurity Models" (original title: 덴마크와 네덜란드의 유연안정성 모델 비교) International Labor Brief, Vol.6 No.3 , Korean Labor Institute 

Chung, H. (2007)"The 2006 Spanish labour law reform and its outcomes: policy alternative for the issues of temporary work?" (original title: 비정규직 문제의 대안: 스페인의 2006년도 노동정책 개혁의 성과)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.12, Korean Labor Institute 

Chung, H. (2007)"The flexibility and security situation in the Dutch labour market, the land of Flexicurity" (k)(original title: 유연안정성의 나라, 네덜란드의 노동시장 유연성과 안정성 실태)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.9, Korean Labor Institute 

Chung, H. (2007) "The Flexicurity Strategy of the EC: towards a common principal of Flexicurity" (k)(original title: 유럽연합의 유연안정성전략: ‘유연안정성(Flexicurity)의 공동원칙을 향하여)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.7, Korean Labor Institute 

Chung, H. (2007) “The Responces to the EC’s Green Paper on Modernizing Labour Law” (k)(original title: 유럽연합 노동법의 근대화를 위한 녹서에 대한 답변)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.5, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2007) “The Flexicurity strategy of the European Union: Green paper on the modernization of labour law” (k) (original title: 유럽연합의 유연안정성 전략: 노동법의 근대화를 위한 녹서)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.3, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2007) “From collectivism towards individualisation”
Tijdschrift voor HRM, lente 2007. Sassenheim, Van Vliet Uitgevers. 

Chung, H. (2007) “Combination of work and child-care in the Netherlands: work life balance through working time flexibility” (k) (original title: 네덜란드의 일과 육아의 양립: 노동시간 유연성을 통한 삶의 균형)
International Labor Brief, Vol.5 No.2, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2006)“Mid-long Term Plan of SER: Economic development through participatory society” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.4 No.11, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2006) “ Spanish Labour Reform and the Problem of Temporary Employment ” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.4 No.9, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2006) “Holidays and leave schemes of the Netherlands” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.4 No.7, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2006) “Labour Market Flexibility for Workers: Working-time Flexibility and Life-course” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.4 No.4, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2006) “Reform of the Dutch Welfare State: Reform of the Disability Insurance Scheme” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.4 No.2, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2005) “Life-course Plan in the Netherlands” (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.3 No.12, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2005) “Transitional Labour Markets - The New Social Model for Europe”(6 part series) (k)
International Labor Brief, Vol.3 No.2 ~Vol.3 No.7, Korean Labor Institute

Chung, H. (2004) “The Emergence of the Welfare State” (k)
Korean Railway Workers Union Paper No.2 (January, 2004), Korean Railway Workers Union

Associate Editor for Work Employment Society.
Article reviews for Social Indicator Research, Korean Social Security Association Journal, RECwowe (Network of Excellence - Reconciliation of Work and Welfare) working papers series, etc.

Notable press coverage/interviews
2010 – November, 29th: interview1 (k)
2010 – November, 29th: interview2 (k)
2010 – August, 6th: Chosun ilbo newspaper interview (k)
2009 – November 13th: Intermediare, HRbase – Ph.D. thesis coverage (Intermediare coverage) (dutch)
2009 – November 10th: Taskforce deeltijdplus press – Ph.D. thesis coverage (Taskforce deeltijd plus press) (dutch)
2009 – November 9th: Blijk op – Ph.D. thesis coverage (Blijk op coverage) (dutch)
2009 – November 9th: – Ph.D. thesis coverage ( coverage) (dutch)

Professional memberships

I am an associate board member of Work, Employment & Society.
I am also a member of the British Sociological Association, the European Social Policy Analysis Network (ESPAnet), Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE), and the International Sociological Association – Research Committee 19 on Poverty, Social Welfare and Social Policy (ISA-RC19).

Telephone: +44(0)1227 823072 Fax: +44(0)1227 827005 or email us

SSPSSR, Faculty of Social Sciences, Cornwallis North East, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF

Last Updated: 03/09/2012