Portrait of Dr Nadine Ansorg

Dr Nadine Ansorg

Senior Lecturer in International Conflict Analysis
Research Fellow at the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg

About

Nadine's research focuses in institutional reform in post-conflict societies, in particular security sector reform, the role of international state and non-state actors in these reform processes, and the conditions for establishing peace in divided and post-conflict societies. She is particularly interested in alternative modes of political order beyond the European nation-state. In her research, Nadine uses a mixed-methods approach to explore dynamics and conditions of peacebuilding in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. In her work, she cooperates with civil society organisations in post-conflict countries as well as international donor agencies.
From 2016-2019, Nadine has co-directed a joint project on “Security sector reform and the stability of post-war peace” (funded by the German Research Foundation) together with Prof Dr Sabine Kurtenbach from GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies. She has previously worked as Post-Doctoral Researcher for Grants and Impact at the School of Politics and International Relations, as Project Coordinator and Research Fellow in the project “Institutions for Sustainable Peace” at the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies Hamburg (2012-215) and as Acting Junior Professor for Development Politics and Politics of Africa at Bayreuth University (2014-2015).

Research interests

Nadine's research focuses on institutional reform in post-conflict societies, the role of international state and non-state actors in these reform processes, and the conditions for establishing peace in divided and post-conflict societies. She uses a mixed-methods approach to explore dynamics and conditions of peacebuilding in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.

