Politics and International Relations

Economics and Politics - BA (Hons)

Canterbury

Overview

Economics

Economics examines some of the profound issues in our life and times: economic growth and sustainable development, unemployment, inflation, poverty, emerging market economies, financial and monetary crises, environmental and natural resource problems, international trade and aid to poor countries, currencies and the balance of payments, the impact of minimum wages and the problems of global economic change are just some of the areas covered.

Our School of Economics is ranked highly among UK universities for graduate prospects. Our passion for the subject and research-led approach to teaching helps provide students with a first-class academic experience, as well as building personal skills and enhancing career prospects. Our cosmopolitan academic and student community, coupled with a thriving research culture, creates an inspiring and challenging environment to study economics.

Politics and International Relations

Politics and international relations is an exciting, fast-changing, broad-based discipline. Our programmes are extremely flexible and offer extensive module choice, reflecting the research interests of our staff, including conflict resolution, federalism, comparative politics, European integration, ethnic conflict, terrorism, the theory of international relations, political theory, and the politics of countries such as China, Japan, Russia and the USA.

Independent rankings

Economics at Kent was ranked 16th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. In the National Student Survey 2017, 88% of Economics students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.

Politics at Kent was ranked 5th in The Guardian University Guide 2017. In the National Student Survey 2016, Politics at Kent was 8th for overall satisfaction.

 

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  

On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take 'wild' modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.

Stage 1

Possible modules may include:

PO326 - Introduction to Political Science (15 credits)

This core module introduces students to the wide range of different methodologies commonly employed in political science. This includes the scientific method and both traditional and newer forms of research. Students will also be introduced to some of the fields of inquiry that dominate the study of politics, including public choice, social movements, political behaviour, economic development and democracy. The module integrates these two main components to create both an awareness of the breadth of political science and its approaches, ultimately providing students with the foundation for further study in political science. Substantive topics include: the nature of inquiry (questioning and determining what constitutes evidence), methods of comparison, theory and hypotheses. They will also be introduced to and explore quantitative methods, formal methods, experimental methods and empirical quantitative methods. Students will implement basic quantitative research techniques for themselves. Finally, they will be introduced to concepts such as equivalence, selection bias, spuriousness, value bias and ecological and individualist fallacy in order to illuminate the difficulties faced when making comparisons.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO327 - Introduction to Comparative Politics (15 credits)

The module introduces students to the empirical study of the key structures, institutions and processes in political life. It does so through the lens of the comparative method, in which political systems are compared and contrasted to test hypotheses about the factors producing similarities and differences across countries and over time. The module first introduces the comparative method, and then discusses the different ways in which political systems can be organized and classified. It focuses on the three key powers in all political systems – executive, legislative and judicial – the 'intermediate' actors that link people to their governments, namely political parties, interest groups and the media, and how citizens behave politically in relations to such institutions and actors. Throughout the module, students are encouraged to identify the factors and the processes leading to different political outcomes across states and over time and to use both qualitative and quantitative data to support their arguments.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC309 - Statistics for Economics (15 credits)

This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules EC580 and EC581.

The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:



• Graphical and numerical analyses of data

• The principles of probability

• Probability Density Functions

• Sampling and its use in inference

• Regression and correlation

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC304 - Principles of Economics (30 credits)

The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.



The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.



The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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EC305 - Mathematics for Economics Mode A (15 credits)

This Stage 1 module is designed for students who have an A -Level in mathematics, AS mathematics or equivalent qualification. A first-year mathematics module (either Mode A or B) is a compulsory part of all economics degree programmes and these modules take place in the Autumn term with a statistics module following on in the Spring term. If you are unsure whether your mathematical background is equivalent to an A level pass, please consult the module convenors.



The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.



The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC306 - Mathematics for Economics Mode B (15 credits)

The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who do not have A-Level mathematics, AS mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.



The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; and non-linear functions. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Stage 2

Possible modules may include:

EC500 - Microeconomics (30 credits)

This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.



The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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EC502 - Macroeconomics (30 credits)

This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.



Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.



Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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PO657 - Political Research and Analysis (15 credits)

The study of social and political phenomena is a vast endeavour and this class will serve as an introduction to methods for social science research. This 15 credit intermediate-level module is normally taken in Stage II. It provides a basic, non-technical introduction to the use of quantitative methods in the political sciences for students from a variety of educational backgrounds (including those with very limited knowledge of mathematical terminology and notation). The progression of this course will address scientific research design and methodology and consider many examples of such research In short, it seeks to enable students to read, interpret, and critically assess arguments drawing on quantitative methods in Politics and International Relations. Students with some prior exposure to quantitative methods will have the opportunity to improve their command of statistical software as well as apply their general statistical skills to data sets commonly found in policy and academic work.



