Direct Discrimination may occur if, for example:
- an institution only shortlists male job applicants for an interview because they assume women will not fit in
- an institution refuses to let a student go on a residential trip because they are a wheelchair-user
- an institution does not offer a training opportunity to an older member of staff because they assume that they would not be interested, and the opportunity is given to a younger worker
Discrimination based on association
Discrimination based on association if, for example:
- a student, whose child has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is refused access to a graduation ceremony because of fears about the child’s behaviour
- an employee is overlooked for promotion because their partner has undergone gender reassignment
Discrimination based on perception
Discrimination based on perception can occur if, for example:
- a mental health and wellbeing officer refuses to work with a student because they believe the student to be gay, irrespective of whether the student is gay or not
Indirect Discrimination may occur if, for example:
- an employer who requires staff to commit to working from 8pm to 11pm every evening indirectly discriminates against women, who are more likely to be primary carers of children, unless this can be objectively justified as above.
Discrimination arising from a disability
Discrimination arising from a disability can occur if, for example:
- a student with diabetes, wishing to take food into an exam hall in case of low blood sugar is not allowed to do so as it is against policy allowing food into exam halls – the institution may be discriminating against the student unless the treatment can be justified.
Harassment may occur if, for example:
- a member of staff makes comments on a student’s sexuality in a way that makes the student feel uncomfortable.
Victimisation may occur if, for example:
- a student alleges that they have encountered racism from a tutor, and as a result they are ignored by other staff members
- a senior member of staff starts to behave in a hostile manner to another member of staff who previously supported a colleague in submitting a formal complaint against the senior manager for sexist behaviour
- an employer brands an employee as a ‘troublemaker’ because they raised a lack of job-share opportunities as being potentially discriminatory