Portrait of Dr Paolo Dardanelli

Dr Paolo Dardanelli

Reader in Comparative Politics

About

Dr Dardanelli has been a research fellow at Harvard University, the University of Berne, Switzerland, the Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales in Madrid, the Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics (now Institut d’Estudis de l’Autogovern) in Barcelona, and the Centro de Estudios Andaluces in Seville, all in Spain, and a visiting professor at the University of Cologne, Germany, and the Autonomous University of Madrid in Spain. 

His research explores the causes and consequences of the territorial structures of political systems. It has been funded by the ESRC, the British Academy, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung, the São Paulo Research Foundation, the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, the Forum of Federations, the Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics, Presence Switzerland, and the James Madison Charitable Trust

Dr Dardanelli is the lead investigator behind the De/Centralisation Dataset (DcD), and is the author of Restructuring the European State (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017), Between Two Unions: Europeanisation and Scottish Devolution (Manchester University Press, 2005), and articles in European Political Science Review, Political Studies, Acta Politica, Swiss Political Science Review, Party Politics, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, and Nations and Nationalism, among others. 

Dr Dardanelli has advised the UK Cabinet Office, the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Scottish Parliament, the City of London Corporation, the Embassy of Switzerland in the UK, Switzerland’s Conference of Cantonal Governments, and has collaborated with the OECD and the Forum of Federations.  

Research interests

  • De/centralisation
  • Federalism
  • Democracy
  • Nationalism 

Teaching

Undergraduate

Postgraduate

Supervision

Dr Dardanelli is interested in supervising research in comparative politics, in particular projects related to state structures and their evolution over time. 

Professional

Professional appointments 

  • Chair, Research Committee on Comparative Federalism and Multilevel Governance (RC28), International Political Science Association
  • Co-Editor, Studies in Federalism and Decentralization book series, Routledge
  • University of Kent’s Official Representative, European Consortium for Political Research 


Membership of professional associations 

  • Political Studies Association (PSA)
  • American Political Science Association (APSA)
  • International Political Science Association (IPSA) 
  • Higher Education Academy (HEA)

Publications

Showing 50 of 61 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.