The module is divided into two main components: In the first part, students will be introduced to both the logic of empirical research in the social sciences and to basic concepts and techniques of descriptive uni-, bi-, and multi-variate data analysis. The second part will focus on uni-, bi-, and multi-variate inferential statistics. ICT skills will be acquired/enhanced of students by the introduction to and use of statistical software (SPSS). The focus will be on student-centred learning and critical reflection of selected examples of quantitative work in seminars and group work.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO661 - Fact, Evidence, Knowledge and Power (15 credits)

This course builds on students' knowledge of the approaches and methods used in the study of politics and international relations introduced in the first year of the degree program and the foundation in the analysis of quantitative data established in the second year. Students will be asked to consider the nature and purposes of descriptive and causal analysis in politics and international relations. Students will develop skills in choosing, using and evaluating the research designs, and techniques for the collection and analyses of data used by researchers in these fields. Emphasis in the course will be placed on a mixed methods approach to political analysis that enables student to integrate, analyse and evaluate both qualitative and quantitative data. In addition to developing a conceptual and theoretical understanding of different approaches to evidence gathering and analyses and how they can be combined, students will also have the opportunity to extend their skills in practical data analyses.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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SE606 - Connections (30 credits)

Connections is an innovative module that aims to provide a 'diagnosis of the present' informed by an interdisciplinary variety of approaches such as historical narratives, life writings (auto-biography), literature, photography and data analysis. A key question to be discussed is: what are the themes and issues that define our contemporary era, and how are they connected and impact on each other? In previous years, the module explored issues of class, peace(-keeping) and violence, borders and imagination, exile, media and democracy, and others. The module further aims to make connections with current events as they are unfolding, and depending on circumstances may include sessions on topics of particular relevance at the time that the module is being taught.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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EC531 - Policy Analysis (15 credits)

This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.



The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC534 - The Economics of Money and Banking (15 credits)

The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.



Important considerations within the module include:



• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?

• What is the link between money and finance?

• What explains bank runs?

• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC580 - Introduction to Econometrics (15 credits)

The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.



The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).



The topics considered in the module include:



• Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC581 - Introduction to Time-Series Econometrics (15 credits)

The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.



The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.



The topics considered in the module include:

• Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.

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Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC582 - The Economics of Human Capital (15 credits)

This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.



The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC538 - Economic Controversies (15 credits)

This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.



The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.



Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO555 - International Organisation: The UN System (15 credits)

This module explores the origins, evolution and role of international organisations in world politics. The aim is to understand how these institutions have developed, why states choose, refuse and fail to use these institutions as a means to achieve their objectives, and to what extent international organisations can promote international cooperation. The module takes the United Nations system as its central focus, but will also consider historical forms of international organisation as well as the processes of global governance. International organisations are involved in a wide variety of issues in contemporary international politics. This module will survey a selection of them, exploring the political differences and questions that arise in international responses to these issues.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC583 - Political Economy (15 credits)

The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.



1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:



2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:



3. Institutions and Development:



4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:



5. Climate Agreements:

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC585 - Mathematical Economics (15 credits)

The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.



Topics include:

• Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems

• Optimisation Theory

• Duality

• Dynamic Models

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO617 - Contemporary Politics and Government in the United States (30 credits)

PO617 offers a comprehensive introduction to the politics and national government of the United States. It introduces students to the 'foundations' of the US political system, examining the history of the republic, its economy and society, the values and beliefs American people subscribe to, and the basic structure of the political system. We will also examine those 'intermediate' institutions (interest groups, parties, elections and the media) that link people to their government, and the three key institutions of the federal government: the Congress, Presidency and Supreme Court. Lastly, we focus on the policymaking process in the US. We will look at economic policy, civil rights and liberties and foreign policy, ask how and why policy is made as it is, and examine the extent to which the policy solutions produced by the political system are optimal.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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PO618 - East European Politics (15 credits)

The module examines the politics of transition and change in post-communist countries in their effort to establish new democratic regimes and find their place in the world. The module consists of three main parts.

Part I focuses on the experience and nature of communist rule, to develop basic understanding of communism as an ideal, political system, and a life style. Part II looks at transitions, examining regional patterns of change and relating them to the 3rd and 4th waves (coloured revolutions) of democratisation globally. Part III discusses the issues of post-communist politics in Europe, by way of exploring the forms and quality of democracy in the new states, considering the effect of EU enlargements on the new Member States and the EU neighbours; and discussing the future of communism in the world.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO623 - Modern Political Thought (15 credits)

This module provides an introduction to some of the major developments in Western political thought by discussing the work and impact of key figures such as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Spinoza, Rousseau, Kant, Wollstonecraft, Mill, Marx, and Nietzsche. Focusing on reading the primary works of these thinkers, putting them in their historical context, and understanding their reception in contemporary scholarship, this module addresses the overall problems which 'modernity' poses for political theory in Western societies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO611 - Politics of the European Union (15 credits)

The decision by a majority of the British electorate who voted on Thursday 23rd June 2016 to leave the EU sent shockwaves throughout Europe and the world and created a political earthquake within the UK's political system. Focusing on the European level, as this module does, the result of the referendum plunged the EU into its most serious existential crisis as, for the first time, a member state has signalled its desire to exit. According to Marine Le Pen, leader of France's Front National, the Brexit vote was 'by far the most important political event taking place in our continent since the fall of the Berlin Wall'. The reverberations of this decision will be felt for many years to come and affect an EU experiencing what some commentators have termed a 'polycrisis' since the Euro-crisis erupted in Greece six years ago. As well as bailing out Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Cyprus and the economic fall-out from the global financial crisis of 2008-9, the EU has also witnessed the worst refugee crisis since the end of the Second World War, terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels and heightened tension with Putin's Russia over the ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and Syria. The EU has never been under such pressure and its resilience so tested. The purpose of this module in this context is thus two-fold. First, we learn and understand how the EU has reached where it is today, how its political system works, its strengths and weaknesses and how it is driven both the politics and economics of its member states and the global system. At the same time, we analyse the process of Brexit, how it will be managed by the UK and the EU27 and its implications for the future of the EU. There has certainly never been a more challenging or interesting time to learn about the EU!

