School of Physical Sciences


I am a lecturer in the School of Physical Sciences and a member of the Applied Optics Group, where I develop applications of photonics in biosciences and medicine. My current research mainly focuses on new ways of building thin, flexible endoscopic and needle microscopes – miniature probes which allows us visualise living tissue in real time. I am also interested in developing low cost microscopes for point-of-care imaging.

I began my career at Durham University, graduating in 2006 with an MSci in Physics. I moved south to Canterbury for my PhD to work on a joint project with the British Museum, the National Gallery and NTU, developing applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in art conservation and archaeology. I then changed direction slightly and moved to Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust to complete the IPEM Part 1 training programme in medical physics, with rotations in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. I returned to the world of optics in late 2011, when I took up the position of Research Associate in Biophotonics at the Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College London, where I developed endomicroscopy systems for applications in surgery, and later became a Hamlyn Fellow. I moved to Kent as a lecturer in 2017 to develop a research programme in point-of-care and endoscopic microscopy.

Contact Information

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Also view these in the Kent Academic Repository

Vyas, K. et al. (2017). Methylene-blue aided rapid confocal laser endomicroscopy of breast cancer. Journal of Biomedical Optics [Online] 22:20501. Available at:
Zhang, L. et al. (2017). From Macro to Micro: Autonomous Multiscale Image Fusion for Robotic Surgery. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine [Online] PP:1-1. Available at:
Zuo, S., Hughes, M. and Yang, G. (2017). Flexible Robotic Scanning Device for Intraoperative Endomicroscopy in MIS. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics [Online] PP:1-1. Available at:
Hughes, M. and Yang, G. (2016). Line-scanning fiber bundle endomicroscopy with a virtual detector slit. Biomedical Optics Express [Online] 7:2257-2268. Available at:
Conference or workshop item
Zhang, L. et al. (2017). Autonomous scanning for endomicroscopic mosaicing and 3D fusion. in: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). pp. 3587-3593. Available at:
Showing 5 of 22 total publications in KAR. [See all in KAR]
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Research Interests

My research has recently focused on high resolution, in vivo optical imaging (optical biopsy), a technique which allows us to image human tissue at a cellular level in real time. It relies on miniaturised microscope probes, built using fibre optic technology, which are small and flexible enough to be passed along the instrument channel of an endoscope, or to be introduced via a needle. These probes can then be used to display a live microscope video-feed to the operator.

Optical biopsy is an alternative to the conventional approach to high resolution tissue imaging (histology), where small amounts of tissue are extracted from the patient during a biopsy procedure and sent to a laboratory to be viewed under a bench-top microscope. The advantage of endomicroscopy is that, instead of waiting hours or days for a report from the histopathology lab, clinicians can see the results immediately.

While at Imperial College, I worked as part of a team on an EPSRC funded project, led by Prof Guang-Zhong Yang, which aimed to develop technological improvements in endomicroscopy to aid more widespread clinical adoption. In particular, we worked on methods for improving the image resolution and field of view, enabling us to characterise larger areas of tissue. I developed high frame rate endomicroscopes (120 fps) which offer depth sectioning using the line scanning technique, allowing us to better assemble mosaics (i.e. stitch together images) even when the endomicroscope probe is moved rapidly across the tissue. We also showed that we can enhance the optical sectioning to near that of a point-scanning confocal endomicroscope using a two-step technique. I also developed white light endomicroscopes, as well as working with colleagues, particularly Siyang Zuo, Petros Giataganas, Lin Zhang, and Chris Payne to integrate robotics and other smart technology with endomicroscopy imaging probes. We particularly focused on applications in breast conserving surgery, with a recent study led by Khushi Vyas and an older study led by Tou Pin Chang clearly demonstrating the potential.

Further information, including copies of publications, is available on my web site ( and blog (

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School of Physical Sciences, Ingram Building, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NH

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Last Updated: 06/04/2017