Dr Athanasios (Sakis) Pappous' is the founding lead of the 'Sports Legacies and Society Research Group' and his main research interest is on the social legacies of Sport Mega Events and sport participation. He has also been the acting Head of School during two academic years. He is now the Director of the International Sport Business MA.

Dr Pappous, a former fencing elite athlete, has a strong European academic background which has been enriched by studies and professional experience in different European countries (Greece, Spain, France, United Kingdom).

After completing his PhD at the University of Granada (Spain), Dr Pappous was employed as a Supervisor for the Organizing Committee of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games. He also lead a research project related to London 2012, Rio 2016 and now Tokyo 2020.  

In 2006, he became the first researcher with a sports science background to be awarded the prestigious Marie Curie Intra-European Research Fellowship in the Social Sciences section financed by the European Commission. After finalising his Marie Curie Postdoc in Montpellier in France, focusing on the media legacies of the Paralympic Games, Dr Pappous moved to the UK and become the Director of the Sports Management BA at the University of Kent.

Dr Pappous’ international background has given him the opportunity to teach and publish his work in five different languages.

Currently Dr Pappous is the UK co-ordinator of two major Erasmus + European projects and in the past past he has been the receiver of a Newton Fund-British Academy grant also research award from Real Madrid foundation.

He is currently working together with colleagues from Coventry University on a project that aims at focusing at Tokyo 2020 in collaboration with the International Paralympic Committee.

Research interests

One of my research lines focuses on sport participation legacies after big sport mega events, such as the Olympics.

Do the Olympic Games increase grass root sport participation? I have tried to answer this question by looking at previous Games.

I am also conducting studies related to the legacies of the Paralympic Games.


Dr Pappous teaches sports event management, sport marketing and sport and exercise promotion.



  • Pappous, A., Mohammed, W. and Sharma, D. (2020). Physiotherapists’ experiences with a four-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program. European Journal of Physiotherapy [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/21679169.2020.1745272.
    Objective: The study sought to gather the perceptions and experiences of a group of physiotherapists who took part in mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight physiotherapists who took part in a four-week formal and self-directed mindfulness meditation program. The data collected were analysed by implementing a thematic analysis. Results: Themes were identified in relation to perceived health benefits (stress reduction and increased attentiveness), the perceived impact of the MBSR on their professional practice and the perceived difficulties in practicing mindfulness. Conclusion: The data from this study offer qualitative evidence that mindfulness practise can become an important element in a physiotherapists’ stress reduction toolkit, by helping them deal with the challenges of their professional practise. The main difficulties encountered with the program were related to the feelings of sleepiness that MBSR induced in them in the beginning. The participants also reported that the long duration of the sessions was another obstacle, suggesting that a brief form of meditation would be preferable and more convenient.
  • Hayday, E., Pappous, A. and Koutrou, N. (2019). The Role of Voluntary Sport Organisations in Leveraging the London 2012 Sport Participation Legacy. Leisure Studies [Online]:1-16. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1662829.
    This study aimed to understand the perceptions of national Voluntary Sport Organisations (VSOs) managers towards a mega sports event and identify the components they felt enhanced or inhibited their organisations capacity to implement a sport participation legacy. London 2012 was the first Olympic Games to explicitly attempt to deliver this type of legacy, and an exploratory, online mixed-method survey examined the perceptions of 105 senior managers from 37 VSOs, post-event. Principal Component Analysis identified four distinct factors: ‘objectives, standards & resources’, ‘event capitalisation & opportunities’, ‘monitoring & evaluation’ and ‘club engagement & implementation’, explaining 51.5% of the variance. Also, relevant organisational characteristics such as sport type, funding and sport size were examined to investigate the influence this had on their capacity. From these findings, the main recommendations are that future mega sport event hosts should: 1) Engage and consult with multiple stakeholders to engender sustained sport participation. 2) Set clear and monitorable objectives. 3) Establish funding and support mechanisms relevant to each sport. 4) Engage non-competing sports in the leveraging process. 5) Finally, event organisers should try to ensure personnel consistency.
  • Byers, T., Hayday, E. and Pappous, A. (2019). A new conceptualization of mega sports event legacy delivery: Wicked problems and critical realist solution. Sport Management Review [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2019.04.001.
    The authors present a new conceptualization of mega sport event legacy delivery, which accounts for the problematic nature of legacy by viewing it as a wicked problem. Research on mega sport event legacy has focused on establishing typologies of legacy, investigating outcomes, and consequences, with limited attention to legacy delivery. The conceptualization of legacy delivery has largely relied on a positive, utopian legacy rhetoric. In contrast, the authors advance the understanding of legacy by proposing a conceptual approach of the legacy delivery process, to enable empirical studies in different contexts to be conducted. Specifically, the authors examine the wicked problem of mega sport event legacy delivery from a Critical Realist perspective, which serves to give meaning and order to this complex process. This conceptualization reveals that legacy delivery is inclusive of deep social structures which underpin different stakeholders’ interpretations and interactions, which produce or limit legacy delivery. The role of social, generative structures as causal mechanisms has not been considered as a way to understand legacy delivery previously. Implications for teaching, research, and practice are discussed to demonstrate the value of this new approach. Importantly, this conceptualization focuses on processes rather than outcomes and encourages the identification of unexpected or unanticipated components of legacy delivery beyond the formal policies and plans designed to create or leverage legacy.
  • Solves, J., Pappous, A., Rius, I. and Kohe, G. (2019). Framing the Paralympic Games: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Spanish Media Coverage of the Beijing 2008 and London 2012 Paralympic Games. Communication & Sport [Online] 7:729-751. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479518808237.
    In recent years, there has been an increased emergence of studies focusing on the media coverage of the Paralympic Games. Until recently, studies have predominately used quantitative content analyses that, although providing useful interrogation of observational patterns, limits the understanding of and appreciation for the contexts that may have shaped the production of information. By focusing exclusively on the ‘what’ and on the ‘how much’ it is difficult to reveal the ‘why’ and to identify the underlying motives of any changes. This paper recognizes the nuances of the editorial decision-making process by using a mixed methods approach; employing quantitative and qualitative data drawn from a case study focusing on the Spanish media coverage of the 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games. An initial content analysis of all news published in Spain’s twelve highest-circulation newspapers during Beijing 2008 and London 2012 Paralympic Games was undertaken. Subsequently, 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with journalists that were also sent to these two iterations of the Paralympic Games by Spanish media. Drawing on conceptualisations of media framing, the results highlight that the numerical data alone shed insufficient light on the complexity of the news-making process. The semi-structured interviews brought to light issues such as editorial management buoyed by commercial imperatives, and organisational interjection in journalists’ narratives and authorship, that also contoured coverage and content. In addition to further debate about the complexities of media coverage of Paralympic sport, the study also underscores the utility of incorporating and combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies within sport media and communication research.
  • Richard, R., Marcellini, A., Pappous, A., Joncheray, H. and Ferez, S. (2019). Construire et assurer l’héritage des Jeux olympiques et paralympiques. Pour une inclusion sportive durable des personnes vivant des situations de handicap = Build and ensure the legacy of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Towards a sustainable sports inclusion of disabled people. Movement & Sport Sciences - Science & Motricité [Online]. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/sm%2F2019031.
    Mobiliser les Jeux olympiques et paralympiques pour construire une société plus inclusive et solidaire est au cœur du projet 'Paris 2024'. À ce titre, améliorer la visibilité et la participation sportive des personnes handicapées est une ambition forte de l’héritage de Jeux paralympiques. Cet article a pour objectif de faire un bilan des travaux de recherche portant sur les héritages des Jeux paralympiques passés afin de pouvoir penser la construction de l’héritage de Paris 2024 en matière d’inclusion des personnes handicapées. Nous nous centrerons plus spécifiquement sur trois dimensions de cet héritage : la mise en image et la visibilité des sportifs paralympiques, l’effet 'levier' des Jeux paralympiques sur la participation sportive de masse et sa coordination, et enfin l’accès à la pratique sportive de haut niveau des personnes handicapées.