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO658 - The Rise of China (15 credits)

This module aims to provide students with a critical review of China's hegemonic role in pre-modern East Asia and its political development since the 1840s when it was forced to open up to the outside world and to lay a solid foundation for even more detailed study of present-day China.



It deals with a recurrent theme in the study of Chinese politics, that is, how successive Chinese leaderships since the 1840s have reconciled Chinese indigenous political culture with models of modernisations that originated in the West. Focus is on how indigenous and foreign models for state-building and political development have guided Chinese thinking about national rejuvenation and modernisation.



This module assumes no prior knowledge of Chinese history or politics, and introduces students to the defining features of the Chinese traditional political system, including: Confucianism and Legalism, the causes of the demise of imperial China in 1911, the abortive attempts of republicanism and constitutionalism between 1912 and 1949, the rise of communism, and major political events since 1949 as well as its recent ascendancy.



Questions to be explored in this module include: Why did the Chinese imperial system fail to meet the challenges and encroachment from the West and Japan? How did Chinese leaders understand 'modernisation'? Why did Chinese political elites embrace communism? What have been the impacts of revolutions on China's external behaviour and relations, post-1949? How has China's worldview been 'socially constructed' in its interactions with Western powers? What is China's grand strategy for development in the early 21st century?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO659 - Resistance, Suffering and Leadership (15 credits)

This module will look at the political lives of three of the icons of contemporary world politics: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Nelson Mandela and Aung San Suu Kyi. The module will begin with a brief introduction to biographical narrative as a method in political science. We will then discuss these three figures in three blocks of three weeks each, leaving one week for a concluding and comparative discussion (and one reading week). Throughout the module, the key themes of the title – resistance, suffering (sacrifice) and leadership – will serve as a focus as the module considers the lives of Gandhi, Mandela and Suu Kyi and their impact on world politics. Each block will first discuss the political life of the leader in question, after which one week will be devoted to some of his/her key primary writings, leaving one week to consider the meaning of resistance, suffering and leadership in each of the three lives.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO660 - International Conflict and Cooperation (15 credits)

The course provides an overview of the broad field of international conflict analysis and resolution. Students have the opportunity to explore the motivations driving different forms of conflict, including interpersonal, group and civil violence. Students will also be exposed to a range of theories and approaches used to understand violent conflict, and a number of different methods of conflict resolution (e.g. negotiation, mediation, peacekeeping operations, and transitional justice.) The approach is interdisciplinary and juxtaposes traditional approaches used to study conflict management with new scientific studies of conflict and cooperation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO671 - International Security (15 credits)

This module provides an introduction to the various approaches to security studies by way of introducing key thinkers, the key literature. Its core aim is to provide a solid theoretical and conceptual grounding for students interested in the diversity of issues, institutions and actors engaged in the practice of international security.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO667 - War and Peace in International Society (15 credits)

The purpose of the module is to enable students to critically engage with the International Society (or "English School") approach to International Relations. Combining political theory, IR theory, philosophy, sociology, and history this approach seeks to understand the theory and practice of international politics by reference to the historical development of relations between large scale political entities (from empires, hordes, kingdoms, to the modern nation-state and beyond) and the discourses that have emerged (Machiavellian, Grotian, Kantian) in response to the development of first European international society and eventually world society. The course focuses on the central features of international society - war and peace - as they have been conceived by the three traditions and members of the English School from Martin Wight to more contemporary figures.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO683 - Politics in East Asia (15 credits)

This module will address the major milestones in the politics and international relations of East Asia since 1945.The significance for East Asian countries of events such as the Korean War, the Cultural Revolution, the economic take-off of both Japan and South Korea, China's economic reforms, the end of the Cold War, and US changing policies towards East Asia will be analysed.



A central theme of the module will be the nexus between domestic factors and international behaviour – hence the internal political cultures and national identities of China, South Korea and Japan will be studied in relation to their particular world-views and their foreign policy initiatives. Each of these countries' domestic political systems will also be analysed to enhance understanding of the impetus for policy making decisions both domestically and internationally. Analysis will also be made of how the imperative to achieve economic development influences political decision making. Finally, an assessment will be made as to the future of East Asia.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Stage 3

Possible modules may include:

EC585 - Mathematical Economics (15 credits)

The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.



Topics include:

• Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems

• Optimisation Theory

• Duality

• Dynamic Models

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC603 - Financial Crises (15 credits)

The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.



The module will cover the following topics:

1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts

2. Theories of financial crises

3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective

4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries

5. Early 19th century financial crises

6. The 1890s

7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed

8. The Great Depression I – Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises

9. The Great Depression II – US banking crisis

10. The Great Depression III – Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis

11. Financial crises in the 1990s

12. The Great Recessions – housing bubble, contagion, banking crisis

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC583 - Political Economy (15 credits)

The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.



1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:



2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:



3. Institutions and Development:



4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:



5. Climate Agreements:

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

EC538 - Economic Controversies (15 credits)

This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.



