Portrait of Dr Steve Meadows

Dr Steve Meadows

Undergraduate Admissions Officer
Programme Director for BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise for Health

About

After working in the health and fitness industry for many years, Steve gained his first degree in Sport Science, Health and Health Promotion at Canterbury Christ Church University, where he also did his MSc in Sport and Exercise Science. His PhD study investigated METs expenditure of cardiac patients during exercise – which is another way of looking at their oxygen uptake (VO2). Subsequent published work in this area has critiqued the use of standard MET values for a clinical population. His research work reflects his practical engagement with various clinical exercise rehabilitation groups. As a qualified BACPR Phase IV exercise instructor he has worked in cardiac rehabilitation for 15 years. He has also set-up a community-based stroke rehabilitation and a Parkinson’s exercise class. All these sessions provide valuable work experience opportunities for students to get involved in. 

He is keen for students to develop not just their academic and research skills, but also to broaden their horizons on the opportunities available to sport and exercise graduates. He is keen to see exercise used as medicine for prevention and chronic disease management, and these areas are his teaching specialisms.

He is the undergraduate admissions officer for SSES and programme director for the Sport and Exercise for Health degree. He is a great advocate of ‘practising what he preaches’ and prefers his bike, skateboard or micro-scooter to driving. In his spare time he enjoys kayaking, cycling, reading, live music and spending time walking his cocker spaniel or on his allotment. 

Research interests

My current research interests relate to exercise in cardiac, stroke and Parkinson’s populations, but also the broader factors that impact on health and people’s ability to exercise and preserve, or improve their health and functional capacity.

Steve's most recent research project is an investigation into brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in acute and chronic exercise for people with Parkinson’s. There are many unexplored issues related to the field of clinical exercise physiology and psychology. This is made more interesting and complex when most people experience clinical health problems later in life. Getting and keeping people more active is critical to maintain and improving health throughout the life-course. Strategies that work in a real-life setting is a focus of my research interest, along with the evaluation of intervention outcomes.  My passion is to see research being undertaken in applied settings, providing a ‘living laboratory’ for the researcher and students.  

Teaching

Steve's teaching focuses on exercise prescription, referral and rehabilitation, exercise for special populations, human anatomy and physiology.

Publications

Article

  • Meadows, S., Woolf-May, K., Ferrett, D. and Kearney, E. (2017). Metabolic equivalents fail to indicate metabolic load in post-myocardial infarction patients during the modified Bruce treadmill walking test. British Medical Journal Open Sport & Exercise Medicine [Online] 2. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2016-000173.
    Aim To investigate the suitability of metabolic equivalents (METs) for determining exercise intensity in phase-IV post-myocardial infarction (MI) men during the modified Bruce treadmill walking test (MBWT).

    Methods Twenty phase-IV post-MI men (mean±SD, aged 64.4±5.8?years) and 20 healthy non-cardiac male controls (59.8±7.6?years) participated. Participants performed a MBWT. Throughout the participants’ heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, expired air parameters and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were measured. MET values were compared between groups and those currently ascribed to each stage of the MBWT.

    Results General linear model analysis found no significant differences between groups during the MBWT for VO2, VCO2, HR, METs or RPEs (Borg 6–20 scale). Ascribed METs did not differ from mean METs of post-MIs or controls other than at stage 5 where post-MI METs were significantly lower. Irrespective, the post-MI group worked at a higher percentage of their anaerobic threshold (AT) (respiratory exchange ratio, RER=1.0) (F (2,5)=7.22, p<0.008), higher RER (F (2,5)=11.25, p<0.001) with increased breathing frequency (F (2,5)=7.22, p<0.001). Regression analysis revealed AT to be VO2 25.6 (mL/kg/min) for post-MI versus VO2 31.1 (mL/kg/min) for controls. Gross energy expenditure (kcal/min) was greater for the post-MI group compared with controls (F (2,5)=11.22, p<0.001). Throughout the MBWT, post-MI group worked at a higher %AT/MET than controls (F (2,196)=211.76, p<0.01). Body composition did not strongly influence %AT/MET, parameters of VO2, METs or RPE.