Article

  • Dardanelli, P. and Kincaid, J. (2019). US Federalism in Comparative Perspective. Comparative Politics Newsletter [Online] 29:46-52. Available at: https://www.apsanet.org/section20.
    An assessment of dynamic de/centralisation in the United States from 1790-2010, in comparison to the experience of Australia, Canada, Germany, India and Switzerland. Based on data from the De/Centralisation Dataset (DcD).
  • Dardanelli, P. (2019). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Mapping State Structures – With an Application to Western Europe, 1950—2015. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 49:271-298. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy019.
    This paper addresses long-standing challenges in conceptualizing and measuring state structures. It first outlines a novel conceptualization of the unitary/federal distinction and its relation to de/centralization and a/symmetry, from which it derives static and dynamic typologies. It subsequently develops a scheme for measuring de/centralization that is able to capture the conceptual distinction between unitary and federal states. The scheme is then applied to map state structures in Western Europe from 1950—2015. This mapping exercise shows that some states constitutionally defined as federal are best classified as unitary from a political science perspective and others, constitutionally defined as unitary, should be considered de facto federal. By developing a more effective classification of cases for comparative analysis, the paper offers a tool on which theoretical and empirical advances in understanding the causes and effects of state structures can be built.
  • Dardanelli, P. and Mueller, S. (2019). Dynamic De/Centralization in Switzerland, 1848-2010. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 49:138-165. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjx056.
    Part of the project Why Centralization and Decentralization in Federations?, this article studies
    dynamic de/centralization in Switzerland since 1848 and seeks to account for the patterns
    observed. It shows that, overall, there has been a wide-ranging process of legislative
    centralization, whereas the cantons have retained considerable administrative and, especially,
    fiscal autonomy. The principal instrument of dynamic centralization has been constitutional
    change, followed by the enactment of framework legislation by the federal government. The
    process has unfolded primarily through frequent steps of a small magnitude and occurred
    throughout the 160-year life of the federation. Modernization, market integration, changing
    patterns of collective identification, and expectations concerning the role of government appear
    to have played a particularly important causal role. The multilingual and bi-confessional nature of
    the country has not presented a major obstacle to this centralization dynamic, particularly since
    World War II, with the French-speaking minority becoming increasingly pro-centralization.
  • Dardanelli, P., Kincaid, J., Fenna, A., Kaiser, A., Lecours, A. and Singh, A. (2019). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Theorizing Dynamic De/Centralization in Federations. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 49:1-29. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy036.
    This paper develops a conceptual, methodological and theoretical framework for analyzing dynamic de/centralization in federations. It starts by briefly reviewing the literature and outlining the research design and methods adopted. It then conceptualizes static de/centralization and describes the seven-point coding scheme we have employed to measure it across twenty-two policy areas and five fiscal categories at ten-year intervals since the establishment of a federation. The subsequent section conceptualizes dynamic de/centralization as a process marked by changes in the distribution of power between the two orders of government in at least one policy or fiscal category and discusses its five main properties: direction, magnitude, form, tempo, and instruments. Drawing from several strands of the literature, in the last substantive section, the paper builds a theoretical framework that identifies seven categories of causal determinants of dynamic de/centralization, from which we derive a set of hypotheses for assessment.
  • Dardanelli, P., Kincaid, J., Fenna, A., Kaiser, A., Lecours, A., Singh, A., Mueller, S. and Vogel, S. (2019). Dynamic De/Centralization in Federations: Comparative Conclusions. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 49:194-219. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy037.
    This article develops a conceptual, methodological and theoretical framework for analyzing dynamic de/centralization in federations. It first reviews the literature and outlines the research design and methods adopted. It then conceptualizes static de/centralization and describes the seven-point coding scheme we employed to measure it across twenty-two policy areas and five fiscal categories at ten-year intervals since the establishment of a federation. The subsequent section conceptualizes dynamic de/centralization and discusses its five main properties: direction, magnitude, form, tempo, and instruments. Drawing from several strands of the literature, the article lastly identifies seven categories of causal determinants of dynamic de/centralization, from which we derive hypotheses for assessment.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2017). Independence in Europe? EU Integration and ‘Stateless Nations’. Political Insight [Online] 8:33-35. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2041905817744634.
    From Catalonia to Scotland, some of the most pro-European Union political parties are in favour of national independence. Paolo Dardanelli explores this apparent paradox and finds that EU integration has actually fuelled fragmentation in several European states.