Teaching


Supervision


Professional


Publications

Article

  • Ansorg, N. and Strasheim, J. (2019). Veto Players in Post-Conflict DDR Programs: Evidence from Nepal and the DRC. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding [Online] 13:112-130. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2018.1501981.
    Under what conditions are Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programs successfully implemented following intrastate conflict? Previous research is dominated by under-theorized case studies that lack the ability to detect the precise factors and mechanisms that lead to successful DDR. In this article, we draw on game theory and ask how the number of veto players, their policy distance, and their internal cohesion impact DDR implementation. Using empirical evidence from Nepal and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we show that the number of veto players, rather than their distance and cohesion, explains the (lack of) implementation of DDR.
  • Ansorg, N. and Gordon, E. (2019). Co-operation, Contestation and Complexity in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding [Online] 13:2-24. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2018.1516392.
    Security Sector Reform (SSR) remains a key feature of peacebuilding interventions and is usually undertaken by a state alongside national and international partners. External actors engaged in SSR tend to follow a normative agenda that often has little regard for the context in post-conflict societies. Despite recurrent criticism, SSR practices of international organisations and bilateral donors often remain focused on state institutions, and often do not sufficiently attend to alternative providers of security or existing normative frameworks of security. This article provides a critical overview of existing research and introduces the special issue on “Co-operation, Contestation and Complexity in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform”. We explore three aspects that add an important piece to the puzzle of what constitutes effective SSR. First, the variation of norm adoption, norm contestation and norm imposition in post-conflict countries that might explain the mixed results in terms of peacebuilding. Second, the multitude of different security actors within and beyond the state which often leads to multiple patterns of co-operation and contestation within reform programmes. And third, how both the multiplicity of and tension between norms and actors further complicate efforts to build peace or, as complexity theory would posit, influence the complex and non-linear social system that is the conflict-affected environment.
  • Haass, F. and Ansorg, N. (2018). Better peacekeepers, better protection? Troop quality of United Nations peace operations and violence against civilians. Journal of Peace Research [Online] 55:742-758. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343318785419.
    Why do similarly sized peacekeeping missions vary in their effectiveness to protect civilians in conflicts? We argue that peace operations with a large share of troops from countries with high-quality militaries are better able to deter violence from state and non-state actors, create buffer zones within conflict areas, can better reach remote locations, and have superior capabilities—including diplomatic pressure by troop contributing countries—to monitor the implementation of peace agreements. These operational advantages enable them to better protect civilians. Combining data from military expenditures of troop contributing countries together with monthly data on the composition of peace operations, we create a proxy indicator for the average troop quality of UN PKOs. Statistical evidence from an extended sample of conflicts in Africa and Asia between 1991 and 2010 supports our argument.
  • Haastrup, T. and Ansorg, N. (2018). Gender and the EU’s Support for Security Sector Reform in Fragile Contexts. Journal of Common Market Studies [Online] 56:1127-1143. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12716.
    How does the European Union (EU) include ‘gender’ within its support to security sector reform (SSR) programmes? The EU has committed to include gender perspectives by implementing the Women, Peace and Security agenda (WPS) within its foreign security practices. While researchers and practitioners recognise the importance of integrating gender issues into SSR operational effectiveness, there is limited knowledge about how this functions within the EU’s security architecture. This article uses Feminist Institutionalism (FI) to understand the process of gender mainstreaming within the EU’s support to SSR programmes. It does this by using two crucial theory-testing cases of SSR programmes – Ukraine and Afghanistan. It finds that the EU’s ability to promote gender inclusive approaches to SSR is limited by the structure of the EU’s own assumptions and capabilities, and institutional constraints in third countries. At the same time, the cases underscore the importance of individuals as agents of change.
  • Ansorg, N. (2017). Security sector reform in Africa: donor approaches versus local needs. Contemporary Security Policy [Online] 38:129-144. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2016.1278343.
    Many African states have security sector reform (SSR) programs. These are often internationally funded. But how do such programs account for previously existing security institutions and the security needs of local communities? This article examines SSR all over Africa to assess local ownership and path dependency from a New Institutionalist perspective. It finds that SSR, particularly in post-conflict countries, tends to be driven by ideas and perceptions of international donors promoting generalized blueprints. Often, such programs only account in a very limited way for path-dependent aspects of security institutions or the local context. Hence the reforms often lack local participation and are thus not accepted by the local community eventually.
  • Ansorg, N. and Haastrup, T. (2016). Brexit Beyond the UK’s Borders: What It Means for Africa. GIGA Focus Afrika [Online]. Available at: https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/publication/brexit-beyond-the-uks-borders-what-it-means-for-africa.
    The result of the United Kingdom’s referendum on leaving the EU, which was held on 23 June 2016, has profound geopolitical, economic, and social implications for Africa. This is all the more the case given the bilateral UK–Africa relationship and interregional Africa–EU relations.
  • Ansorg, N., Haass, F. and Strasheim, J. (2016). Police Reforms in Peace Agreements, 1975–2011: Introducing the PRPA dataset. Journal of Peace Research [Online]:1-11. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343316628932.
    This article presents new data on provisions for police reform in peace agreements (PRPA) between 1975 and 2011. The PRPA dataset complements past research on the determinants and effects of specific terms in agreements with detailed data on police reform provisions. The PRPA dataset also adds a quantitative dimension to the thus far largely qualitative literature on post-conflict security sector reform (SSR). It includes information on six subtypes of police reform: capacity, training, human rights standards, accountability, force composition, and international training and monitoring. We show that there is currently a high global demand for the regulation of police reform through peace agreements: police reform provisions are now more regularly included in agreements than settlement terms that call for power-sharing or elections. We observe interesting variations in the inclusion of police reform provisions in relation to past human rights violations, regime type, or the scope of international peacekeeping prior to negotiations, and illustrate the implications of police reform provisions for the duration of post-conflict peace. Finally, we stimulate ideas on how scholars and policymakers can use the PRPA dataset in future to study new questions on post-conflict police reform.
  • Ansorg, N. (2014). Wars without borders: Conditions for the development of regional conflict systems in sub-Saharan Africa. International Area Studies Review [Online] 17:295-312. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2233865914546502.
    How and under what conditions does war spread into regions and do regional conflict systems evolve? These systems are defined as geographically bound spaces of insecurity, ones that are characterized by interdependent armed conflicts in which a plurality of actors who concur and/or interact within complex networks, and on different levels of action, participate. The regionalization of armed conflict is conceptualized as either the geographical diffusion to a new territory or as the escalation of violence within the very same territory, with the involvement therein of a multiplicity of actors. The processes of diffusion and escalation of civil war in potential and existent regional conflict systems in sub-Saharan Africa between 1989 and 2010 are analyzed with the help of a multivalue Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA). By using such a QCA, it is possible to compare several different cases and produce results that go beyond the ones thus far discovered from small-N analyses. By comparing 12 cases it is also possible to identify the causal relationships and interactions between variables. The analysis shows that, in the cases compared, four specific conditions lead to a regional spread of violence: economic networks sustained through the support of neighboring countries; an intervention on the part of the government; militarized refugees; and, non-salient regional identity groups.
  • Ansorg, N. and Schultze, K. (2014). Friedensinseln in Subsahara-Afrika. GIGA Focus Afrika [Online] 5:1-8. Available at: http://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/system/files/publications/gf_afrika_1405.pdf.
    Im Mai 2014 wurde die Staatspräsidentin Malawis, Joyce Banda, abgewählt; die Wahlen verliefen friedlich. In ihrer Amtszeit engagierte sie sich für mehr Transparenz und gegen Korruption, war aber auch selbst von Skandalen betroffen. Die Unzufriedenheit in der Bevölkerung wuchs, es gab immer wieder massive Proteste. Dennoch kam es nie zu einem gewaltsamen Konflikt.