    Conclusion During the MBWT, post-MI men worked more anaerobically per MET (%AT/MET) than controls. Therefore, current METs based on non-cardiac individuals appear unsuitable in determining the full metabolic load of the exercise intensity for cardiac patients during the MBWT.
  • Meadows, S. and Woolf-May, K. (2016). Appropriateness of the metabolic equivalent (MET) as an estimate of exercise intensity for post-myocardial infarction patients. British Medical Journal Opne Sport & Exercise Medicine [Online] 2. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2016-000172.
    Aims: To explore: (1) whether during exercise metabolic equivalents (METs) appropriately indicate the intensity and/or metabolic cost for post-myocardial infarction (MI) males and (2) whether post-exercise VO2 parameters provide insight into the intensity and/or metabolic cost of the prior exercise.

    Methods: 15 male phase-IV post-MIs (64.4±6.5 years) and 16 apparently healthy males (63.0±6.4 years) participated. Participants performed a graded cycle ergometer test (CET) of 50, 75 and 100 W, followed by 10 min active recovery (at 50 W) and 22 min seated recovery. Participants’ heart rate (HR, bpm), expired air parameters and ratings of perceived exertion (exercise only) were measured.

    Results: General linear model analysis showed throughout significantly lower HR values in post-MI participants that were related to ?-blocker medication (F (2,5)=18.47, p<0.01), with significantly higher VCO2/VO2 (F (2,5)=11.25, p<0.001) and gross kcals/LO2/min (F (2,5)=11.25, p<0.001). Analysis comparing lines of regression showed, during the CET: post-MI participants worked at higher percentage of their anaerobic threshold (%AT)/MET than controls (F (2,90)=18.98, p<0.001), as well as during active recovery (100–50 W) (F (2,56)=20.81, p<0.001); during seated recovery: GLM analysis showed significantly higher values of VCO2/VO2 for post-MI participants compared with controls (F (2,3)=21.48, p=0.001) as well as gross kcals/LO2/min (F (2,3)=21.48, p=0.001).