  • Dardanelli, P. and Kincaid, J. (2016). A New Union? Federalism and the UK. Political Insight [Online] 7:12-15. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/2041905816680413.
  • Mueller, S. and Dardanelli, P. (2014). Langue, culture politique et centralisation en Suisse. Revue internationale de politique comparée [Online] 21:73-94. Available at: https://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=RIPC_214_0083.
    This article analyses the role of language in Swiss politics, focusing in particular on its influence over state structures. Using a mixed methods research design, we study attitudes to the de/centralisation of political power both as regards relations between the Confederation and the cantons – national de/centralisation – as well as between the cantons and their local governments – cantonal de/centralisation. In a quantitative comparison of all cantons, we detect a significant difference between the French- and German-speaking cantons in both the national and cantonal dimension of de/centralisation, the former being much more in favour of centralisation than the latter. A subsequent qualitative comparison of two cantons shows how this distinction is essentially the product of a difference of political culture, between the more “republican” values of the Romands on the one hand and the attachment to subsidiarity of German-speaking Swiss on the other hand. This difference is closely linked to language use and the influence exercised by France’s political culture through the French language. A similar influence can also be detected in other French-speaking polities. In the Swiss case, however, this cultural difference is one of the very few to have political significance, as in many other regards the two linguistic areas share the same political culture. The Swiss case thus shows that, even within a largely homogeneous political culture, language remains causally connected to important aspects of the political system and the daily life of its citizens.
  • Dardanelli, P. and Mitchell, J. (2014). An Independent Scotland? The Scottish National Party’s Bid for Independence and its Prospects. The International Spectator [Online] 49:88-105. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03932729.2014.935996.
    The September 2014 referendum is a milestone in Scotland’s history. After 307 years of union with England and a 15-year experience with
    devolution, Scottish nationalism is within reach of its ultimate goal. Independence would be consensual and Scotland and the rest of the UK
    would retain multiple links. The EU dimension looms large in the debate and is entangled with the UK’s own review of its membership. Scotland’s
    referendum is part of a wider trend seeing other ‘stateless nations’ in the democratic world pursuing independence. Even if opinion polls indicate
    voters will likely reject secession, Scotland’s experience holds important lessons for the wider world.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2014). European Integration, Party Strategies, and State Restructuring: a Comparative Analysis. European Political Science Review [Online] 6:213-236. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755773913000076.
    To what extent and in what way does European integration fuel state restructuring?
    This is a long-standing but still not a fully answered question. While the theoretical
    literature suggests a positive link between the two, previous empirical studies have
    reached contrasting conclusions. The article offers an alternative testing of the
    proposition, centred on the role of party strategies as a causal mechanism, analysed
    across space and time. On the cross-sectional axis, it focusses on parties in Flanders and
    Wallonia (Belgium), Lombardy and Sicily (Italy), Catalonia and Andalusia (Spain), and
    Scotland and Wales (United Kingdom). On the cross-temporal axis, it focuses on four
    critical junctures connecting integration and state restructuring. It analyses the degree to
    which ‘Europe’ has been strategically used in connection to state restructuring and which
    conditions have been necessary and/or sufficient to that outcome. The analysis has been
    conducted on the basis of a Qualitative Comparative Analysis methodology. Five main
    results emerge: (1) overall, parties have generally exploited ‘Europe’ in connection with
    state restructuring to a limited extent only but in a few cases exploitation has been very
    intense and intimately linked to strategic turning points; (2) ‘Europe’ has overwhelmingly
    been used to support state restructuring; (3) the most intense use has been made by
    regional parties with a secessionist position and positive attitude to the EU; (4) ‘use of
    Europe’ is a product of a complex conjunctural effect of several conditions; (5) it has
    increased over time but is not a linear product of integration, a sharp drop can be
    observed between the two most recent time points. These findings show that European
    integration can indeed exercise causal influence upon state restructuring via party
    strategies but that this is highly contingent on the complex interaction of multiple factors.
  • Mueller, S. and Dardanelli, P. (2013). The Parliamentary and Executive Elections in Switzerland, 2011. Electoral Studies [Online] 32:197-201. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2012.10.004.