    Analyse
    Subsahara-Afrika ist der Kontinent mit den meisten inner- und nichtstaatlichen Kriegen. Gleichwohl gibt es einige Länder, für die dieser allgemeine Trend nicht gilt und die trotz ähnlicher politischer, wirtschaftlicher und sozialer Ausgangsbedingungen nicht von organisierter Gewalt betroffen sind, die sogenannten „Friedensinseln“. Dabei kommt es in diesen Ländern durchaus zu politischen Protesten, doch ein großflächiger Ausbruch von Gewalt konnte bislang verhindert werden.

    In den Friedensinseln Subsahara-Afrikas (Äquatorialguinea, Gabun, Swasiland, Benin und Malawi) bestätigen sich die Annahmen der statistischen Friedensforschung: Sowohl demokratische Regime wie Malawi und Benin als auch autokratische Regime wie Äquatorialguinea, Gabun und Swasiland sind tendenziell eher friedlich. Staaten im Wandel oder mit politischen Mischformen hingegen sind anfälliger für großflächige Gewalt und Krieg.

    Dabei spielt die langfristige Stabilität der Regime eine große Rolle: Sind Regierungen bereits lange an der Macht oder ist ein System über längere Zeit stabil, ist der Erhalt von Frieden wahrscheinlicher. Demgegenüber bietet die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der fünf Länder keine ausreichende Erklärung für ihre friedliche Entwicklung: Ein Großteil der Bevölkerung dieser Länder lebt in Armut.

    Die vorliegende Analyse geht von einem negativen Friedensbegriff aus: Die Friedensinseln werden als frei von organisierter, direkter Gewalt, die eine gewisse Schwelle von Todesopfern überschreitet, gekennzeichnet. Die Definition eines konsolidierten, langfristigen Friedens sollte über einen eingeschränkten Friedensbegriff hinausgehen und positive Aspekte, wie die Anerkennung von Minderheitenrechten und demokratische Teilhabe, einbeziehen.
  • Ansorg, N., Haass, F. and Strasheim, J. (2013). Institutions for Sustainable Peace: From Research Gaps to New Frontiers. Global Governance [Online] 19:19-26. Available at: http://journals.rienner.com/doi/pdf/10.5555/1075-2846-19.1.19.
  • Ansorg, N. and Haass, F. (2013). Multilaterale Friedenssicherung in Afrika. GIGA Focus Afrika [Online] 6:1-8. Available at: http://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/system/files/publications/gf_afrika_1306.pdf.
  • Ansorg, N., Haass, F., Mehler, A. and Strasheim, J. (2012). Institutionelle Reformen zur Friedenskonsolidierung. GIGA Focus Afrika [Online] 6:1-8. Available at: http://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/system/files/publications/gf_afrika_1206.pdf.
  • Ansorg, N. (2011). How does militant violence diffuse in regions? Regional conflict systems in international relations and peace and conflict studies. International Journal of Conflict and Violence [Online] 5:173-187. Available at: http://www.ijcv.org/index.php/ijcv/article/view/112.
    Regional conflict systems are characterised by their complexity of actors, causes, structural conditions and dynamics. Such complexity poses difficulties to those looking to undertake scientific analysis of the regional dynamics of violence. It is still quite unclear how militant violence diffuses in regions and under which conditions a regional conflict system can emerge. This review of existing approaches to regional conflict dynamics in international studies and peace and conflict studies focuses on how the regional conflict dynamics and the causal mechanisms behind the development of regional conflict systems are dealt with, considering process dynamics in space and time as well as in the interactions between possible causal factors. The primary gaps in existing research are identified and possible new research directions sketched out.Regional conflict systems are characterised by their complexity of actors, causes, structural conditions and dynamics. Such complexity, however, poses difficulties to those looking to undertake scientific analysis of these processes. In the present paper existing approaches to regional conflict dynamics in international studies and peace and conflict studies are reviewed. Of particular interest is the question how these approaches dealt with regional violence in areas with limited or no statehood as this is one of the striking conditions for the emergence and diffusion of regional conflict systems. Starting from this question, the main research gaps that exist in the current literature on regional conflicts will be detected. Furthermore, new research directions will be pointed out.