    Conclusion: Since METs take no consideration of any anaerobic component, they failed to reflect the significantly greater anaerobic contribution during exercise per MET for phase-IV post-MI patients. Given the anaerobic component will be greater for those with more severe forms of cardiac disease, current METs should be used with caution when determining exercise intensity in any patient with cardiac disease.
  • Kokolakakis, T., Pappous, A. and Meadows, S. (2015). The Impact of the Free Swimming Programme in a Local Community in the South East of England: Giving with One Hand, Taking Away with the Other. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Online] 12:4461-4480. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404461.
    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the introduction of the Free Swimming Programme (FSP) in a local community (not identified to preserve anonymity) in the South East of England. The question has been approached in a variety of ways: by using primary quantitative data from leisure centres and logistic regressions based on the Active People Survey (APS). Problems are identified related to the introduction of the FSP in this community and suggestions are made for future policy. A brief examination of swimming participation in England enables researchers to place this community into a national context. The problems and policies of sport organisation developed in this community are not dissimilar to a more general application reflecting the English experience; in this sense it is anticipated that the findings will enable managers of sport organisations, along with public health policy makers, to focus more effectively on raising sport participation. The unique selling points of this article are the examination of FSP for adult participants, the local analysis of junior and senior participation, and the overall assessment of the policy based on APS.
  • Meadows, S. (2013). Metabolic equivalents for post-myocardial infarction patients during graded treadmill walking. Journal of Exercise Physiology online [Online] 16:60-69. Available at: http://www.asep.org/journals/JEPonline.
  • Woolf-May, K. and Meadows, S. (2013). Exploring adaptations to the modified shuttle walking test. BMJ Open [Online] 3:e002821. Available at: http://dx.doi.org.10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002821.
    ABSTRACT
    Objective: The 10 m modified shuttle walking test
    (MSWT) is recommended to determine the functional
    capacity in older individuals and for patients entering
    cardiac rehabilitation. Participants are required to
    negotiate around cones set 1 m from the end markers.
    However, consistent comments indicate that for some
    individuals manoeuvring around the cones can be
    quite difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study
    was to explore differences within and between noncardiac
    and postmyocardial infarction (MI) males
    during MSWT with and without the cones.
    Design: Comparative study.
    Participants: 20 post-MI (64.8±6.6, range
    51–74 years) and 20 non-cardiac male controls
    (64.1±5.7, range 52–74 years) participated.
    Methods: Participants performed MSWT with and
    without cones. Throughout, the participants expired
    air, and the heart rate (bpm) (HR) and ratings of
    perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Participant
    protocol preference was recorded verbatim.
    Results: One-way analysis of variance found no
    significant difference in VO2 peak (cones 20.4±5.1 vs nocones
    21.9±4.8 ml/kg/min, p=0.197) or distance ambulated
    (cones 631.8±132.9 m vs no-cones 662.4±164.1 m,
    p=0.371) between protocols or groups. Analysis comparing
    lines of regression showed a significant trajectory difference
    in VO2 (ml/kg/min) (p<0.01) between protocols with higher
    HR (p<0.01) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER, p<0.001)
    values during cones. RPEs were higher for post-MIs versus
    controls during both protocols (p<0.05). Post-MIs taking
    ?-blockers produce significantly lower HR values. The ?2
    analysis found no significant difference in protocol
    preference (no-cones: all n=25, 63%; post-MIs n=13, 65%;
    and controls n=12, 60%).
    Conclusions: Post-MIs found both protocols
    subjectively harder than controls with no significant
    difference in the VO2 peak. However, both groups worked
    at a lesser percentage of their anaerobic threshold during
    no-cones protocol as indicated by lower RER values.
    Importantly, for the post-MIs, this would reduce their risk
    of functional impairment. Therefore, though more
    research is required, indicators at present are more
    favourable for the use of the no-cones with post-MIs.
  • Meadows, S., Jobson, S. and Kirk, M. (2011). Evaluating a cardiac rehabilitation service. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing [Online] 6:553-558. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjca.2011.6.11.553.
    Cardiac rehabilitation programmes reduce cardiac-related morbidity. However, evidence suggests that cardiac rehabilitation services nationally are not equitable, with regional variation in the scope of service provision and patient outcome. With new commissioning groups being established, service providers have an opportunity to highlight gaps in the quality of their service. Commissioning groups now require evidence to demonstrate efficacy and cost effectiveness of services. Data collected during cardiac rehabilitation can be reviewed to provide such evidence. This article discusses the value of performing service evaluation for cardiac rehabilitation services as a means of improving service efficiency, patient care and to provide a foundation for evidence-based practice.

Book section

  • Gail, S. and Meadows, S. (2016). Physical Activity for Cardiac Rehabilitation. In: Scott, A. and Gidlow, C. eds. Clinical Exercise Science. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 17-39. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/Clinical-Exercise-Science/Scott-Gidlow/p/book/9780415708418.