    Although less dramatic than the previous contest, the 2011 federal elections marked a significant turning point for Switzerland. The growth of the extremes, which had dominated Swiss politics over the last twenty years, has come to an end and two new parties have established themselves at the centre of the political spectrum. The right-wing Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC, hereafter SVP), which had grown relentlessly since the early 1990s, lost ground for the first time while the Greens, the other rising star of Swiss politics, suffered a major defeat. Both parties lost support primarily to start-ups that had broken away from their own ranks and moved to a more centrist position. The traditional centrist parties – the Liberal-Radicals (FDP/PLR, hereafter FDP) and the Christian Democrats (CVP/PDC, hereafter CVP) – continued their decline, while the Socialists (SPS/PSS, hereafter SPS) managed to increase their tally of seats despite a slight loss of support. The SPS was the main winner in the elections for the upper house, where the new centrist parties also gained representation at the expenses of both the CVP and the FDP. The elections for the collegial executive saw all incumbents re-elected and the post left vacant by the socialist minister Calmy-Rey filled by a fellow socialist, thus denying a second seat to the SVP. The results paint a picture of reduced polarisation but higher fragmentation, marking a return to the more consensual style that characterised Swiss politics from the late 1950s to the mid-1990s. This bodes well for the stability of the country's institutions, which had been shaken by the polarising ascent of the SVP, and is likely to lead to a high(er) degree of continuity in public policy making over the next four years.
  • Casson, R. and Dardanelli, P. (2012). Local Government Paradiplomacy in the UK: the Case of the Kent-Virginia Project. Local Government Studies [Online] 38:599-614. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03003930.2012.666213.
    This article investigates the Kent-Virginia Project, a recent partnership between Kent County Council (KCC) and the US state of Virginia, as a case study of local government paradiplomacy in the UK. It sets the project in the context of the growing international involvement of local government, which has so far largely been neglected in the literature. It seeks to explain why KCC embarked on this initiative and to identify what opportunities and constraints shaped the latter’s development. The evidence shows that KCC was primarily motivated by personal and institutional ambition, that decision-making was rather opaque and that communication was highly selective. As a result of its seizing a series of unforeseen opportunities that changed the nature of the project, KCC found itself performing roles traditionally reserved for central government. It also faced, however, severe constraints in terms of maintaining multiple institutional relations as well as managing media and public attitudes to the project. These findings show that UK local government can successfully engage in ambitious paradiplomacy but that such activities take place within an uncertain legal framework and raise both positive and normative questions. The article concludes by suggesting several avenues for further research and by calling for a redefinition of the legal and institutional framework governing the international activities of UK local government.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2012). Europeanization and the Unravelling of Belgium: a Comparative Analysis of Party Strategies. Acta Politica [Online] 47:181-209. Available at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ap/index.html.
    Research on Europeanization has greatly deepened our understanding of the domestic impact of European integration but has largely neglected the question of the extent to which it has influenced domestic politics in relation to state reform. The article addresses this question by investigating the case of Belgium, which has experienced the deepest process of state reform and at the same time has been the most exposed to Europeanization. It explores the connections between the two through a qualitative comparative analysis of the degree to which political parties have exploited the European dimension in their rhetorical strategies on state reform, with focus on three key time points. The results paint a contrasting picture. On the one hand, the degree of Europeanization has been limited at each point in time and largely stable over time. On the other hand, the VU/N-VA stands out as a major exception for its consistent – and growing – exploitation of the European dimension. The analysis shows that constitutional preferences, importance of the constitutional question, and attitudes to integration are the key factors explaining the patterns observed. These findings call for deeper theorization of the domestic impact of integration and point to avenues for further comparative analysis.
  • Dardanelli, P. and Stojanovi?, N. (2011). The Acid Test? Competing Theses on the Nationality-Democracy Nexus and the Case of Switzerland. Nations and Nationalism [Online] 17:357-376. Available at: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1354-5078&site=1.
    The article deals with the connection between nationality and democracy and explores the role Switzerland plays in the scholarly debate on this question. It identifies three main theses – the liberal-nationalist, the liberal-multinationalist and the liberal-postnationalist one – and shows that each of them uses the Swiss case to claim empirical support. It then analyses the connections between nationality and democracy in Switzerland and demonstrates that the country is neither multinational nor postnational but is best characterised as a mononational state. These findings expose the fallacy of using Switzerland to claim support for either the multinational or the postnational thesis and call for a re-consideration of them. Additionally, they show that ‘civic nationalism’ and ‘civic republicanism’ can be conflated and that a predominantly civic nation is viable and sustainable and is not necessarily an ethnic nation in disguise. The Swiss case thus provides qualified empirical support for the liberal-nationalist thesis.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2009). Europeanization as Heresthetics: Party Competition over Self-Government for Scotland, 1974-1997. Party Politics [Online] 15:49-68. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068808097893.