    Using the Olympic and Paralympic Games to build a more inclusive and inclusive society is at the heart of the “Paris 2024” project. Improving the visibility and sporting participation of disabled people is a strong ambition of the legacy of the Paralympic Games. The purpose of this article is to review research on the legacies of past Paralympic Games in order to consider the construction of the Paris 2024 legacy in terms of the inclusion of disabled people. We will focus more specifically on three dimensions of this heritage: the staging and the visibility of Paralympic athletes, the “leverage” effect of the Paralympic Games on sport participation and its coordination, and finally access to high-level sport for disabled people.
  • Brown, C. and Pappous, A. (2018). “The Legacy Element . . . It Just Felt More Woolly”: Exploring the Reasons for the Decline in People With Disabilities’ Sport Participation in England 5 Years After the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Journal of Sport and Social Issues [Online] 42:343-368. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723518781237.
    This article explores why sports participation of people with disabilities in England has declined since the London 2012 Paralympic Games (LPG). Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff employed in a variety of sports and disability-specific organisations. Our preliminary findings suggest that the decline is a result of a complex interplay between multiple factors. A competency gap and a lack of relevance between Paralympians and the rest of the community of people with disabilities might have limited the impact of the legacy. In addition, an absence of coordinated leveraging of the LPG, and a decline in the media coverage of disability sport in the aftermath of the LPG, might also have dulled the legacy. Finally, our data shows that austerity and negative media coverage of people with disabilities deterred some people from participating in sport.
  • Mohammed, W., Pappous, A. and Sharma, D. (2018). Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in Increasing Pain Tolerance and Improving the Mental Health of Injured Athletes. Frontiers in Psychology [Online] 9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00722.
    Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress
    after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction
    (MBSR) was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured
    athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an
    intervention for this purpose.
    Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in
    reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing
    pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and
    decrease negative mood in injured athletes.
    Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age
    range = 21–36 years) who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport
    for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly
    with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both
    groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention
    group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week). A Cold
    Pressor Test (CPT) was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of
    pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were
    the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale
    (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS).
    Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention
    group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our
    findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding
    the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions;
    however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in
    both groups.
    Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the sport
    rehabilitation process to increase their pain tolerance and awareness. Further research
    is required to assess whether increasing pain tolerance could help in the therapeutic
  • Mohammed, W., Pappous, A., Muthumayandi, K. and Sharma, D. (2018). The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Therapists’ Body-Awareness and Burnout in Different Forms of Practice. European Journal of Physiotherapy [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/21679169.2018.1452980.
    Objectives: The main aim of this study was to explore if mindfulness increase therapists’ (physiotherapists and sport therapists) body-awareness and if it can have an effect on reducing their burnout in the workplace. Additionally it was intended to gather evidence about which methods (face-to-face groups FFGs with an instructor or self-directed group SDG) of mindfulness meditation program (MMP) were more effective with therapists.
    Methods: Online tools such as websites, skype and online surveys were used with participants as part of the methodology. Seven measurements were used to assess the effect of mindfulness meditation on therapists after 4 week of formal and informal practise.
    Results: Our results showed that attention regulation, self-regulation and trusting in FFGs had significant improvement in pre and post meditation practise. Findings showed significant differences between groups for the FFGs. Particularly, our findings indicated a clear improvement in the acting with awareness, positive affect of mindfulness, emotional awareness and reduction in burnout. However, no changes were observed in stress.
    Conclusions: MMP has positively affected therapists, specifically in the FFGs. Therapists in the FFGs gained benefits from mindfulness to improve their body-awareness and less level of burnout at workplace. The benefits of the mindfulness programme were more significant when delivered in a face-to-face programme rather than in a self –directed way.
  • Brown, C. and Pappous, A. (2018). The organisational performance of National Disability Sport Organisations during a time of austerity: A resource dependence theory perspective. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics [Online] 10:63-78. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2017.1381635.
    Austerity measures implemented by the UK Coalition government have had a negative impact on disabled people (Cross 2013). This article utilises the resource dependence theory to explore the challenges national disability sport organisations (NDSOs) have faced in their attempts to achieve growth, whilst discussing some of the tactics used to overcome these challenges. Secondary quantitative data from the 2011-2015 NDSO accounts was analysed, which suggests increased income has been accompanied by increased cost, with fluctuations between surpluses and deficits across the financial years. Funding from Sport England, the government body for grassroots sport in England, was either awarded for the first time or increased. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers from seven NDSOs, the English Federation of Disability Sport, and Sport England. It was found austerity presented challenges for the NDSOs in accessing charitable grants and funding, and that some disabled people were fearful of losing their disability benefits if they were seen to be active. The management of relationships with national governing bodies and county sport partnerships was also a challenge. The formation of alliances, the building up of financial reserves, and the generation of knowledge, have been some of the tactics used by the NDSOs in the management of their resources. This research highlights how some NDSOs have achieved growth amid an uncertain economic backdrop, and how these organisations have managed their scarce resources.