The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.



Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC540 - Development Economics (15 credits)

Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:



• The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty

• Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change

• Models of the growth and development process

• The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process

• Industrialisation

• Dualism and vicious circles of poverty

• Trade and Development

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC541 - Economics Dissertation (30 credits)

This dissertation is a 30-credit module based on self-directed study, which allows you to develop a complete piece of work within the general field of economics, from the initial idea through to a final written report. It is unique amongst the modules you are taking towards your degree in Economics, both in the ways that you learn and in the ways that you are assessed. Your learning will be largely independent, but is supported by structured supervision from your dissertations supervisor and weekly computing sessions to help in accessing, coding analysing and interpreting your data.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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EC542 - Econometrics I: An Introduction to Modern Econometrics using Stata (15 credits)

This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (Stata), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.



The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.



What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC543 - Econometrics 2: Topics in Time Series (15 credits)

This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.



The module links theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy and includes the following topics:

Univariate Time Series Analysis

• Concepts of stochastic processes;

• Types of linear processes: Autoregressions and moving averages

• Nonstationary linear processes

• Predicting stochastic processes

• Estimation of linear time series models

Dynamic Econometric Models

• Nonsense Regressions;

• The autoregressive distributed lag model;

• Cointegration and equilibrium correction.

Multiple Time Series Models

• Vector autoregressive processes;

• Structural analysis: Causality and impulse-response analysis.



These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces students to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps students to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC544 - Economic Integration in the EU (15 credits)

The module provides insight into the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at the EU level. It introduces the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of developments to date



The emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. The nature of economic integration is such that the module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and analysis going beyond that covered in more theory focussed modules.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC545 - Economics of the Labour Market (15 credits)

This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.



The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:



1. The relationship between unemployment and wages

2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled

3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women

4. Government policy towards skills and education

5. Executive pay



Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC546 - Games for Economics and Business (15 credits)

The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC547 - Industrial Economics (15 credits)

The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.



The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC548 - International Finance (15 credits)

The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.



The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.



The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.



The topics covered in the module include:

1. Open economy macroeconomics and policy.

2. Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.

3. Microfounded models of the current account.

4. International financial flows.

5. International indebtedness.

6. International financial crises

7. International monetary arrangements.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC549 - International Trade (15 credits)

This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.



International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC550 - Monetary Economics (15 credits)

This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:



• Structural macro and monetary modelling

• Reduced form macro and monetary modelling

• Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy

• Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy

• Policy interventions

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC562 - Economics of Finance 1 (15 credits)

This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.



First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.



While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC563 - Economics of Finance 2 (15 credits)

The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions.



There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.





There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 1).

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC565 - Extended Economics Essay (15 credits)

The module provides an alternative to students carrying out an economics research project in the dissertation module. Some students lack the necessary analytical, quantitative and research skills necessary for a piece of original research. This module will give such students the opportunity to investigate an area of economics in depth by critically reviewing the literature on a chosen subject.



Students will be given a set of questions with readings. They can also construct their own question so long as it is approved. Each student would write a different essay. Examples of questions are: what evidence exists on the success(es) of micro lending schemes? Can active labour market policies reduce long term unemployment? Can economists explain voting behaviour? Students are taught about what is required for an extended critical review of the literature and advised about what should be contained in an essay on their topic. They are also advised about how to present a poster session.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC569 - Economic Growth (15 credits)

This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.



The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:

- what are the determinants of growth?

- how can we improve productivity?

- what kind of role does the government play on growth?

- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC570 - Microeconomics of Development (15 credits)

In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals – their opportunities, constraints, and choices – to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.



The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies – such the World Bank and DfID – as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC571 - Agricultural, Food and Natural Resource Economics (15 credits)

This module introduces you to agriculture, food and natural resource economics and economics generally. A key objective is to help you develop an ability to apply economic thinking to problems in this area. The module considers various aspects of agricultural, food and resource economics including food production, economic theory related to agricultural policy, food supply chains and food prices, food economics specifically food labels and various economic aspects of natural resource management such as forestry and fisheries.



The module is divided into three parts. In Part A we examine the relationship between the economy and the agriculture. In Part B we consider aspects of food economics. In Part C we examine various issues relating to natural resource. The emphasis in all parts of the module is to understand the links between theory and practice.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC582 - The Economics of Human Capital (15 credits)

This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.



The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC581 - Introduction to Time-Series Econometrics (15 credits)

The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.



The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.



The topics considered in the module include:

• Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.

mme.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC580 - Introduction to Econometrics (15 credits)

The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.



The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).



The topics considered in the module include:



• Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC534 - The Economics of Money and Banking (15 credits)

The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.



Important considerations within the module include:



• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?

• What is the link between money and finance?

• What explains bank runs?

• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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EC531 - Policy Analysis (15 credits)

This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.