    This article is a theoretical and empirical contribution to the study of the Europeanization of political parties. On the theoretical side, it draws on the concepts of heresthetics and two-level games to conceptualize a
    Europeanization mechanism that has so far been overlooked in the literature. It shows that Europeanization can be a heresthetic tool in party competition, notably in terms of opening up a new dimension that may result in a realignment of alliances able to turn losers into winners. It then applies this conceptualization to party competition over the issue of self-government for Scotland from 1974 to 1997 and shows how it can to a large extent account for a dramatic reversal of fortunes for the anti- and pro-devolution camps between 1979 and 1997. It concludes
    by relating these theoretical and empirical findings back to the debate on the Europeanization of political parties and identifies avenues for further research.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2008). Multi-National Switzerland? A Comment on Ipperciel. Swiss Political Science Review 14:551-561.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2008). The Swiss Federal Elections of 2007. Electoral Studies [Online] 27:748-751. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2008.04.010.
    The Swiss federal elections of 2007 were among the most bitter and dramatic the country has experienced in its 160-year history as a federal state.1 The trend towards polarisation, visible for the past 15 years, progressed further and reached a spectacular climax in the executive elections which brought to an end the consensual style of politics of the past 50 years. The elections for the lower house saw the largest gains made by the two parties located at the opposite ends of the political spectrum: the Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC, hereafter referred to simply as SVP) on the right and the Greens (GPS/PES) on the left. The Greens also performed strongly in the upper house elections, gaining representation for the first time, while the SVP did less well and lost one seat. The most dramatic outcome was produced by the elections for the executive, which saw the SVP's leader Christoph Blocher failing to win re-election and his party in response deciding to withdraw into opposition. Although neither the balance of forces in parliament nor the political complexion of the executive have significantly altered, Blocher's eviction and the SVP's confrontational policy seem likely to introduce considerable instability into Swiss politics over the next four years. While the country is not yet facing a change of regime, it is certainly at a critical juncture
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). Democratic Deficit or the Europeanisation of Secession? Explaining the Devolution Referendums in Scotland. Political Studies [Online] 53:320-242. Available at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00531.x.
    This article deals with the variation in the demand for self-government in Scotland – as measured by the vote in the two referendums – between 1979, when devolution was rejected, and 1997, when devolution was endorsed. The existing literature mainly deals with each of the two referendums in isolation and does not offer an explicitly comparative analysis of them. However, implicit comparisons contained in analyses of the 1997 referendum tend to identify as the main cause of the variation the 'democratic deficit' created by Conservative rule between 1979 and 1997, which was consistently rejected in Scotland. I take issue with this explanation on theoretical and empirical grounds and advances an alternative account grounded in an explicit comparison of the two referendums. Based on a rationalist approach, the analysis presented here identifies three key elements in the voting dynamics at the two points in time – a gap between support for self-government and the actual vote in the referendum; an interaction effect between attitudes to devolution and to independence; and the role of the European context in shaping perceptions of independence. I argue that significant change in these three variables (rather than a 'democratic deficit') appear to have been the most important determinants of the different results of the two referendums.
  • Church, C. and Dardanelli, P. (2005). The Dynamics of Confederalism and Federalism: Comparing Switzerland and the EU. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 15:163-185. Available at: http://www.journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/(503tfm21bcxvsdms514x4e45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,4,10;journal,6,19;linkingpublicationresults,1:108540,1.
    This article outlines the modern historical evolution of the Swiss political system and describes the main features of its contemporary federalism. In particular, it focuses on how the division of competences and the distribution of power have changed over time, on the factors which have driven these changes, leading to a description of the current situation created by these developments. It then compares the Swiss experience with that of the European Union and draws some lessons from this for the debate on the evolution of the European Union and, in particular, on the adoption and the ratification of the Constitutional Treaty. Although it emphasizes the role of historical experiences and of political culture in shaping Swiss federalism and the difficulties, if not the impossibility, of replicating them in the European context, it concludes that the EU could learn from Switzerland but may not do so.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). The Parliamentary and Executive Elections in Switzerland, 2003. Electoral Studies [Online] 24:123-129. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). Conclusions: Comparative Federalism and the European Union. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 15:259-269. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13597560500115659.