  • Ikramullah, A., Koutrou, N. and Pappous, A. (2018). Sportivate: a case study of sports policy implementation and impact on the sustainability of community physical activity programmes. The International Journal of Sport and Society [Online] 9:1-20. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18848/2152-7857/CGP/v09i03/1-20.
    With trends pointing towards shortcomings in delivering London 2012 legacy promises, a review was administered on research and policy from 2005 onwards to ascertain how sports policy can impact upon the sustainability of delivering funded community sports and physical activity programmes.
    A case study design was adopted and secondary data was obtained from Sport England’s Year 4 of national Sportivate data. These results were compared with aspects of government policy via the theoretical concept lenses of sustainability and policy implementation.
    Secondary data from Sport England for Year 4 (2014-15) of their Sportivate programme displays a boom in participation leading up to the Olympic Games but plateaus following London 2012. Completed participants primarily consist of younger children, which resonates with requirements issued by government policy. Whilst findings display a closing gender gap in participation, the same cannot be truly be said sustainability measures in place for the Sportivate programme
    With the prevalence of external factors impeding sports participation, voluntary sports organisations are advised to capitalise on partnership approach methods for delivering sport and physical activity. With measures of participation retention decreasing in Year 4, the theoretical concept of sustainability offers further calls for a change in culture despite policy implementation perspectives highlighting the synthesis of both top-down and bottom-up approaches. A centralised system creates greater emphasis on the professionalisation of voluntary sports organisations which seems to steer deliverers towards short-term impact rather than long-term goals. Recommendations suggest expanding collaborative measures between organisations to help facilitate sustainable participation after a funded physical activity programme has completed.
  • Hayday, E., Pappous, A. and Koutrou, N. (2017). Leveraging the sport participation legacy of the London 2012 Olympics: Senior managers’ perceptions. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics [Online] 9:349-369. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2016.1255241.
    The purpose of this study was to understand how a sports mega event (SME) was leveraged to try and increase participation, through the investigation of national governing bodies (NGBs) opinions and atti- tudes. Critical realism (CR) was used as a tool to aid understanding of leveraging and legacy conceptualisation, through an empirical investiga- tion. An extensive, mixed method online survey was conducted post London 2012 with senior staff members of NGBs, the main delivery agent chosen to support the participation initiatives associated with the London 2012 Olympics. This research provides valuable findings surrounding the use of CR as a tool to investigate legacy creation, whilst at the same time offering insights to enhance the policy implementation process within the sports development sector. The importance of com- munication, competitive nature of sports system, media, club engage- ment, organisational capacity and monitoring and evaluation were highlighted, which provided useful insights into the multidimensional constructs that can aid future leveraging strategies prior to hosting SMEs.
  • Koutrou, N., Pappous, A. and Johnson, A. (2016). Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?. Sustainability [Online] 8:1221-1221. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su8121221.
    Abstract: The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.
  • Koutrou, N. and Pappous, A. (2016). Towards an Olympic volunteering legacy: motivating volunteers to serve and remain – a case study of London 2012 Olympic Games volunteers. Voluntary Sector Review [Online] 7:269-291. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1332/096278916X14767760874050.
    Volunteers are often seen as 'soft infrastructure' following the legacy plans of host nations aiming to stage the Olympic Games. This refers to social mobility and the potential of further utilising such volunteer resources to other future events and activities that would benefit the community. The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of a volunteer legacy following volunteers' involvement with the London 2012 Olympic Games. A total of 163 volunteers involved with the transport department of London 2012 completed a web-based survey. Factor analysis was employed to summarise volunteers' motivations. The analysis yielded five reliable dimensions of their motivations. Regression analysis was then applied to identify which motivations, sociodemographic characteristics and sport engagement variables had an impact on future intentions for volunteering. The implications of the findings for a potential social legacy of volunteering are explored.
  • Camps, A. and Pappous, A. (2016). Predicting the Evolution of Sports Federation Membership: An Important Tool to Asses National Governing Bodies’ Strategic Planning. Journal of Sports Science [Online] 4:57-69. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.17265/2332-7839/2016.02.001.
    Quantifying the potential market of sports licenses is key in order for National Governing Bodies of sport (NGBs) to be able to design good strategic planning. We compared the classical methods of univariate prediction and the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) methods. Reliability of the available data was verified with the Time Series Regression with ARIMA Noise, Missing and Outliers (TRAMO) method, and the existence of a trend was verified using Daniel’s test. For the purposes of this study—the researches collected and analysed secondary data from a 40-year series in 45 sports in Spain covering a very long period of time in a variety of sport disciplines. The study shows that, with the available data, short-and mid-term forecasting is possible in a number of sports, but not in all of them. It also proves that Holt’s classical method of exponential smoothing is the one that yields best results. Golf, Basketball, Athletics and Hunting NGB show worrying prospects of decline levels and need an immediate change in the strategic plans. Other than for forecasting the evolution of athletes in the mid-term in order to improve strategic planning in NGBs, the present findings can be useful for public authorities to define their aid policies for NGBs, and they can also helpcompanies in the industry to anticipate market developments.
  • Lorenzo Bertheau, E., Cruz, F., Pappous, A. and Schmidt Rio-Valle, J. (2016). Actitudes explícitas e implícitas hacia la obesidad en estudiantes de Cultura Física (Explicit and Implicit Attitudes towards Obesity in Physical Education Students). Revista de Psicología del Deporte (‘Journal of Sport Psychology’) [Online] 25:91-96. Available at: http://www.rpd-online.com/article/view/v25-n1-bertheau-cruz-quintana-etal/Bertheau_Cruz_Quintanaetal.