Audio

  • Ansorg, N. (2015). Vereinte Nationen als Kriegspartei: Neue Gangart der Monusco-Mission im Kongo. [Audio]. Available at: http://www.giga-hamburg.de/sites/default/files/media%20contribution/ndr_info_nadine_ansorg_150322.mp3.

Book

  • Ansorg, N. (2013). Kriege Ohne Grenzen: Ursachen Regionaler Konfliktsysteme in Sub-Sahara Afrika. [Online]. Heidelberg: Springer VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-02529-8.
    ?In den letzten Jahrzehnten ist ein Wandel im Kriegsgeschehen zu verzeichnen, der sich auch auf die Kriegsforschung auswirkt. Prozesse der staatlichen Entgrenzung und Denationalisierung führten zu neuen Formen der Kriegsführung. Damit verbunden sind auch eine Regionalisierung und Transnationalisierung von Krieg und die Entstehung von regionalen Konfliktsystemen. Diese sind gekennzeichnet durch interdependente gewaltsame Konflikte unter Beteiligung unterschiedlicher Akteure, die auf verschiedenen Handlungsebenen aufgrund von gegensätzlichen Interessen miteinander konkurrieren und/oder in komplexen Netzwerken miteinander interagieren. Das Phänomen der regionalen Konfliktsysteme wurde bislang jedoch nur unzureichend theoretisch erfasst und nur vereinzelt empirisch erforscht. Dieses Forschungsdesiderat ist der Ausgangspunkt für die Untersuchung. Sie ist geleitet von zwei zentralen, interdependenten Forschungsfragen: Welche strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglichen das Auftreten regionaler Konfliktsysteme und der daran beteiligten Gewaltakteure? Auf Grundlage dieser Erkenntnisse untersucht die Autorin, welche Faktoren zu einer tatsächlichen Ausbreitung kriegerischer Gewalt in Regionen führen. In diesem Zusammenhang werden auch die Gewaltdynamiken und die Interaktionen der Akteure sowie die Motive und Intentionen ihres Handelns betrachtet. Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen wird ein theoretisches Konzept auf sozialkonstruktivistischer Basis entwickelt, das die bisherigen theoretischen Schwächen im Umgang mit regionalen Konfliktsystemen ausgleicht. Von besonderer Bedeutung sind das Zusammenspiel von Konflikt, Region und Sicherheit und die daraus resultierende Öffnung der methodologischen wie auch der Akteursperspektive. Das theoretische Konzept der regionalen Konfliktsysteme wird mit Hilfe einer multi-Value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) anhand der Kriege mit regionaler Komponente in Sub-Sahara Afrika seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges getestet.