Book

  • Dardanelli, P. (2017). Restructuring the European State: European Integration and State Reform. [Online]. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Available at: http://www.mqup.ca/restructuring-the-european-state-products-9780773551527.php?page_id=46&.
    An investigation of the connections between European integration and state restructuring.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). Between Two Unions: Europeanisation and Scottish Devolution. [Online]. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. Available at: http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/.
    The first study of Scottish devolution to adopt an explicitly comparative approach and the first to analyse the impact of the European dimension Sheds light on one of the most contested questions in contemporary politics: whether European integration leads to fragmentation of its constituent states Builds a ground-breaking argument that challenges the widespread thesis that support for devolution was a consequence of the 'democratic deficit' created by eighteen years of Conservative rule Identifies three key factors in the changing politics of Scottish devolution: the interaction between attitudes to devolution and attitudes to independence, the exploitation of the European context to shape perceptions An entirely original explanation of Scottish devolution

Book section

  • Dardanelli, P. (2019). De/Centralization. In: Kincaid, J. ed. Research Agenda for Federalism Studies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 106-116. Available at: https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/a-research-agenda-for-federalism-studies.
    The chapter reviews the state of the art in the study of de/centralization in federations and identifies avenues for future research.
  • Dardanelli, P. and Mazzoleni, O. (2019). Introduzione. In: Mazzoleni, O. and Dardanelli, P. eds. Svizzera-UE: Un Rapporto Irrisolto. Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland: Armando Dadò, pp. 13-25. Available at: https://www.editore.ch/shopvm/le-sfide-della-svizzera/svizzera-ue-un-rapporto-irrisolto-detail.html.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2019). L’integrazione europea e il federalismo svizzero. In: Mazzoleni, O. and Dardanelli, P. eds. Svizzera-UE: Un Rapporto Irrisolto. Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland: Armando Dadò, pp. 131-150. Available at: https://www.editore.ch/shopvm/le-sfide-della-svizzera/svizzera-ue-un-rapporto-irrisolto-detail.html.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2017). Il federalismo svizzero in prospettiva comparata: miti e realtà. In: Mueller, S. and Giudici, A. eds. Il Federalismo Svizzero: Attori, Strutture E Processi. Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland: Armando Dadò, pp. 223-238. Available at: http://www.editore.ch/shopvm/le-sfide-della-svizzera/il-federalismo-svizzero-detail.html.
    An assessment of contemporary Swiss federalism from a comparative perspective.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2017). El federalismo suizo – Orígines, evolución y desafíos. In: Hofmeister, W. and Tudela Aranda, J. eds. Sistemas Federales: Una comparación Internacional. Madrid and Zaragoza, Spain: Manuel Giménez Abad Foundation, pp. 231-252. Available at: http://www.marcialpons.es/libros/sistemas-federales/9788494620102/.
    An assessment of contemporary Swiss federalism from a comparative perspective.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2013). Switzerland - Europe’s First Federation. In: Loughlin, J., Kincaid, J. and Swenden, W. eds. Routledge Handbook of Regionalism and Federalism. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 248-258. Available at: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415566216/.
    Switzerland is a prominent example of a federal state. It is the second oldest such state in the world
    and has long been held as a model of federalism. This is particularly so in that the country has
    managed to achieve political and economic success in spite of significant linguistic and religious
    – though, not national – diversity. Many see the federal nature of its political system as a
    key factor that has made this possible. Federalism is one of the fundamental institutional features
    of the country and enjoys strong support among political actors and the wider population. At its
    inception in 1848 the Swiss federal state was extremely decentralized, with federal competences
    confined to a few key areas and the bulk of governing responsibilities in the hands of the cantons.
    Since then, although the fundamental features of the system have been exceptionally stable,
    more and more legislative competences have been transferred to the federation but responsibility
    for policy implementation and delivery has remained with the cantons. The trend deepened
    in the second half of the 20th century and has led to a form of federalism characterized by
    complex interlocking and dense vertical cooperation. Over the last two decades concerted efforts
    have been made to contain centralization through a new system of competence allocation and
    the development of horizontal cooperation among the cantons. Although there has undeniably
    been a significant erosion of cantonal autonomy over time, hence of the ‘federality’ of the
    system, this has not gone as far as fundamentally changing the nature of the Swiss state. Indeed,
    in comparative perspective, Switzerland remains among the most decentralized federal states in
    the world, i.e. those furthest away from having acquired unitary features. The Swiss state thus
    displays a low level of ‘hybridity’ and this is unlikely to change for the foreseeable future.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2011). Multi-lingual but Mono-national: Exploring and Explaining Switzerland’s Exceptionalism. In: Requejo, F. and Caminal, M. eds. Federalism, Plurinationality, and Democratic Constitutionalism. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 295-323. Available at: http://www.routledge.com.
    This chapter explores how statehood and patterns of collective identity have historically evolved in Switzerland and how they are interacting in the contemporary Swiss system. It shows that a sense of Swiss nationhood emerged before the creation of a Swiss federal state in 1848 and that it survived the pressures of 'linguistic nationalism' in the latter part of the 'long' XIX century to become fully consolidated in the XX century. While many features of the Swiss system today reflect the multi-lingual nature of its society, they also show rather clearly that Switzerland is not a multi-national federation. Subsequently, the chapter offers an explanation of why Switzerland, despite being multi-lingual and multi-cultural, has not become multinational, by arguing that this is best explained by a complex interaction over a long period of time of a unique set of factors, both internal and external. The chapter then considers the challenges likely to face the Swiss system in the mid-term and concludes by arguing that the characteristics of Swiss society and the strengths of its federal political architecture will likely enable it to remain mono-national in the foreseeable future.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2011). The Emergence and Evolution of Democracy in Switzerland. In: Malone, M. F. T. ed. Achieving Democracy. New York, Ny, USA: Continuum, pp. 141-163. Available at: http://www.continuumbooks.com/default.aspx.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2010). Federal Democracy in Switzerland. In: Burgess, M. and Gagnon, A.-G. eds. Federal Democracies. London: Routledge, pp. 142-159. Available at: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415555487/.
    This chapter investigates the relationship between federalism and democracy in Switzerland. It explores how the interaction between them has evolved over time in the Swiss system in relation, among other things, to the expansion of direct democracy, the changing nature of minorities and the representation of cantonal interests at the federal level. The chapter argues that, by and large, federalism and democracy have reinforced each other in Switzerland. However, there are also multiple sources of tensions between the two and significant challenges on the horizon. Despite the system's idiosyncrasies, Switzerland's experience thus offers some valuable lessons of wide relevance.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2009). Suïssa: multilingüe però mononacional - Anàlisi i explicació d’un cas singular. In: Caminal, M. and Requejo, F. eds. Federalisme I Plurinacionalitat - Teoria I anàlisi De Casos. Barcelona, Spain: Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics, pp. 423-473. Available at: http://www.gencat.cat/drep/iea/pdfs/CF_FederalismeIplurinacionalitat.pdf.
    This chapter explores how statehood and patterns of collective identity have historically evolved in Switzerland and how they are interacting in the contemporary Swiss system. It shows that a sense of Swiss nationhood emerged before the creation of a Swiss federal state in 1848 and that it survived the pressures of 'linguistic nationalism' in the latter part of the 'long' XIX century to become fully consolidated in the XX century. While many features of the Swiss system today reflect the multi-lingual nature of its society, they also show rather clearly that Switzerland is not a multi-national federation. Subsequently, the chapter offers an explanation of why Switzerland, despite being multi-lingual and multi-cultural, has not become multinational, by arguing that this is best explained by a complex interaction over a long period of time of a unique set of factors, both internal and external. The chapter then considers the challenges likely to face the Swiss system in the mid-term and concludes by arguing that the characteristics of Swiss society and the strengths of its federal political architecture will likely enable it to remain mono-national in the foreseeable future.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2006). Federalism - Institutional adaptation and symbolic constraints. In: Church, C. H. ed. Switzerland and the European Union - A Close, Contradictory and Misunderstood Relationship. London, UK: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 17-35. Available at: http://www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=&isbn=9780415371995&parent_id=&pc=/shopping_cart/search/search.asp?search%3Dswitzerland%2Band%2Bthe%2Beuropean%2Bunion.
    Despite its geographical centrality and its considerable economic involvement in Europe, Switzerland remains unusual in that it is neither a member of the Union or the European Economic Area. At a time when the Union is both expanding and seeking to develop its integration, the country constitutes a real anomaly amongst west European states.