    Negative attitudes towards obese people constitute a risk factor for their participation in, and adherence to, programmes involving lifestyle changes. This work studied the attitudes of Physical Education students in Ecuador towards obesity. Their attitudes were compared by gender and semesters. The sample in this study consisted of 80 Physical Education students between 18 and 33 years old. Two questionnaires were given - the Anti- fat Attitudes Questionnaire, which measures explicit attitudes toward obesity in three subscales: dislike, fear of gaining weight and lack of willpower; and the Anti-fat Implicit Association Test: to measure implicit attitudes. The main results show evidence of negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward obesity across the study sample. Moreover, the results indicate that the female population has a greater fear of gaining weight than the male population. The year of studies was not found to be a distinctive factor for either implicit or explicit negative attitudes.Edda Lorenzo Bertheau*, Francisco Cruz-Quintana**, Athanasios Pappous*** y Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle**
  • Pappous, A. and Hayday, E. (2015). A case study investigating the impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on participation in two non-traditional English sports, Judo and Fencing. Leisure Studies [Online] 35:668-684. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2015.1035314.
    The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOPG)
    brought with it detailed legacy plans aiming to ‘Inspire a Generation’. The idea
    that hosting a sports mega-event will encourage the host population to engage in
    more physical activity is commonly used by governments to justify the large
    investments they make. The aim of this research paper was to investigate the
    impact that hosting the 2012 Games had on grass-root sports participation within
    the host nation. This paper focuses on two non-traditional English sports, Fencing
    and Judo and investigated the changes in mass sports participation. The
    membership rate analysis of our sample highlighted an overall increase in participation
    between 2007 and 2013, in both Judo and Fencing. The data gathered
    from the interviews with the head office staff at the National Governing Bodies
    (NGBs) and local club coaches suggested that the grass-root participation programmes
    were the most effective way of increasing participation, rather than the
    reliance, solely on the inspiration effect from hosting the LOPG itself. The study
    highlighted the importance of strengthening communication between local voluntary
    clubs and the NGB, to ensure sports could promote themselves and capitalise
    on this global sporting phenomenon, which provided unprecedented media
    coverage and opportunities for these non-traditional sports. This case study provides
    initial results relating to the effect that a major international multi-sport
    event can have in the development of non-traditional sports in the host population,
    in terms of membership variations, participation programmes and organisational
  • Kokolakakis, T., Pappous, A. and Meadows, S. (2015). The Impact of the Free Swimming Programme in a Local Community in the South East of England: Giving with One Hand, Taking Away with the Other. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Online] 12:4461-4480. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404461.
    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the introduction of the Free Swimming Programme (FSP) in a local community (not identified to preserve anonymity) in the South East of England. The question has been approached in a variety of ways: by using primary quantitative data from leisure centres and logistic regressions based on the Active People Survey (APS). Problems are identified related to the introduction of the FSP in this community and suggestions are made for future policy. A brief examination of swimming participation in England enables researchers to place this community into a national context. The problems and policies of sport organisation developed in this community are not dissimilar to a more general application reflecting the English experience; in this sense it is anticipated that the findings will enable managers of sport organisations, along with public health policy makers, to focus more effectively on raising sport participation. The unique selling points of this article are the examination of FSP for adult participants, the local analysis of junior and senior participation, and the overall assessment of the policy based on APS.
  • Tsamita, I., Pappous, A. and Karteroliotis, K. (2015). Validity, reliability, and factorial invariance of the Greek version of the physical activity perceived barriers scale. Journal of Sports Science [Online] 3:57-66. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.17265/2332-7839/2015.02.002.
    he study aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and factorial invariance across gender of the PAPBS (Physical Activity Perceived Barriers Scale) in Greek children. 613 students (322 boys and 291 girls) from a city of Greece completed the above scale in 3 periods during a school year. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied. Strong evidence was found for the hypothesized second-order factor structure of the physical activity perceived barriers scale in the 3 measurements (comparative fit index = 0.951, 0.933, 0.922, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.061, 0.069, 0.074). The scale’s internal consistency was supported satisfactorily, whereas correlations coefficients between scale and several physical activity scores were significant moderate to high. Finally, results provided support of the invariance of the first- and second-order factor loadings and invariance structural residuals, but weak support of the invariance of the residual variance of observed variables of the examined scale across gender. The findings suggest that physical activity perceived barriers scale is appropriate for use with Greek children and it is considered as a useful tool for researches interested in studying the children’s participation in physical activity.
  • De Souza Lange, D. and Pappous, A. (2013). Legados Esportivos de Megaeventos esportivos: Uma uma revisão da literatura (Sports Legacies of Sport Mega-Events: A literature review). ?Motrivivência [Online] 41:42-56. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2013v25n41p42.
    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um levantamento da literatura sobre legados esportivos de megaeventos esportivos. Utilizamos as seguintes palavras chave e seus correspondentes em inglês: megaevento esportivo; legado; legado esportivo. Apresentamos os principais estudos disponíveis, dedicando especial atenção ao caso Londres 2012. Também sintetizamos recomendações voltadas à construção de legados esportivos positivos para futuras cidades/países sede. Concluímos que pesquisas sobre a temática são de natureza extremamente complexa e que não existem evidências científicas suficientes comprovando a existência de uma correlação entre a realização destes eventos e o envolvimento da população com atividades físicas e esportivas.
  • Pappous, A. (2012). Lessons from abroad: Hosting the Olympics does not necessarily lead to increased grass roots. House Magazine [Online] 36:40-41. Available at: http://www.shop.parliament.uk/shopexd.asp?id=4861.
    One of the most prominent key pledges set out from the organizers of the 2012 Games
    was to make the UK a world-leading sporting nation. From looking at the 2004 Olympic
    Games in Athens, we observed that the host city obtained some tangible legacies in
    terms of transport infrastructure and urban regeneration, while the benefits in terms of
    an increase in grass root sport.
  • Pappous, A., Marcellini, A. and de Léséleuc, E. (2011). Contested issues in research on the media coverage of female Paralympic athletes. Sport in Society [Online] 14:1182-1191. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2011.614775.