Book section

  • Haass, F., Strasheim, J. and Ansorg, N. (2016). The International Dimension of Postconflict Police Reform. In: Ansorg, N. and Kurtenbach, S. eds. Institutional Reforms and Peacebuilding. Change, Path-Dependency and Societal Divisions in Post-War Communities. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 163-190. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/Institutional-Reforms-and-Peacebuilding-Change-Path-Dependency-and-Societal/Ansorg-Kurtenbach/p/book/9781138682306.
    Do international peace builders influence the successful implementation of police reform in the aftermath of violent conflict? From Afghanistan to El Salvador and the Democratic Republic of Congo, international donors direct enormous resources to postconflict countries in order to alter the structure and conduct of the police. These police reform programs often come with norm-oriented goals such as transforming the force into a politically accountable institution that serves the needs of local communities, and one that reflects the overall composition of the society. We argue that two characteristics of external peace builders are associated with the implementation of police reform following a war. These are, the volume of resources they bring, and the extensiveness of their mandate. We hypothesize that higher shares of development aid earmarked for security sector reform (SSR) should make police reform implementation more likely, since SSR aid brings the necessary financial resources, expertise, and equipment into a conflict-ridden country. At the same time, peace operations with stronger mandates are better able to curb the security stalemate between former belligerents, and can open up the political space to allow conflicting parties to implement police reform. We test these hypotheses in the implementation of two types of police reform: the first is the implementation of provisions on political control of the police force through strengthening accountability structures, and the second is the implementation of provisions that regulate the composition of police forces, such as the mode of representation of identity groups, including women, and former warring parties. Using new data on police reform implementation, results from logistic regression show that international SSR financing does indeed correlate with a higher likelihood of implementing political control reforms, while it does not have a significant effect on the implementation of reform on the composition of the police force. Additionally, peace operations are positively associated with a higher likelihood of implementation of political control aspects of police reform.

Edited book

  • Ansorg, N. (2016). Institutional Reforms and Peacebuilding. Change, Path-Dependency and Societal Divisions in Post-War Communities. [Online]. Ansorg, N. and Kurtenbach, S. eds. London and New York: Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/Institutional-Reforms-and-Peacebuilding-Change-Path-Dependency-and-Societal/Ansorg-Kurtenbach/p/book/9781138682306.
    This book deals with the question how institutional reform can contribute to peacebuilding in post-war and divided societies.

    In the context of armed conflict and widespread violence, two important questions shape political agendas inside and outside the affected societies: How can we stop the violence? And how can we prevent its recurrence? Comprehensive negotiated war terminations and peace accords recommend a set of mechanisms to bring an end to war and establish peace, including institutional reforms that promote democratization and state building. Although the role of institutions is widely recognized, their specific effects are highly contested in research as well as in practice. This book highlights the necessity to include path-dependency, pre-conflict institutions and societal divisions to understand the patterns of institutional change in post-war societies and the ongoing risk of civil war recurrence. It focuses on the general question of how institutional reform contributes to the establishment of peace in post-war societies. This book comprises three separate but interrelated parts on the relation between institutions and societal divisions, on institutional reform and on security sector reform. The chapters contribute to the understanding of the relationship between societal cleavages, pre-conflict institutions, path dependency, and institutional reform.

