Dr Anne Logan
Dr Anne Logan is a historian specialising in 19th and 20th century British social history and women’s history. She has been a lecturer at Kent since 2001 and completed her PhD thesis titled ‘Making Women Magistrates: Feminism, Citizenship and Justice in England and Wales 1920-1950’ in 2002.
Her first book, Feminism and Criminal Justice: A Historical Perspective, is an examination of the involvement of women in penal reform pressure groups and the relationships between these and the feminist movement in the 1920-1970 period. Recently she has completed a biography of penal reformer, Margery Fry, (The Politics of Penal Reform) published by Routledge.
Dr Logan is strongly in favour of academic historians communicating with the wider public and often gives talks to local societies about her research interests, which include the women’s suffrage movement and the First World War in Kent. In 2012, she led an AHRC funded collaborative (knowledge transfer) project with Tunbridge Wells Museum and Art Gallery entitled Women in Tunbridge Wells: a Hidden History. In 2016 and 2017 she led two public engagement projects for Gateways to the First World War, on Rochester and Borstal in the First World War and Belgian Refugees in Tunbridge Wells.
Dr Logan’s main research interests are in gender, criminal justice policy-making and social work in the period 1900 to 1960, including the work of magistrates and other voluntary workers, as well as professionals. She is also interested in feminist historiography and research methods, especially biographical research and in the history and role of voluntary organisations in the criminal justice field both in Britain and internationally.
Dr Logan’s current research projects include
- Examinations of voluntarism and professionalism in the criminal justice system and related social work during the early and mid-twentieth century.
- Comparative approaches to the women’s suffrage movement.
- International feminist networks and prisoners’ rights campaigns.
She is also interested in the social history of health and welfare.
Dr Logan teaches modules for the Social Sciences and Criminal Justice and Criminology programmes at Medway campus.
Dr Logan is interested in supervising research projects in the following areas:
- Criminal justice policy in late nineteenth and twentieth century Britain and the colonial empire.
- Social policy and social work in late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
- Twentieth century feminism and international human rights campaigns.
- Women in British politics and public life.
- Women’s History Network
- Social History Society
- Gateways to the First World War Research Network
- Former book reviews editor of Women’s History.
Lee, C. and Logan, A. (2017). Women’s Agency, Activism and Organization. Women’s History Review [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09612025.2017.1346880.Agency, activism and organisation have been central and constant
themes in women’s and gender history. They provide useful lenses
through which to study women’s interaction with the social world.
Both separately and in combination, they constitute a valuable
analytical framework for the study of women’s lives, culture and
experience in past societies by foregrounding and articulating
historical challenges made to patriarchy, social structure and the
status quo. Agency highlights the individual action/social structure
explanatory dichotomy whilst activism and organisation help focus
on the specific ways in which women have challenged, resisted,
overthrown or gained entrance to social structures and institutions
that had tended to ignore, exclude, disadvantage or penalise them.
Logan, A. (2016). The International Work of Margery Fry in the 1930s and ’40s. Women’s History: The Journal of the Women’s History Network [Online] 2:23-30. Available at: https://womenshistorynetwork.org/womens-history-autumn-2016/#more-6512.Examines Margery Fry's work for refugees, attitude towards disarmament and appeasement, and involvement in the China Campaign Committee.
Logan, A. (2016). The Penal Reform League and its Feminist Roots. Howard League for Penal Reform Early Career Academics Network Bulletin:6-11.An examination of the early history of the Penal Reform League before its merger with the Howard Association, focusing on its connections with the women's suffrage movement.
Logan, A. (2015). Home and Away: Suffrage and politics in the First World War. Women’s History.
Logan, A. (2014). Political Life in the Shadows: the post suffrage political career of S. Margery Fry (1874–1958). Women’s History Review [Online] 23:365-380. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09612025.2013.820605.Drawing upon research on the working life of the penal reformer and educationalist S. Margery Fry (1874–1958) and her role as a policy-maker, this article argues that there were alternative ways in which women could participate in post-suffrage political culture, other than through elected office or party politics. The article positions Margery Fry both as a feminist and a public intellectual and argues that the First World War and the granting of women's suffrage allowed a step change to take place in Fry's career, taking her from a regional political stage to a national and international one. It also contends that she was able to wield considerable power ‘in the shadows’ as a policy advisor.
Logan, A. (2013). Building a New and Better Order’? Women and jury service in England and Wales, c. 1920-70. Women’s History Review [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09612025.2013.769381.The 1919 Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act extended women's citizenship by enabling them to serve as magistrates and jurors in the country's law courts. Yet while the proportion of women magistrates rose steadily over the next fifty years to reach almost half, even in the 1960s juries remained overwhelmingly male, largely as a result of the continuation of outdated rules concerning jury qualification which remained unreformed until the 1970s. This article analyses the reasons for the delay in reforming the law on jury composition and examines attempts by feminists to bring about change. It argues that the continued tendency among the legal profession and others to regard the criminal law as ‘a man's world’ was especially salient in delaying further reform of juries, but that by the 1960s a combination of efforts by women's organisations and changing cultural attitudes enabled the achievement of gender equality on juries. It also contends that the eventual reform was a success for women's organisations associated with ‘first-wave’ feminism which highlighted the jury issue in the early 1960s.