    The Paralympic Games are considered to be the second biggest sporting event in the world, after the Summer Olympic Games, however, research on the media coverage of athletes with disabilities is in its infancy. More specifically, there is a lack of studies focusing on whether quantitative and qualitative differences exist in the manner in which the female and male Paralympic athletes are represented in the print media. In contrast, there is an extensive body of scholarly research on the differential media treatment of female and male Olympic athletes. This article includes three aspects: (1) a brief summary of the media coverage of non-disabled female athletes, with the aim of providing some research indicators that could be used in analogous studies of Paralympic sport; (2) the examination of the limited media literature on the portrayals of female and male Paralympic athletes; and (3) a discussion of possible future research in this relatively unexplored, area of media, gender and Paralympic sport.
  • Pappous, A. and Jeyacheya, J. (2011). The 2012 Cultural Olympiad and Paralympic Games: An Opportunity to Challenge the Archetypal, Stereotypes of Disability for Good?. ICSSPE Bulletin [Online]:9. Available at: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/69709608/2012-cultural-olympiad-paralympic-games-opportunity-challenge-archetypal-stereotypes-disability-good.
    The article presents information on the 2012 Cultural Olympiad of Paralympic and Olympic Games with reference to equality among them. As proposed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) 2000 Commission, the ties between the IOC and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) have been formalised due to which athletes of both games are hosted in the same Olympic Village, perform in the same stadiums and organised by the same committee.
  • Pappous, A., Marcellini, A. and de Léséleuc, E. (2011). From Sydney to Beijing: The Evolution of the Photographic Coverage of Paralympics Games in Five European Countries. Sport in Society [Online] 14:345-354. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2011.557271.
    The growth of the Paralympic Movement during the last few decades has been reinforced significantly by the Olympic reform process, particularly as the efforts of the IOC 2000 Commission fortified the relationship between Olympic and Paralympic Committees. However, this development is scarcely illustrated in the world media arena; several scholars draw attention to the dearth of coverage of elite athletes with disabilities in popular media. This article examines preliminary data regarding the evolution of the photographic coverage of five European countries over an eight-year period, from Sydney (2000) to Beijing (2008). The journalistic attention, as highlighted by the number of published images, has been raised during this period, and the coverage of female and male athletes matched the demographics of these five European countries. However, the data also reveals that the competitiveness and the abilities of Paralympic athletes are not highlighted, the majority of the images did not depict the athletes in action, but rather as motionless.
  • de Léséleuc, E., Pappous, A. and Marcellini, A. (2010). The media coverage of female athletes with disability. Analysis of the daily press of four European countries during the 2000 Sidney Paralympic Games. European Journal for Sport and Society [Online] 7:283. Available at: https://content-select.net/portal/media/view/527a7df1-1be4-43d3-89bb-30c12efc1343.
  • Ruiz-Juan, F., Gómez-López, M., Pappous, A., Cárceles, F. and Allende, G. (2010). Dispositional Goal Orientation, Beliefs about the Causes of Success and Intrinsic Satisfaction in Young Elite Paddlers. Journal of Human Kinetics [Online] 26:123-136. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10078-010-0056-8.
    The purpose of this study was to primarily examine the psychometric properties of the castillan version of three
    commonly used psychological scales in sport (Perception of Success Questionnaire, Beliefs About the Causes of
    Sport Success Questionnaire and the Sport Satisfaction Instrument); secondly, to verify the degree of intrinsic
    satisfaction in a sample of young Spanish paddlers. The participants of this study were 209 elite paddlers classed in the junior category (13-14 years old). Results show that the Castilian versions of the questionnaires demonstrate
    acceptable validity and reliability in a sample of young paddlers. Athletes report high scores on perception of successoriented task scale, which is positively related with enjoyment and the attribution that success in sport depends on effort. This study also confirmed gender differences in questionnaire responses.
  • Ferez, S., Pappous, A. and Ruffié, S. (2010). Activité physique et sportive des PVVIH : de l’intérêt de la pratique à l’accès à la pratique (revue de littérature). Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación [Online]:77-83. Available at: http://www.retos.org/nuevo.html.
    The scientific literature about AIDS and physical exercise has been traditionally dominated by biomedical approaches. The first studies which were published in the beginning of the nineties focused mainly on the transmission risks of the virus during sports. Later studies were concerned with the physiological logics of the exercise on HIV-positive persons. Since the end of the nineties the therapeutic progress contributed to envisage sport as a way to mediate the side effects of medical treatments. However the present review highlights a serious gap in the literature on Sport and HIV using a sociological point of view. The authors of this article argue that the time has come to consider sociological data linked to the experiences of HIV/AIDS in order to understand the difficulties and barriers that seropositive persons have to face when participating in sport.
  • Garcia, M., Cruz Quintana, F., Muñoz Vinuesa, A., Montoya Juarez, R., Prados Peña, D. and Pappous, A. (2010). The influence of health care providers’ emotions on clinical judgment regarding diagnosis of the terminally ill. Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology [Online] 10:57-73. Available at: http://www.aepc.es/ijchp/index.php?coid=English.
    In Spain, the dying process is sometimes described as «bad» or even «awful». There are many reasons for this situation, the most important being the difficulties health care professionals have to face with death and their lack of ability to help and assist patients to go through the dying process. The influence of the current cultural context regarding death and the way people die is paired with other factors. These factors are both clinical and professional in nature such as for example: the moment of diagnosis of a terminally ill patient that entails important emotional
    implications for the health care professionals, the patient and their family. All these factors have a direct influence on the health care assistance. We conducted Grounded
    Theory-based, phenomenological, qualitative research using a final sample of 42 indepth interviews with doctors and nurses from different fields in Granada (Spain) in order to understand their point of view, as health care providers, on the assistance given to terminally ill patients. The results were analysed with Atlas-tí software using thematic coding. The results show the effect the emotional factor has on the clinical judgment of health care professionals and support the need for broader and more
    comprehensive study.