The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO563 - Foreign Policy Analysis and Management (15 credits)

This module examines the complex relationship between foreign policy analysis and foreign policy practice. It does so by exploring shifting approaches to making and examing foreign policy, including the contributions of IR theory to Foreign Policy Analysis. Historical antecedents of foreign policy as a practice are examined via observations of traditional bilateral and multilateral diplomacy, followed by traditional state-based actors, non-state actors, and the nature of the structure they inhabit. FP decision-making is then examined, followed by the process of foreign policy implementation. The issue of motivation is tackled through analyses of the largely domestic impact of culture, interests and identity and broader effect of intra-state norms, ethics, the issue of human rights. Case studies of key countries reinforce the practical implications of above-mentioned issues throughout the module.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO579 - Post Communist Russia (15 credits)

We examine the main challenges facing post-communist Russia and in particular assess the development of democracy. We discuss the main institutions and political processes: the presidency, parliament, federalism, elections, party development and foreign policy, as well as discuss Yeltin's, Putin's and Medvedev's leadership. We end with a broader evaluation of issues like the relationship of markets to democracy, civil society and its discontents, nationalism, political culture and democracy and Russia's place in the world.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO597 - Governance & Politics of Contemporary China (15 credits)

This module aims to provide students with a critical review of China's political development in the 20th and early 21st centuries. After a brief overview of China's political history since 1949, it is designed around two core blocks of study.



The first block looks at the principal political institutions that include the Communist Party, the government (the State Council), the legislature (the National People's Congress) and the military (the People's Liberation Army).



The second block examines the socio-political issues and challenges facing the country in its ongoing development. They range from the prospects of democratisation and the growth of civil society, the issue of quality of life in the areas of the environment and public health, corruption, nationalism and ethnic minorities, national reunification, territorial disputes with neighbouring countries to China's engagement with global governance.



A major theme of the module is to address why the Chinese communist regime is more durable and resilient than other non-democratic countries in achieving both economic growth and political stability and acquiring international influence, despite the fact that it faces numerous mounting development and governance challenges.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO599 - European Security Co-operation (15 credits)

This module places the contemporary developments in European security integration within a historical context while focusing on institutional formation and the role of nation-states with the view to highlight continuities and changes constituted in the new Security Architecture. The module locates (Western) Europe's place in international security vis-à-vis other actors including the United States and emerging powers in order to determine what type of security identity Europe has carved for itself in the post-War period. The module further considers the implications of cooperation for Europe's ability to respond to external New Security Challenges.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO629 - Terrorism and Political Violence (15 credits)

This module introduces students into the study of terrorism and political violence, and thereafter deepens their knowledge of the controversial aspects of this subject. The initial lectures will deal with definitional problems involved in the concept of "terrorism" and various theories about the causes of political violence in its different forms. With a point of departure in a chronological review tracing the origins of the phenomenon long back in history, the module will later study the emergence of political terrorism during the second half of the 19th century. This will be followed by a study of state and dissident terrorism in different parts of the world. The module will also address the relationship between religious radicalism and different forms of political violence, including "new terrorism" and possible use of weapons of mass destruction. Then, the focus of attention will be shifted to implications of various counter-terrorism strategies and "The War on Terrorism" for democracy and human rights. These issues will be addressed with a special focus on methodological problems involved in the study of terrorism and political violence.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO634 - Understanding US Foreign Policy: Power, Tradition and Transformation (15 credits)

This module offers a comprehensive study of US foreign policy since 1945. Ranging from 'containment', 'democratic enlargement', and 'the war on terror' the module introduces students to the concept of 'grand strategy' and the need to understand the broader intellectual platform and foundations of the way in which the United States engages with the world. A number of case studies are used to explore this such as the work of George Kennan, the Vietnam War, and the move towards 'smart power' under presidents Bush and Obama. In addition to this the course also explores questions on the social construction of state identity in the American national consciousness and how both the media and political elites help to shape public opinion and attitudes that relate to America's 'friends', 'allies', and 'enemies'. The course also explores the concept of 'soft power' as a method of extending American influence and power in the world and questions the idea of American decline.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO653 - Marxism: Politics and International Relations (15 credits)

The module is aimed to introduce students to Marxist theory and to enable them to assess both the contemporary and historical significance of Marxism in world politics. Students are expected to read some of the key texts of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels and to consider varied interpretations and critiques of Marxist methods, writings and theories. Students are also expected to consider the political contexts in which these theories and debates emerged and their implications for political practice. Students are not expected to demonstrate any detailed knowledge of the history of Marxist-inspired governments, regimes or political movements.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO654 - Politics of Deeply Divided Societies (15 credits)

This module explores the linkages between mediation theory and the practice of conflict resolution in deeply divided societies. Topics include the theory and practice of negotiations, conflict escalation and peace mediations while specific emphasis will be given to the role of regional or international institutions in early conflict prevention. The module applies negotiation theory in the study of state disintegration, demographic and environmental conflict, property rights, federal management and transitional justice. The course engages with the core literature in negotiation theory and exposes students to a number of simulations aiming to improve negotiation skills (identifying best alternatives, revealing or not preferences, identifying win-win arrangements, defeating spoilers and exercising veto rights). Because of the practical skills taught in the module and the interactive nature of in-class simulations, students are expected to attend lectures and tutorials. Finally, the course examines the role of citizens and community organizations in peace mediations focusing on a number of selected case studies from deeply divided societies specifically Israel/Palestine, the former Yugoslavia, South Africa, Greece/Turkey (including Cyprus & the Kurdish issue), Rwanda and Northern Ireland.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO655 - Public Opinion and Polling (15 credits)

Democracy rests on the will of citizens. But how can we identify this 'will'? Elections are one method; but more regular expressions of citizen views are possible via opinion polls. Indeed, a range of public and private bodies routinely use polls to identify popular attitudes. But what are the 'opinions' supposedly revealed by these polls, how do surveys go about identifying opinions and how valid are their results?