Conference or workshop item

  • Meadows, S. (2019). An Evaluation of 12-months in Phase IV Cardiac Rehabilitation. In: BACPR Exercise Professionals Spring Group Study Day. Available at: http:/www.bacpr.com.
    Abstract
    Aims To evaluate key health and fitness parameters of cardiac patients participating in a Phase IV cardiac rehabilitation (CR) circuit class over a 12-month period.
    Introduction: Exercise-based CR is a fundamental part of recovery from heart-related issues and is also an important secondary prevention strategy for risk factor management.
    Methods 25 cardiac patients referred to a community Phase IV CR circuit class (males = 16; females = 9; mean age 74.1 ±5.9 years) were evaluated for key health and functional capacity parameters over a 12-month period (2018 and 2019). Anthropometric: body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]; health: resting systolic [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP) and resting heart rate [RHR]; and functional capacity measurement: 6-minute shuttle walking distance [6MWD].
    Results BMI, WC, SBP, DBP and RHR did not significantly change. BMI was reported in an overweight classification (26.41 ±2.98 kg.m2). 40% of participants had a WC that exceeded recommended levels for substantially increased health risk (females ≥ 88 cm; males ≥ 102 cm). SBP and DBP both decreased and remained in a normotensive range. However, 6MWD significantly increased from 492.16 ±79.97 m to 509.20 ± 90.85 m (p=0.037).
    Conclusion A once a week circuit-based exercise training session did not positively impact on anthropometric and health parameters. Additional interventions are needed at Phase IV to effectively manage risk factors (BMI, WC) and to preserve health. However, functional capacity improvement was achieved in 6MWD indicating increased fitness.
    s.meadows@kent.ac.uk
  • Meadows, S., Cunliffe, A., Prior, C., Small, K. and Ferrusola-Pastrana, A. (2018). An Evaluation of Phase IV Participants. In: BACPR EPG 2018.
    Aims To evaluate the health and fitness of long-term Phase IV cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants.
    Introduction Exercise training is considered a cornerstone intervention in Phase III and Phase IV CR. The benefits of exercise are only retained with adherence. Very little evaluative work has been conducted on those who remain involved in Phase IV to investigate their health and functional status in relation to key risk management criteria (i.e. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and functional status).
    Methods 34 Phase IV participants (male = 24; female = 10; mean age 72.74 ±5.71 years) with at least 6 months engagement in a once weekly CR circuit exercise class completed anthropometric (BMI and waist circumference), health measurements (resting blood pressure), and 6-minute shuttle walking distance (6MWD) for functional capacity. Comparison was made to a Phase III dataset (n= 669) obtained from the local CR team to evaluate health and functional status of long-term Phase IV participants.
    Results There was a 10% increase in those with a BMI > 25kg.m2 from Phase III to Phase IV (66% - 76% of the group). The mean BMI in the Phase IV cohort was 27.33 ±3.57kg.m2 and regional weight distribution measured by waist circumference was 99.72±11.92cm and 87.25 ±8.27cm in males and females respectively. Blood pressure remained in a normotensive range. 6MWD improved from a mean of 437.38 ±91.16m to 488.26 ±89.61m (11.62% improvement). Using the ACSM (2014) formula based on walking speed (m.min-1) in the 6MWD test, this represented a MET improvement from 3.08 to 3.32 METs for a sub-maximal walking effort.
    Conclusion A small improvement in sub-maximal functional capacity achieved in this Phase IV CR population, as measured by 6MWD. However, the MET equivalent value for this effort was only just in the moderate intensity range and below the 5-MET threshold normally associated with higher risk stratification. There is scope for education reinforcement related to healthy weight management to control for the risk associated with overweight / obesity, as measured by BMI and waist circumference in both the male and female Phase IV CR population.
  • Cox, R., Meadows, S. and Ferrusola-Pastrana, A. (2018). Should Exercise be Used as Medicine in Stroke Rehabilitation?. In: BACPR EPG Study Day 2018.