    En España, el proceso de morir se describe con frecuencia como «malo» o incluso como «muy malo». Entre los motivos, destacan las dificultades de los profesionales de la salud para afrontar la muerte y para asistir y acompañar en el proceso de morir a sus enfermos. A la influencia del contexto cultural actual en cuanto al sentido de la muerte y al modo de morir, se unen situaciones de carácter clínico y profesional como el momento del diagnóstico de una enfermedad terminal, con importantes implicaciones emocionales para el profesional, el enfermo y la familia, y un efecto directo en la respuesta asistencial a la situación. Planteamos un estudio cualitativo de tipo fenomenológico, fundamentado en la Grounded Theory, sobre una muestra final de 42 entrevistas en profundidad a médicos y enfermeros de diferentes ámbitos asistenciales de la provincia de Granada (España), para conocer, en su propio contexto, el punto de vista de los profesionales implicados en la atención al enfermo terminal. Los datos se analizaron con el software ATLAS.tí siguiendo una codificación temática. Los resultados muestran el efecto que el factor emocional tiene en el juicio clínico del profesional y justifican la necesidad de ampliar y profundizar en su estudio.
  • de Léséleuc, E., Pappous, A. and Marcellini, A. (2009). La cobertura mediática de las mujeres deportistas con discapacidad. Análisis de la prensa diaria de cuatro países europeos durante los Juegos Paralímpicos de Sidney 2000. apunts EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA Y DEPORTES [Online] 97:80-88. Available at: http://www.revista-apunts.com/apunts.php?id_pagina=7&id_post=1386&lang=es.
    Las investigaciones sobre la mediatización de las mujeres deportistas muestran, por una parte, que éstas están menos representadas que los hombres, por otra, que su imagen está fuertemente sexualizada. Además, en contraposición a los hombres, los artículos de que son objeto las presentan generalmente en su papel de madre, mujer, etc.; es decir las enmarcan en ambientes no deportivos. Por añadidura, sabemos que en ciertos puntos el tratamiento mediático de deportistas con discapacidad es diferente al de quienes no la tienen. Pero ¿qué peculiaridades aparecen en el tratamiento mediático de las mujeres deportistas discapacitadas? El estudio de la cobertura de prensa de los Juegos Paralímpicos (Sidney 2000) presentado aquí (basado en un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de 108 artículos editados por periódicos alemanes, ingleses, españoles y franceses) muestra que, contrariamente a lo que se esperaba, las mujeres deportistas con discapacidad no están cuantitativamente menos representadas que los hombres. Por tanto, en este caso no hay estigmatización por ocultación específica. Sin embargo, ésta adopta formas más insidiosas. El análisis de los elementos cualitativos de los reportajes y de las fotos muestra que, efectivamente, las mujeres aparecen fuertemente “infantilizadas” y “trivializadas” (Jones, 1999) en los periódicos que cubren los Juegos Paralímpicos.
  • de Léséleuc, E., Pappous, A. and Marcellini, A. (2009). The Mediatisation of Sports Women with Disability. Newspapers Analysis from Four European Countries during the Sydney’s 2000 Paralympics Games. apunts EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA Y DEPORTES [Online] 97:80-88. Available at: http://www.revista-apunts.com/apunts.php?id_pagina=7&id_post=1386&lang=es.
    Data concerning mediatisation of the female athletes are showing that on the one hand, women are less represented than men and, on the other hand, their image is frequently sexualized. In addition, contrary to men, media often focuses on their social roles as mother, wife, etc, i.e. female athletes are frequently portrayed in scenes non related with the sport dimensions.
    It is also known that media treatment of disabled athletes is quite different from those of others athletes. But, which are the peculiarities concerning media treatment of female athletes with disabilities? In the present study a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Paralympic Games in Sydney 2000 has taken place, including 108 articles from German, English, Spanish, and French newspapers. Our data shows that, contrary to what was expected, women with disabilities are not specially underrepresented compared to men; quantitatively there is no presence of a specific stigmatization. But a qualitative analysis of texts and photos shows that a stigmatization process is taking place through a more insidious form: the female Paralympic athletes are largely “infantilised” and “trivialized” (Jones, 1999) in the newspapers which cover the Paralympic Games.
  • Pappous, A., Marcellini, A. and de Léséleuc, E. (2009). La representación mediática del deporte adaptado a la discapacidad en los medios de comunicación. Agora Para la Educación Física y el Deporte [Online] 9:31-42. Available at: http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/revista?tipo_busqueda=CODIGO&clave_revista=8668.
    The importance of the mass media regarding the image of people with disabilities is today well known. The aim of this study is to carry out a preliminary analysis of the photographic coverage of the Paralympic Games of 2000 and 2004 as appeared in the european written press. The analysis of the newspapers indicates the presence of some possitive images which participate in the inclusión qnd destigmatization of people with disabilities. However, another part of the typology that was developed in the present study, indicates also the presence of more sterotyped images which do not contribute to the destigmatization of the disability-ies.
  • Schmidt Rio-Valle, J., García Caro, M., Montoya Juarez, R., Prados Peña, D., Pappous, A. and Cruz Quintana, F. (2009). Bad news for the patient and the family? The worst thing for the health care professional. Journal of Palliative Care 25:191-196.
    In Spain, there is a general tendency to conceal the prognosis from a terminally ill patient. We conducted grounded-theory-based, phenomenological, qualitative research on this using a final sample of 42 in-depth interviews with doctors and nurses from different fields. We found that most health professionals believe that although patients don't ask questions, they know what is happening to them. Many professionals feel bad when communicating bad news. In hospitals, doctors take responsibility for doing so. The attitudes of professionals are influenced by their sense of responsibility and commitment to the principle of patient autonomy, as well as to the level of their agreement with the cultural context. The tacit agreement of silence makes communication impossible: the patient does not ask questions, the health professional does not want to be interrogated, and family members don't talk about the disease and want health professionals to follow their example. This situation is detrimental to patients and their families and leads to suffering, low levels of satisfaction, and feelings of guilt and helplessness. Health care professionals must acquire the means and the skills for communicating bad news.
  • Pappous, A., Godoy, J., Cruz, F. and Lopez, J. (2008). Progress in the Psychometrical Properties of an Instrument Aimed to Assess Attitudes, Motivation and Self-efficacy of People Practicing Physical Activity. International Journal of Sport and Health Science [Online] 6:72-77. Available at: http://www.wdc-jp.com/jshs/ijshs/index.html.
    Recently there has been an interest in developing culturally-specific instruments in order to explain different aspects of exercise behavior. The present study continues in the same line by reporting further analyses regarding the psychometric properties of the Spanish Attitudes, Motivation and Self-efficacy Questionnaire of Exercise Participation (Sp-AMSQEP). This study comes to complete a recent preliminary study (Pappous, Cruz & Godoy; 2006) basically by: a) aplicating some semantical modifications and retesting the internal consistency of the instrument, and b) by including a factor analysis in order to evaluate the support for the three dimensional a priori factor structure of the instrument. The results, in sum, provided initial evidence to support that Sp- AMSQEP is a suitable tool to measure the dimensions of attitudes, motivation and self efficacy in Spanish-speaking samples in the context of sport participation in health clubs. The fact that this study makes part of the first steps of the validation of this instrument is stressed and therefore further analyses are recommended in order to asses the generality of the instrument.
  • Caro Garcia, M., Schmidt Rio-Valle, J., Cruz Quintana, F., Prados Peña, D., Muñoz Vinuesa, A. and Pappous, A. (2008). Terminal illness, death. in the words of professionals. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with health professionals (Second study). Revista ROL de enfermeria [Online] 32:54-58. Available at: http://www.e-rol.es/body.php.
    This article is the second part of an interesting qualitative research project which presents and interprets opinions made by diverse medical and nursing professionals regarding care provided to terminal patients and relationships with patients' relatives.
  • Pappous, A. (2008). Experts criticise media coverage of disabled athletes. The Peninsula. Qarar’s Leading English Daily [Online]. Available at: http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/display_news.asp?section=local_news&subsection=qatar+news&month=april2008&file=local_news2008042215841.xml.
    This is a newspaper article concerning the talk that Dr. Pappous gave in the "Third international forum on children with special needs" at Shafallah Center in Qatar.Addressing a session on "Sports, social inclusion and mass media," Dr. Pappous highlighted that Sports events for the disabled have been covered by the media as feature stories with focus on the disability rather than the performance of the athletes.
  • Caro Garcia, M., Schmidt Rio-Valle, J., Cruz Quintana, F., Prados Peña, D., Vinuesa Lopez, A. and Pappous, A. (2008). Terminal illness, death. in the words of professionals. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with health professionals (First study). Ediciones ROL [Online] 31:57-62. Available at: http://www.e-rol.es/body.php.
    The authors of this study are interested in listening to the experiences professional doctors and nurses who work face to face with patients in terminal phase of their illnesses have. For this reason, the authors carried out a series of in-depth interviews with these professionals in order to know the real difficulties and obstacles which these professionals experience in real cases, as well as the procedure methods followed with these patients. The authors publish the results obtained in eight of these interviews, four with doctors and four with nurses; given the length of these interviews, the authors have decided to publish them in two consecutive articles which form one complete study This study is qualitative and the analysis of data obtained has been structured around the proposed research questions, keeping the diversity and variability how to deal with patients, plus the experiences shown by those interviewed, by citing their words textually.
    , Rio-Valle SJ, Quintana CF, Peña PD, Vinuesa MA, Pappous
  • Pappous, A., Cruz, F., de Léséleuc, E., Marcellini, A., Recours, R. and Schmidt Rio-Valle, J. (2006). Attitudes of the elderly toward physical activity and exercise. Adaptation of the Older Person’s Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire in Spain. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism [Online] 13:69-77. Available at: http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/Content/44720/Pappous_REV.pdf.