This module introduces students to the theory and practice of public opinion and its measurement. The module focuses on two main questions. First, what is public opinion? How far do people's attitudes pre-exist and how far are they instead 'shaped' by the way questions are asked? Are attitudes informed and considered, or are they largely knee-jerk responses based on little information? If, in fact, citizens know little about politics, are there ways in which they can, nonetheless, form meaningful views on important public issues? The answers to these questions are central to the task of assessing the proper role of public opinion in modern democracies. The second question asks how public opinion is measured. What are the main features of social surveys, and how well do they measure public attitudes? This section of the module pays particular attention to the ways that different types of survey can affect the responses that people give, and to the principles and practices of effective survey design.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO656 - Humans at War (15 credits)

This module aims to investigate the different roles and experiences of human beings at and in war. Following an introduction to issues regarding agency (How do people act in the social world? How much freedom do they have? What impact can their actions have?), the course will examine the roles of combatants (both state and non-state), civilians (men, women and children), and third parties (peacekeepers, humanitarian workers, journalists, and academics). The module will draw on academic literature, but also written, oral and video testimony and artwork to examine these categories first as a social group (examining questions such as age brackets, income brackets, education, life expectancy), then in terms of their political functions and roles, and finally in an attempt to access some degree of experiential knowledge of war and peace. Due to the sensitive nature of the material examined, the module will not be using lecture capture.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO684 - Contemporary Development and Security Challenges in the Asia-Pacific (15 credits)

In this course, we shall examine the primary development and security issues that affect the major states and their populations in the Asia-Pacific.



It will start with an overview of International Relations theories and their applications to the study of a non-Western region, and an exploration of whether non-Western International Relations theories will be a better alternative to Western theories in understanding the development and security challenges in the Asia-Pacific.



Following on that, key development and security issues and key actors and their mutual interactions will be discussed in detail. The main development and security issues include: national identity, national sovereignty, nationalism, irredentism, territorial disputes, arms proliferation, regionalism, regional security architecture, and economic interdependence and trade. The main actors are: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Australia, China, Japan, two Koreas, Russia, Taiwan, and the US.



Finally, it will engage with the debate as to whether the influence and authority of the US, the incumbent hegemon in the Asia-Pacific region, are in decline and its preeminent role will soon be replaced by a rising China, and whether great-power confrontation is inevitable. It will also explore what the resultant regional order would likely be.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO669 - Conservatism: Politics and International Relations of the Right (15 credits)

This course is intended to familiarise students with the conservative tradition in modern politics. This is achieved by reference to a range of key conservative thinkers selected to help students understand the diversity of the conservative tradition and consider what factors help to cohere it. Comparison within the tradition and across a variety of thinkers is achieved by examining these thinkers' views on four basic categories of modern politics, namely the state, the market, society and international relations. In order to meet these broad learning outcomes, essay questions will be designed in order to ensure that students have to compare different thinkers.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO675 - Politics and IR Internship (15 credits)

This module blends practical workplace experience, in the form of an internship in the area of politics and international relations, with taught workshops and private study. The internship will allow students to experience first-hand the practical application of their degree subject in the wider world of work, and will provide the opportunity to develop transferable skills such as teamwork, communication and self-organisation. The taught workshops will provide an opportunity to reflect upon, and develop, knowledge of the sector and its relationship with the academic field of study, using the student's internship experiences and a range of other resources. Students will also examine learning theory and consider the value of experiential learning experiences within Higher Education.



It will be the student's responsibility to source and apply for internship opportunities, but assistance will be provided both by the School's Employability, Alumni Manager, and the University's Careers and Employability Service. These opportunities should be in an organisation whose aims and activities are broadly related to politics and international relations, and the internship should reflect these activities and give the student the opportunity to work in a way which allows the module learning objectives to be achieved. Students on pre-approved School-administered internships will also be eligible to take this module.



The internship must consist of at least 60 hours of work, but this may be spread across a number of days / weeks and need not be a full-time position. The module convenor will approve of all internship opportunities prior to their commencement and students are advised to liaise closely with the module convenor and other appropriate staff in good time. Internships must finish by the date of the final seminar, and the School will provide all documentation and relevant insurance / health and safety checks to ensure that the placement meets both University and sector requirements and guidance on work-related learning opportunities. Students who fail to complete necessary paperwork relating to their internship and the module will be unable to proceed.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO676 - The Radical Right in Western Democracies (15 credits)

One of the most striking developments in established Western democracies has been the electoral growth of extreme right and radical right-wing political parties. In this module students will investigate the nature and rise of extreme and radical right-wing parties, while also exploring other related issues such as right-wing extremist and racially-motivated violence and/or terrorism. This module will introduce students to the academic literature that has followed a resurgence of support for the extreme right. The module will familiarise students with conceptual and theoretical debates within this literature, and introduce students to some of the associated methodological debates. Students will be encouraged to think critically about concepts, classifications, ideologies, electoral behaviour and the broader implications of the rise of these parties and social movements in areas such as public policy and social cohesion.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO679 - Research Dissertation (45 credits)

PO679 allows students to do independent, original research under supervision on a political science topic close to their specialist interests. The dissertation module gives them the opportunity to further these interests and acquire a wide range of study and research skills in the process. All dissertation topics have to be approved by the module convenor as well as by an academic supervisor. The module takes students through the entire process of writing a dissertation (8,000 words long): from the original 'problem' to a suitable research 'question', to choosing a method, to designing the research, to conducting the research; from taking notes to drafting the dissertation, to revising and writing the dissertation, and finally to submitting the dissertation. Lectures, supervision and a conference help students along the way. The curriculum includes structured opportunities for students to discuss their research ideas with each other as well as mock panel presentations in preparation for the student conference.