    This book demonstrates the range, depth and complexity of Switzerland’s developing relations with Europe and provides detailed and up-to-date information on Switzerland itself. Considering a variety of dimensions of the country and its ambiguous relations with the EU, the author explore:

    The classical political obstacles to entry: federalism, direct democracy, neutrality and the growing strength of anti-European populism.


    Policy barriers to integration: in trade and economics generally, in financial matters, and in social provisions relating to the movement of people.


    The EU response and the prospects for future Swiss-EU relations.

    This unique volume will be of interest to students and scholars of European politics and European Union politics

Datasets / databases

  • Dardanelli, P., Kincaid, J., Fenna, A., Kaiser, A., Lecours, A., Singh, A., Mueller, S. and Vogel, S. (2019). De/Centralisation Dataset. [Excel file]. Available at: http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853510/.
    The dataset contains measures of de/centralisation across 22 policy areas and five fiscal categories in six federations – Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Switzerland, and the United States – from their foundation to 2010.

Edited book

  • Mazzoleni, O. and Dardanelli, P. eds. (2019). Svizzera-UE: Un Rapporto Irrisolto. [Online]. Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland: Armando Dadò. Available at: https://www.editore.ch/shopvm/le-sfide-della-svizzera/svizzera-ue-un-rapporto-irrisolto-detail.html.
    Il volume fornisce un bilancio dell’evoluzione delle relazioni fra Svizzera e Unione europea dall’inizio degli anni ’90 ad oggi. Nonostante la Confederazione elvetica non sia aderente all’UE, la questione europea ha plasmato l’agenda del governo e del parlamento, le dinamiche del federalismo, i programmi dei partiti, le campagne elettorali e referendarie nelle diverse regioni. Il tema intreccia politica interna e politica estera, coinvolge i rapporti diplomatici, le relazioni economiche, il confronto ideologico-politico, e le relazioni fra centro e periferia. In una fase cruciale per le relazioni bilaterali Svizzera-UE, e alla luce anche della partita parallela della Brexit, politologi, economisti e storici forniscono il loro contributo alla riflessione scientifica e al dibattito pubblico.