Book section

  • Pappous, S. and Hayday, E. (2019). A Theoretical Framework for the Integration of Refugees Through Sport: ’The Contact Theory". In: Implementation Guide for Integration of Refugees through Sport. International Sport and Culture Association Denmark, pp. 12-22. Available at: https://irts.isca.org/implementation-guide/.
  • Pappous, A. and Zafeiri, A. (2018). Mental Indicators and Physical Activity. In: 12 Policy Papers on the Connection of Mental Health With Sport & Physical Exercise to Promote Active Living for Mental Health. M.E.N.S. Project, pp. 55-60. Available at: https://mensproject.eu/#policypapers.
  • Pappous, A. and Souza, D. (2016). Media Guide: How to cover the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. In: Media Guide: How to Cover the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. University of Kent, pp. 1-16.
    The media plays a fundamental role in the trans- mission of cultural values and in the production and dissemination of social representation. However, various international studies have shown that the standard of media coverage of the Pa- ralympics has fallen well below the standards set by the Olympics. Unfortunately, the majority of media professionals has little knowledge for the Paralympic Games, which leads to a stereotypi- cal coverage of the event and of the Paralympic athletes.
    In order to promote a more inclusive and fairer coverage of sports for people with impairment, two academic institutions, the University of Kent and the Federal University of Parana, have joi- ned forces and, with financial support from the Newton Fund/Araucaria Foundation, have pro- duced this guide (which was in its original version is in Portuguese) for the use of professionals in the Brazilian media so that they can promote a more inclusive image of people with impairment during Rio 2016.
  • de Léséleuc, E., Cherif, A., Burlet, L. and Pappous, A. (2014). La couverture médiatique des Jeux Paralympiques: Discours et images des athlètes handicapés, Corps, sport, handicap. In: Corps, Sport, Handicaps Tome 2: Le Mouvement Handisport Au XXIe siècle. Paris: Téraèdre.
  • Pappous, A. (2011). Do the Olympic Games lead to a Sustainable Increase in Grassroots Sport Participation? A secondary analysis of Athens 2004. In: Savery, J. and Gilbert, K. eds. Sustainability and Sport. Champaign, Illinois: Common Ground, pp. 81-87.
  • Pappous, A. (2011). Do the Olympic Games Lead to a Sustainable Increase in Grassroots Sport Participation?. In: Savery, J. and Gilbert, K. eds. Sustainability and Sport. Common Ground Publishing LLC. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Sustainability-Sport-Jill-Savery/dp/1863359125.