Internet publication

  • Ansorg, N. (2018). Demokratische Republik Kongo [blog post]. Available at: http://www.bpb.de/internationales/weltweit/innerstaatliche-konflikte/54628/kongo.
    Präsident Kabila stemmt sich trotz gegenteiliger Zusagen gegen Neuwahlen. Er und sein Umfeld wollen weiter den Staat ausplündern. Wie wichtig eine handlungsfähige und legitime Regierung ist, verdeutlichen die Kämpfe zwischen Regierungseinheiten und der Rebellengruppe Kamuina Nsapu in den beiden Kasai-Provinzen.
  • Ansorg, N. (2018). Keine SSR-Programme Ohne Beteiligung Marginalisierter Gruppen [blog post]. Available at: https://peacelab.blog/2018/05/keine-ssr-programme-ohne-beteiligung-marginalisierter-gruppen.
  • Ansorg, N. (2018). The DRC Is Still in Crisis But There Is a Way Out [blog post]. Available at: https://theconversation.com/the-drc-is-still-in-crisis-but-there-is-a-way-out-94585.
    After many months of upheaval, the Democratic Republic of Congo is set for yet another year of political struggle and internal conflict. Current President Joseph Kabila remains the main cause of the unrest. He reached the end of his final term in December 2016 yet refuses to step down. His government continues to find reasons to delay elections which ought to have been held shortly after the conclusion of Kabila's term.
    The latest election date has been set for December 2018, although it is doubtful that the government will hold the poll. It has already pointed to apparent logistical and financial obstacles to a December election. This has become an ongoing excuse to keep Kabila in power.
    Meanwhile, DRC citizens are increasingly unsatisfied with the government. They have repeatedly taken to the streets of the capital city Kinshasa to call for elections and Kabila's resignation. Security forces continue to quell those protests and crack down on political activists. State operatives have on several occasions shut down the internet.
  • Ansorg, N. (2018). Nördliches Afrika: Regionale Zusammenhänge Und Wechselwirkungen Aus Der Historischen Perspektive [blog post]. Available at: http://www.bpb.de/internationales/weltweit/innerstaatliche-konflikte/267543/regionale-zusammenhaenge-und-wechselwirkungen-aus-historischer-perspektive.
    Die Menschen im nördlichen Afrika leiden unter gewaltsamen Konflikten sowie sozialen Spannungen und wirtschaftlicher Schwäche. Die Ursachen der aktuellen Probleme finden sich in der Vergangenheit, in der muslimisch-arabischen Expansion, in der Kolonialzeit sowie in den Jahren nach der Unabhängigkeit.
  • Ansorg, N. and Haass, F. (2017). Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Germany [html page]. Available at: http://providingforpeacekeeping.org/2014/04/03/contributor-profile-germany/.
  • Haastrup, T. and Ansorg, N. (2016). Brexit Will Blow a Hole in EU-Africa Relations [Blog article]. Available at: https://theconversation.com/brexit-will-blow-a-hole-in-eu-africa-relations-65925.
  • Ansorg, N. (2015). UN Im Kongo: Neues Mandat in Schwierigen Zeiten [Online]. Available at: http://www.dw.com/de/un-im-kongo-neues-mandat-in-schwierigen-zeiten/a-18344132.
  • Ansorg, N. (2014). Central African Conflicts Risk Spreading [Online]. Available at: http://www.dw.com/en/central-african-conflicts-risk-spreading/a-17360624.

Review

  • Ansorg, N. (2018). BOOK REVIEW: Peacebuilding and spatial transformation: Peace, space and place. South African Journal of International Affairs [Online]:1-2. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10220461.2018.1431567.

Forthcoming

  • Kurtenbach, S. and Ansorg, N. (2020). Security Sector Reform After Armed Conflict. In: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Peace and Conflict Studies. Palgrave.
    Security sector reform (SSR) is a central pillar of peace strategies, closely linked to but not interchangeable with state-building and democratization. There is a broad consensus that sustainable post-war peace needs a stable security environment and thus institutions that are able to inhibit non-legal manifestations of violence. The main elements of SSR are reforms in the state security institutions (military and police) as well as in the judiciary. The first generation SSR was characterized by Western blueprints and a lack of context sensitivity, with the empirical record being rather weak. As a consequence, programs moved away from “one size fits all” to a greater attention to local contexts. The need to include local, non-state actors has been acknowledged, but designing and implementing new approaches on the ground is neither easy nor going to happen in the immediate future. A further step in the evolvement of post-war SSR can be an approach to decolonize reform aspects: to radically question the origins of knowledge and practice of SSR and to center efforts more in the communities affected by reform than with ideals of the security sector that resemble more those in the Global North.
  • Ansorg, N. (2018). Conducting Fieldwork in Security-Sensitive Environments [Online]. Available at: http://methods.sagepub.com/Cases.
    When studying violence and its consequences, it is necessary to conduct fieldwork in affected countries and communicate with the people on the ground. However, traveling and working within conflict and post-conflict countries comes with a particular set of challenges. This contribution discusses potential challenges that might arise when planning for and conducting fieldwork in a security-sensitive environment. It discusses unexpected instances that can occur before or during your fieldwork and what to do in a case of emergency. This article also stresses the importance of ethical responsibility before, during, and after fieldwork. Additional components of such responsibilities include respect toward the local culture, rules, and traditions as well as questions of race and power. Consistent awareness of such issues also stresses the significance of repeatedly reflecting on questions of who you as a researcher are, where you come from, how you are situated in the world, and what drives you. Successively, ethical responsibility does not end after your fieldwork but continues throughout the publication and dissemination of work. The article also discusses how to ensure confidentiality of interviews and privacy of respondents during publication and dissemination. Ultimately, this is helpful for students who are preparing for fieldwork in security-sensitive environments and encourages further reflection regarding necessary questions for such research endeavors.
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