PLEASE NOTE: PO679 is worth 45 credits. If you wish to take PO679, please keep this in mind when choosing your other modules. PO679 is worth 15 credits in autumn term, and 30 in spring. The module is weighted more to the Spring term to enable you to dedicate the time needed to produce your dissertation.



As you can chose the equivalent of 4 x 15 credits in the autumn and 4 x 15 in the Spring, picking PO679 would look like this:



Autumn:

PO679

XX

XX

XX



Spring:

PO679

PO679

XX

XX

Credits: 45 credits (22.5 ECTS credits).

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PO681 - Landscapes of the Future (15 credits)

This module prepares students both to think about the ways in which the landscapes are evolving and being shaped by contemporary developments in technical, scientific, and theoretical fields; and to think about how they want to take part in these developments in their own lives, through professional activity or further study. It will prepare students to think critically about the opportunities and dangers that come with the future, notably through the changes taking place in production techniques (through three-dimensional printing), ecological change and planning, scientific advancements and their impact on the humanities and social sciences (such as quantum theory's challenge to historical studies). By building on bodies of work that have already discussed the potential impact of new technologies and scientific innovations on our understanding of the human, this module will demand intellectual reflection on the potential for change and transformation, with reference to past events and how transformation has occurred to this day. In additional, the module will provide practical guidance on how to think about the student's own future, whether professionally or for further studies. It will guide students through the possibilities open to them, and give them practical skills to secure an interview and present themselves successfully.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO682 - How to Start a Revolution: Ideas and Practices of Political Resistance (15 credits)

The module provides an overview of some of the core arguments and issues that arise within the context of debates on political resistance: moral justifications of resistance to political authority, the techniques of resistance employed in historical examples, the presuppositions underpinning these techniques, the tensions and difficulties that typically arise in any act of resistance. Starting with Socrates, sent to the Athenians to act as a 'gadfly', the module will look at selected historical examples of resistance, identify and analyse aims and methods, and review and discuss outcomes and consequences.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO612 - Policy-making in the EU (15 credits)

Since 2009, the European Union (EU) has been grappling with a crisis in the Eurozone, a refugee crisis, terrorist attacks in France and Belgium, the rise of challenger parties and heightened tension with Putin's Russia. This has led to increased questioning of the purpose and trajectory of European integration and policy-making. The Brexit decision by the UK electorate in June 2016 plunged the EU further into crisis, sending shockwaves throughout the world as for the very first time an EU member state chose exit over voice or loyalty. Membership of the EU is now clearly contingent and the reverberations of this decision will affect both the EU and the UK for many years to come. The focus of this module is on assessing the capacity of the EU as a system of public policy-making as it faces these myriad challenges. In so doing we endeavour to understand how the EU's system of governance works and how it is driven by both the politics and economics of its member states and the global system. This module focuses on the EU's 'outputs' in terms of public policy in this context, with particular attention paid to the fields of market regulation, monetary union, environmental policy, agriculture policy, regional policy, justice and home affairs, foreign policy and trade policy. As well as analysing the effectiveness of EU policy-making in these policy areas, we also evaluate the impact of Brexit on their operation, as well as the process of Brexit itself, how it is being managed by the UK and the EU27 and its implications for the future of the EU.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO616 - The Politics of Trust (in the USA) (15 credits)

Much recent academic and popular commentary has focused on citizens' supposed mistrust of government, especially in the United States of America. The central aim of the Politics of Trust is to uncover the reasons for Americans' malaise. However, students will also examine other western democracies where trust has fallen to see if these countries' experiences can inform our understanding of the US case specifically and the politics of trust more generally. The course begins with a history of trust in America, with an overview of the putative reasons for declining trust in the post-World War II period, with an examination of the experiences of other western democracies. The second part turns to the specific explanations for declining trust as posited by academics and political commentators. Explanations include the crisis of government performance, spin, the internecine warfare between Republicans and Democrats, the changing nature of the modern labour market, declining social capital, and the media.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO664 - Conflict Analysis and Northern Ireland: History, Politics & Culture (15 credits)

This course will provide students with an in-depth knowledge of the recent political history of Northern Ireland. The course will be accessible to all students, whether they are new to the topic or not. The main objective of the course is to provide students with a greater understanding of one of the most complex regions within the United Kingdom. Students who take the course will learn about the central issues that underpinned community conflict, why sectarian conflict broke out in the region in the late 1960s, why it continued for so long, and what political dynamics led to the 'peace process' of the 1990s. In addition to looking at the conventional historical and political development of Northern Ireland, the course will also focus on wider aspects of the society such as representations in Irish poetry, music and sport, and the way in which these have mirrored political and cultural relationships within the region.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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PO666 - Religion and International Politics (15 credits)