    Background: Recent evidence identifies that there are more people surviving a stroke than ever before, however almost 67% leave hospital with a disability (Stroke Association, 2017). Therefore, there is a large population currently living with the effects of a stroke such as a reduction in activities of daily living, loss of independence and fatigue. Physical activity helps to reduce the impact of these effects. There is now overwhelming evidence of the benefits exercise provides towards modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as inactivity, high blood pressure, obesity (O’Donnell et al., 2016).
    Aims: To provide a once a week group exercise session for stroke survivors in a local community setting using a multi-modal format (circuit training, corrective strength and balance exercise). To investigate the chronic benefits of exercise has for individuals in stroke rehabilitation in terms of functional capacity and risk management.
    Recruitment: Individuals referred by stroke rehabilitation services, their GP or through local stroke support groups.
    Assessments: Health (resting heart rate (RHR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP), height, weight, BMI, waist circumference) and functional assessments (six-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed up and go (TUG) and bilateral grip strength (GS)) were completed before attendance & repeated after 12 exercise sessions. Additional follow-ups completed at 6 monthly intervals.
    Results: A weekly exercise session for stroke survivors significantly improved both health and functional outcomes. BP significantly decreased [particularly SBP (p =.001) and DBP by trend (p=.061)] from hypertensive to a normotensive range. Participants also performed significantly better in 6MWD, TUG and Left-GS (p<.001, p=.025 and p=.033, respectively), right-GS increased by trend (p=.061). None of the measured outcomes showed any performance deterioration and there were no deleterious effects of the exercise reported.
    Conclusion: Attendance at a weekly community stroke rehabilitation exercise session promotes continued recovery of function and improved exercise capacity (as measured by the 6MWD and effective risk factor management.
  • Meadows, S. (2017). The Effects of Group Based Exercise Rehabilitation in Stroke Survivors Update. In: BACPR Exercise Professionals Group Spring Study Day. Available at: http://kent.ac.uk.
    Stroke is the second leading cause of death (WHO, 2015) & disability adjusted life years worldwide (Murray, et al., 2012). Following a stroke, it is important to manage modifiable risk factors. Hypertension contributes to around half of strokes in the UK. Exercise training post-stroke has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure (Faulkner, et al., 2013). Physical inactivity also increases the incidence of stroke. Activity levels often decline post-stroke due to loss of movement, mobility & reduced functional capacity (Saunders, et al., 2016). The benefits of exercise training in stroke rehabilitation can improve a wide range of factors including quality of life & secondary stroke incidence (Saunders, Grieg & Mead 2014).
  • Meadows, S. (2017). The Effects of a Group Exercise Rehabilitation Session on Stroke Survivors. In: ACSM’s 64th Annual Meeting, 8th World Congress on Exercise Is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain.
    UK stroke mortality rates are falling, but > 50% of stroke survivors have functional disabilities. These impairments reduce capacity to perform activities of daily living (ADL) such as walking, basic self-care and independence, even several years post-stroke. Disability predisposes them to a chronic sedentary lifestyle, leading to further deconditioning and muscle atrophy, compounding disability. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is markedly reduced in a stroke population, with survivor VO2 max ? 50% below a healthy age-matched population. Hypertension (HTN) is a modifiable risk factor for stroke, yet 75% of recurrent stroke sufferers have HTN. In the UK there is no routine exercise provision for chronic care of stroke survivors.
  • Meadows, S. (2017). Appropriateness of the metabolic equivalent (MET) as an estimate of exercise intensity for post-myocardial infarction patients. In: BACPR Exercise Professionals Group Study Day.