Edited journal

  • Dardanelli, P. and Kincaid, J. eds. (2019). Dynamic De/Centralization in Federations. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 49:1-219. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/publius/issue/49/1.

Monograph

  • Church, C., Dardanelli, P. and Mueller, S. (2013). Switzerland’s Approach to EU Engagement: A Financial Services Perspective. City of London. Available at: http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/business/economic-research-and-information/research-publications/Pages/Switzerlands-approach-to-EU-enagagement-A-.aspx.
    This report examines Switzerland’s past and present political engagement with the EU,
    and how this operates for one of its key industries, the financial services sector. The
    report will help to inform debate around how the UK engages with the EU, by
    considering the experiences of Switzerland as a European country outside the EU, with a
    significant financial services industry. Key points to note are:
    1) A complex approach to engagement
    The Swiss approach is complex, consisting of a set of disparate sector-specific bilateral
    agreements developed over time, including on Schengen but excluding financial
    services, together with much informal Europeanisation, including autonomous adoption
    of EU law.
    2) Reliance on London for access to European capital markets
    Despite there being no comprehensive services accord, the Swiss financial sector has,
    so far, benefitted from largely unfettered access to the EU market, often through its
    presence in London. New EU regulations could change this. Tighter regulations would
    mean third countries constantly having to amend their parallel legislation, in line with
    any changes in Single Market legislation, in order to maintain equivalence over the
    course of time.
    3) A means of moving closer to the EU
    Switzerland’s bilateral approach has been a means of moving closer to the EU rather
    than maintaining distance – and around 40% of Swiss legislation derives from EU rules.
    4) Access to EU markets
    Maintaining Switzerland’s level of access to the Single Market requires continual
    closeness to the EU. A Free Trade agreement is not sufficient, especially for the financial
    sector. Maintaining access to European capital markets necessitates formal
    agreements and parallel legislation to that of the EU.
    5) Overall
    The Swiss approach is an exception, developed over time, rather than a formal model,
    and is a means of closer engagement with the EU. Forgoing complete access to the
    Single Market has had implications for the Swiss financial services sector, namely
    through the associated necessity of establishing operations in London, and has reduced
    Switzerland’s ability to engage in EU policy making.
  • Church, C., Dardanelli, P. and Mueller, S. (2012). The ’Swiss Model’ of Relations With the EU and Its Relevance for the UK. House of Commons. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmfaff/writev/futunion/contents.htm.

Review

  • Dardanelli, P. (2018). Centripetal Democracy - Democratic Legitimacy and Political Identity in Belgium, Switzerland, and the European Union. Publius: The Journal of Federalism [Online] 48:e5-e5. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy018.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2014). Challenging the State: Devolution and the Battle for Partisan Credibility—A Comparison of Belgium, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 24:403-404. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13597566.2014.890933.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2008). Federalism and Regionalism in Western Europe. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 18:479-480. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13597560802214150.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2008). ’Le fédéralisme suisse’. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 18:303-304. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13597560802078555.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2006). ’The EU and Territorial Politics within Member States’. West European Politics [Online] 29:598-598. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/01402382.asp.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2006). ’Federalism in a Changing World - Learning from Each Other’. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 16:356-358. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13597566.asp.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2006). ’Devolution and Electoral Politics’. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 16:498-500. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13597566.asp.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). ’Federalism and Territorial Cleavages’. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 15:277-278. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13597566.asp.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2005). ’La question jurassienne’. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 15:407-408. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13597566.asp.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2004). Subnational Democracy in the European Union: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Common Market Studies [Online] 42:1089-1089. Available at: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-9886&site=1.
  • Dardanelli, P. (2004). Federalism Doomed? – European Federalism between Integration and Separation. Regional and Federal Studies [Online] 14:310-311. Available at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13597566.asp.
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