Conference or workshop item

  • Warhel, M., Pappous, A. and Sharma, D. (2016). The effect of mindfulness meditation in reducing pain and improving the mental health of injured athletes. In: 21st Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Crossing Borders through Sport Science. Available at: http://ecss-congress.eu/2016/16/.
  • Brown, C. and Pappous, A. (2016). Exploring the London 2012 grassroots disability sport participation legacy: A National Disability Sport Organisation (NDSO) perspective. In: Disability Sport: Why Do We ‘dis’ people’s Abilities?.
    An assessment of the role of the London 2012 Paralympics in the provision of sport for disabled people.
  • Brown, C. and Pappous, A. (2014). In the quest of evidence: Designing an investigation into the sport participation legacies of the London 2012 Paralympic Games. In: Disability Sport: Changing Lives, Changing Perceptions?.
    A proposed research design for my PhD. This was made before I officially became a PhD student at the University of Kent.

Research report (external)

  • Koutrou, N., Pappous, A. and Horne, R. (2016). Keeping up the Participation Levels in Adult 11 V 11 Football in Kent. University of Kent.
    A report produced by the School of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Kent on behalf of Kent Football Association (Kent FA) to investigate the current of adult 11 v 11 football in Kent and provide recommendations for sustaining and increasing participation levels.


  • Hayday, E. (2017). The Impact of London 2012 Olympic Games on Community Based Sport in the UK: The Role of NGBS in Leveraging a Participation Legacy.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a Sports Mega Event (SME), the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympics Games, and the specific legacy objective that was set to increase grass-root sports participation. This research aimed to investigate the leveraging processes that were used to try to achieve this objective, through National Governing Bodies (NGBs) who were outlined by Sport England (SE) as the main delivery agent to support the participation initiatives associated to the London 2012 Games (Sport England, 2008). Through the community sports delivery system, NGBs have a network of Voluntary Sports Clubs (VSCs) that were utilised as the main delivery agents across the country.
    The theory of policy implementation was applied to investigate the processes and practices involved for these organisations both 'top down' (NGBs) and 'bottom up' (VSCs), to better understand their attitudes and experiences surrounding the London 2012 Games. Governance of sports organisations is highly correlated to the process of policy implementation within NGBs and their associated networks. The top-down and bottom-up implementation processes, mirror the modification within the governance literature, through an attrition of governmental power, policy delivery and governance shifted towards a bottom-up approach through partnerships and networks (Bevir and Rhodes, 2006; Grix, 2010).
    This was investigated through two main studies, firstly through a multi case study design, with four non-popular English sports. This study took a bottom-up approach, in which 32 interviews were undertaken primarily with the VSCs (n=25), the delivery agents of the participation objective, then additionally with NGB head office staff (n=7) to investigate their opinions of the legacy implementation process within their sport surrounding the legacy objectives. The significance of investigating these non-popular sports, related to the distinctive opportunity that a home Olympic and Paralympic Games provided them.
    The second study involved a top-down analysis with NGB senior managers, to gain an insight into how they perceive SMEs and the impact this had on leveraging and implementation strategies, which aimed to increase sports participation. An exploratory, in-depth, mixed method online survey was conducted post London 2012 and 105 responses were received from NGB senior and regional managers. These responses accounted for 37 out of 46 Sport England funded sports producing an extensive representative sample within the sector. This provided a more comprehensive understanding of the sports delivery system and the elements that are involved in legacy production.
    Results provided new insights into the specific attitudes and significant role that these key stakeholders involved with the legacy production process have, which up to this point has been missing within the academic discourse. Across both studies issues surrounding communication, VSC engagement and attitudes were noted, relating to the importance of building partnerships at both a national and local level and the benefits of social media as a leveraging strategy. Principally, NGBs need to ensure they involve Voluntary Sports Clubs (VSCs) in the SMEs planning stages and the current top-down implementation process is leading to a fragmented delivery system. To limit this, NGBs need to develop a clearer understanding of their VSCs characteristics across their network, as findings highlighted the negative feelings and misuse of some clubs, reducing the efficiency of legacy creation.
    Thus, by allowing flexibility for informal legacies to emerge and by providing support to VSC stakeholders that may need up-skilling, the SMEs can be capitalised on effectively. Results highlighted that external media had a greater impact on participation and interest, than individual participation programmes for VSCs. Valuable findings emerged throughout the thesis and resulted in beneficial recommendations for future SMEs hosts. Critical Realism (CR) was used as a guiding philosophical perspective to aid understanding and analysis of leveraging and legacy conceptualisation.


  • Pappous, A. and Brown, C. (2018). Paralympic Legacies: A Critical Perspective. In: Brittain, I. and Beacom, A. eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies. UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 647-664. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-47901-3.
    Defining legacy is a challenging task and it is a contested concept (Cashman 2006; Thornley 2012). Legacy is often viewed as providing positive, intended consequences, but it is also possible for legacy to be negative or unintended (Cashman 2006; Thornley 2012). Paralympic legacy has been a neglected topic of scholarly activity (Misener et al. 2013). For the purpose of this chapter, legacy will be discussed in terms of what Gilbert and Legg (2011a, p. 5) define as being ‘that which is left behind’ from previous Paralympic Games. The chapter will focus upon the evidence for Paralympic legacies, discussing both tangible and intangible legacies from previous Paralympic Games. The utility of the Paralympic Games as part of an empowering movement will then be briefly discussed, followed by a critical review of the legacy themes from the 2004–2016 Summer Paralympic Games.
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