    Exercise is an important intervention used in cardiac rehabilitation to improve patient health outcomes and for secondary prevention of cardiac and other co-morbidities. In recent times there has been some debate amongst researchers and practitioners over the use of equations and indices, which are mainly based on healthy individuals, to estimate exercise intensity. Often these are used to provide assistance with exercise prescription and/or to establish exercise capacity for risk stratification purposes, in settings like cardiac rehabilitation. The metabolic equivalent (MET) is one such metric.
  • Meadows, S., McCrann, A., Sidoli, S., Wheeler, S. and Bell, A. (2016). An Investigation into METs expenditure during circuit exercise. In: British Association of Cardiac Prevention & Rehabilitation Exercise Professionals Group Study Day (2016). Available at: http://www.bacpr.com/resources/BACPR_EPG_2016_Delegate_booklet_.pdf.
  • Wren, N., Dietz, K. and Meadows, S. (2015). Does Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) Improve Functional Capacity Of Patients? An Evaluation Using The 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT). In: British Association of Cardiac Prevention & Rehabilitation Exercise Professionals Study Day (2015). Available at: http://www.bacpr.com/resources/BACPR_EPG_Study_day_2015_Delegate_Booklet.pdf.
  • Sullivan, R., Dickinson, J. and Meadows, S. (2015). The Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Phase IV Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) Patients. In: British Association of Cardiac Prevention & Rehabilitation Exercise Professionals Study Day (2015). Available at: http://www.bacpr.com/resources/BACPR_EPG_Study_day_2015_Delegate_Booklet.pdf.
  • Woolf-May, K. and Meadows, S. (2015). The Relative Measure of Oxygen Uptake Alone is not a Good Indicator of Exercise Intensity in Male Post-Myocardial Infraction Patients. In: British Association of Cardiac Prevention & Rehabilitation Exercise Professionals Group Study Day (2015). Available at: http://www.bacpr.com/resources/BACPR_EPG_Study_day_2015_Delegate_Booklet.pdf.
  • Meijen, C. and Meadows, S. (2015). Staying alive: the value of a cardiac rehabilitation exercise group (a survivor’s perspective). In: British Association of Cardiac Prevention & Rehabilitation Exercise Professionals Study Day (2015). Available at: http://www.bacpr.com/resources/BACPR_EPG_Study_day_2015_Delegate_Booklet.pdf.
  • Meijen, C. and Meadows, S. (2015). Staying alive: The meaning of a cardiac rehabilitation exercise group. In: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology.
    Exercise is considered to be a cornerstone intervention in cardiac rehabilitation, which is normally delivered through exercise groups run by clinical staff. Continued attendance at community exercise groups is therefore important in maintaining this lifestyle change (Clark, Mundy, Catto, & MacIntyre, 2010; Martin & Woods, 2012; Thow, Rafferty, & Kelly, 2008). The aim of this study was to explore what makes cardiac patients stay with an exercise group. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 cardiac rehabilitation exercise group participants (mean age = 61, SD = 10.42) from two exercise groups in England, the questions focused on what makes them return to the group and what they perceived to be benefits of the group exercise. Thematic analysis demonstrated that the structure of the exercise group was the main source why exercisers returned to the group, this included the six sub-themes social support, routine, progression, enjoyment, leadership skills, and health benefits. Confidence, survival, and getting back to normality were identified as perceived benefits of the exercise group. Participants felt that the exercise groups helped them getting back to normality and without the exercise groups they would not achieve the required exercise prescription. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise groups in the process of changing cardiac patients’ lifestyle and getting them back to normality. The group environment appears to contribute to longer term adherence to community organised cardiac rehabilitation exercise, and group leaders could be educated on how to facilitate social support, progression, and they could help to increase group participants’ confidence.