This module introduces students to the complex set of questions surrounding religion in international politics. The module begins by exploring contending political and sociological understandings of religion at the turn of the 20th century. It looks, in particular, at the constructed nature of the categories of the 'religious' and the 'secular', and at the limits of the secularization thesis, which anticipated the privatization, decline and ultimately disappearance of religion in modernity. The discussion then turns to the relation between religion and secularism in Europe – with a focus on the question of European identity, multiculturalism, the relation between Europe and Islam and the numerous controversies surrounding Islam in Europe – and in the United States – with a focus on the concept of civil religion and the role of religious rhetoric and thinking in US foreign policy, particularly in the so-called 'war on terror'. The module then explores the relation between religion and violence by looking at the role of the 16th and 17th wars of religion in the process of modern state formation and by asking whether there is a genuine connection between religion and violence. The concluding part of the module focuses on the emerging concept of the 'postsecular', its contending meanings, understandings and possible applications by focusing on the case of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Teaching & Assessment

Economics

All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.

The School of Economics is committed to making sure that you leave Kent with much more than just a degree in Economics. We put great emphasis on the development of transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.

The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.

Politics

Our main teaching methods are lectures, seminars, working groups, PC laboratory sessions and individual discussions with your personal tutor or module teachers. Assessment is through continuous feedback, written examinations, assessed essays and oral presentations.

Politics Open Forum

We hold a weekly extra-curricular Open Forum organised by our School research groups, where students and staff have the opportunity to discuss and debate key issues of the day that affect higher education and politics in the world today.

Programme aims

For programme aims and learning outcomes please see the programmes specification for each subject below. Please note that outcomes will depend on your specific module selection:

KIS Course data

UNISTATS / KIS

Key Information Sets

The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. 

Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice. 

It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

New GCSE grades

If you've taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

ABB from three full A levels excluding General Studies and Critical Thinking, reduced to BBB if A Level Maths included

GCSE

Mathematics grade B (or grade 6)

Access to HE Diploma

The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. 

If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

This qualification is not accepted on its own. Applicants must have accompanying A-Levels.  Applications are assessed on a case-by-case basis.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 15 points at HL, including Mathematics SL or HL at 4, or Mathematical Studies at 5

International students

The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.

If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.

Meet our staff in your country

For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme. 

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Careers

Economics

Economics at Kent has a high success rate in the graduate employment market, with past students going on to careers in accountancy, banking, finance, journalism, management consultancy and business. Our range of modules provides the opportunity to tailor your degree to support your particular career choice, giving you a competitive edge in the employment market. Additionally, there are modules that concentrate on preparing you for life as a professional economist.

Our degrees not only provide you with economics training but also with many transferable skills. Most employers are looking for skills such as good communication, initiative and proactiveness, team working, time management, planning and organisation, analysing information and problem solving.

Recent Economics graduates have gone on to work for Deloitte, the Government Economic Service, HMRC, Citibank, KPMG, PwC, Bank of America, Schroders, Goldman Sachs and Barclays.

Politics

Through your study, you acquire many of the key qualities that graduate employers expect, including: the ability to plan and organise projects; to analyse and summarise complex material, and to express your opinions coherently and with sensitivity. Those students who choose to take advantage of our study abroad options find it gives them a definite advantage in the employment market.

Recent graduates have gone into areas such as teaching, publishing, practical politics, local and central government, the diplomatic service, EU administration, financial services, non-governmental organisations, journalism, international business or international organisations. Many have also gone on to postgraduate study.

Independent rankings

For graduate prospects, Economics at Kent was ranked 6th in The Complete University Guide 2018 and 7th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. Of Economics students who graduated from Kent in 2016, 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

For graduate prospects, Politics at Kent was ranked 6th in The Guardian University Guide 2017. Of Politics students who graduated in 2015, 96% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details. 

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. 

For 2018/19 entry, the scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

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Resources


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Contacts

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Enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

Open days

Our general open days will give you a flavour of what it is like to be an undergraduate, postgraduate or part-time student at Kent. They include a programme of talks for undergraduate students, with subject lectures and demonstrations, plus self-guided walking tours of the campus and accommodation.

Please check which of our locations offers the courses you are interested in before choosing which event to attend.

 

The University of Kent makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in its publicity materials is fair and accurate and to provide educational services as described. However, the courses, services and other matters may be subject to change. Full details of our terms and conditions can be found at: www.kent.ac.uk/termsandconditions.

*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department for Education or Research Council UK) permitted increases are normally inflationary and the University therefore reserves the right to increase tuition fees by inflation (RPI excluding mortgage interest payments) as permitted by law or Government policy in the second and subsequent years of your course. If we intend to exercise this right to increase tuition fees, we will let you know by the end of June in the academic year before the one in which we intend to exercise that right.

If, in the future, the increases to regulated fees permitted by law or Government policy exceed the rate of inflation, we reserve the right to increase fees to the maximum permitted level. If we intend to exercise this extended right to increase tuition fees, we will let you know by the end of June in the academic year before the one in which we intend to exercise that right.

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Enquiries: +44 (0)1227 824429 or email the school

Last Updated: 02/07/2015

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