Monograph

  • Meadows, S. (2017). Parkinson’s Equip Progress Report 2 MWAG & SSES Exercise for Parkinson’s Disease. University of Kent.
    2nd report to Parkinson's Equip on attendance and functional capacity data from the MWAG & SSES exercise for Parkinson's Disease project.
  • Meadows, S., Clift, S., Skingley, A., Page, S., Stephens, L., Hurley, S., Dickinson, J., Levai, I., Jackson, A., Sullivan, R., Wren, N., McDaid, D., Park, A., Azhar, S., Baxter, N., Rozenthuler, G. and Shah, S. (2017). Singing for Better Breathing: Findings from the Lambeth & Southwark Singing & COPD Project. Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts & Health: Canterbury Christ Church University. Available at: https://www.canterbury.ac.uk/health-and-wellbeing/sidney-de-haan-research-centre/documents/lambeth-and-southwark-singing-for-better-breathing-final-report-june-2017.pdf.
    Over the last eight years there has been a growth of interest in the potential value of participation in singing
    groups for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CODP) and other respiratory illnesses. This is
    shown by the increasing number of singing for breathing groups established across the UK over this period.
    The British Lung Foundation have taken a leading role in promoting this activity through their ‘Singing for Lung
    Health’ programme.

    A limited number of small-scale research studies have assessed the benefits of singing for people with COPD
    and other lung conditions. These include three randomised controlled trials, one in Brazil, and two conducted
    at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London. Further studies have been carried out in Canada, New Zealand,
    the UK and the USA. There is limited evidence that singing improves lung function and exercise capacity, but
    qualitative feedback from participants has been highly positive. Testimonies point to singing having substantial
    subjective benefits for physical, psychological and social wellbeing, and in enabling people with COPD to better
    manage their lung condition.

    The current study in Lambeth and Southwark, South London, was based on earlier research conducted in East
    Kent, UK. Morrison et al. (2013) established and evaluated a network of six community singing groups for
    people with COPD which ran over the course of ten months. Seventy-two people with COPD were followed up
    over this time and assessed using validated questionnaires, with St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)
    as the primary outcome measure. Spirometry was also used to assess lung function. Significant improvements
    were found on the total and impact scores from the SGRQ, and participants also improved in their lung function.
  • Meadows, S. (2017). Parkinson’s Equip Progress Report 1 MWAG & SSES Exercise for Parkinson’s Disease. University of Kent.
    Attendance and functional capacity data report to funding charity (Parkinson's Equip) supporting the Medway Working Age Group (MWAG). The project set-up a weekly exercise session for people with Parkinson's Disease which is delivered and evaluated by the School of Sport & Exercise Sciences.
  • Meadows, S. and Muthumayandi, K. (2016). Report for Medway Community Healthcare Cardiac Rehabilitation Team (MCHCRT) November 2016. University of Kent.
  • Meadows, S. and Jobson, S. (2012). Strategic Insight Paper for Sport England: ’Calorie Mapping’ Sports Participation in England. University of Kent.
  • Meadows, S. (2011). Promoting Sport and Physical Activity in Medway. University of Kent. Available at: http://kent.ac.uk.
  • Meadows, S. and Jobson, S. (2009). "Calorie Mapping" Sports Participation in England : A Report for Sport England. University of Kent.

Research report (external)

  • Meadows, S. (2010). Demographic Profile of Patients Accessing or Not Accessing Cardiac Rehabilitation Services in the Medway and Swale Area of Kent. University of Kent.

Forthcoming

  • Hunt, A. (2019). An Investigation into the Test-Retest Reliability of the Pain Response to Hypertonic Saline Injections and the Impact of Added Muscle Contraction.
    Background/Aims: Intramuscular Hypertonic Saline (HS) injections induce pain that resembles exercise-induced pain. The reliability and the impact that parallel exercise may have on this pain sensation is unestablished. Therefore, the aims of this research were to assess the test-retest reliability of this model's pain response and the influence of additional muscle contractions to the pain experience, in terms of both Pain Intensity (PI) and Pain Quality (PQ). Methodology: 8 male and 6 female participants (25 ± 5 years, 172.9 ± 8.5 cm, 71.9 ± 12.7 kg) completed the two studies. Study 1.1 assessed test-retest reliability with 3 separate visits, in which 1 ml of 5.85% HS was injected into the right vastus lateralis and differences in PI and PQ were measured. In Study 1.2, participants attended 3 separate visits, where they completed an isometric exercise task with 3 separate 10-second contractions at different intensities (10%/15%/20%). This was done with either HS, a placebo or no injection as control. Results: Study 1.1: Intraclass Correlation Coefficient scores for all PI measures indicated at least 'moderate' to 'good' test-retest reliability (0.68 - 0.814). Cronbach's Alpha scores for all PQ measures indicated 'acceptable' to 'good' test-retest reliability (0.806 - 0.933), except for the affective dimension (0.397 - 0.601). Study 1.2: Paired samples t-tests revealed no differences between exercise and rest, for any of the PI measures or PQ measures, except for the Present Pain Index (PPI) of the Long-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (P = 0.048). ANOVA analyses revealed no differences in PI or PQ measures between contraction intensities. Discussion: In Summary, HS provides a 'moderate' to 'good' reliable pain response, except for the affective dimension of pain. PI response is not affected by the addition of exercise or exercise intensity. PQ response is only affected in terms of different descriptive words, when exercise is introduced.
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