Logan, A. (2010). ’Lady Bountiful’ or Community activist? Amelia Scott (1860-1952). Women’s History Magazine.The article focuses on the life and works of public worker and activist Amelia Scott who fought for women's rights towards political transformation in Tunbridge Wells, England. It states that Scott was the former secretary of the National Council of Women in 1895 where she detailed the political transition to scientific philanthropy from conventional to social activist. The local social activism provided women the power and personal satisfaction to influence other women the national political arena to social conditions that moved her to engage in social, political and community work.
Logan, A. (2010). Women and the Provision of Criminal Justice Policy Advice: Lessons from England and Wales 1944-64’. British Journal of Criminology [Online] 50:1077-1093. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azq040.This article provides an analysis of the role of the Advisory Council on the Treatment of Offenders in the provision of policy advice to the government in the years after the Second World War and highlights the role of its women members, who mainly owed their appointment as advisors to their expertise gained in the voluntary role of Justice of the Peace. The article first contrasts the voluntary workers’ supposedly ‘amateur’ status with the mainly ‘professional’ credentials of the Council's other members and the relevance of the conventional distinctions made between the two types of experience is questioned. There follows an evaluation of the Council's impact on criminal justice policy in the period 1944–64. The article concludes that the clearest case for the Council's effectiveness can be made with regard to its early years but that the replacement of ‘amateur’ policy advice by criminological research in the post-1945 era was by no means a sudden process, and certainly not one that was completed by the 1960s. It suggests that in the light of the formation of Britain's first peace-time coalition government in nearly 80 years, the time might be ripe for a reconsideration of the role of voluntary sector representatives in the provision of policy advice.
Logan, A. (2010). Lady Bountiful or Community Activist? Amelia Scott (1860-1952). Women’s History Magazine:11-18.Examination of work of Amelia Scott (1860-1952), a suffragist and social activist from Tunbridge Wells
Logan, A. (2009). Policy Networks and the Juvenile Court: The Reform of Youth Justice, c.1905-1950. Crimes and Misdemeanours [Online] 3. Available at: http://www.pbs.plymouth.ac.uk/solon/JournalVol3Issue2.htm.This article examines in detail the construction of government policy for juvenile courts during the first half of the twentieth century. The Children Act 1908 required that criminal charges against children and young persons be heard by a court sitting at a different time or in a different place from the summary court hearings held for adults. Later government legislation (for London, in 1920) and guidance (for the rest of England and Wales) added that children?s cases should be dealt with by specially selected justices, specifically chosen for their knowledge and understanding of young people. Drawing on policy networks theory, the article argues that the detailed application of these policies and the subsequent development of the juvenile court was developed by the Home Office in conjunction with a policy network made up of three main elements: the labour movement, particularly the Labour Party; pressure groups connected with penal reform and child welfare; and feminist women?s organisations. A detailed analysis of discussions surrounding the passage of the 1920 Juvenile Courts (Metropolis) Bill reveals the tactics and strength of this network in defeating the objections of another powerful lobby – the Metropolitan Magistrates – to the Bill?s main proposal, the introduction of specialist juvenile courts in London, staffed by lay-people alongside the qualified lawyers, to provide a dedicated form of justice for the youth of the capital.
Logan, A. (2007). In Search of Equal Citizenship: the campaign for women magistrates in England and Wales, 1910-1939. Women’s History Review [Online] 16:501-518. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09612020701445784.In early 1920 women in England and Wales sat as Justices of the Peace (JPs) for the first time, becoming the first women to have any formal role in the country's law courts. Less than thirty years later nearly a quarter of JPs were women, a proportion unparalleled in any other activity of civic and public life other than voting. Yet the legislation that admitted women to the magisterial bench-the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act-is usually pronounced a failure by historians. This article argues that the appointment of so many women to the magisterial bench in a relatively short period of time was a success for the women's movement and that it was due very largely to the agency of some of the early women magistrates themselves and the efforts of the organisations to which they belonged, albeit working with the grain of reform in the criminal justice system. The article also maps the campaigners' use of the twin concepts of 'rights' and 'duties' within their overall project for the advancement of equal citizenship.
Logan, A. (2006). Professionalism and the impact of England’s first women justices, 1920-1950. Historical Journal [Online] 49:833-850. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X0600553X.This article examines the impact of England's first women justices of the peace (JPs) on the work of lay magistrates in the period 1920–50. It argues that the early women JPs (many of whom had been active in the women's suffrage campaign), and the organizations that they belonged to, helped to transform the institution of the lay magistracy by adopting a more ‘professional’ approach, evidenced in their willingness to educate and train themselves for their new role. In consequence, this article challenges conventional definitions of ‘professionalism’, arguing that, where the work of JPs was concerned, the boundary between ‘voluntary’ and ‘professional’ activities was less clear than might be supposed. Furthermore, the willingness of many women magistrates in particular (later followed by some of their male colleagues) to undergo training helped to ensure the survival of the lay element in the criminal justice system to the present day.
Logan, A. (2005). ’A suitable person for suitable cases’: the gendering of juvenile courts in England, c.1910-1939. Twentieth Century British History [Online] 16:129-145. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tweceb/hwi014.This article examines the relationship between the introduction of women Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 1919 and the gendered development of juvenile courts in England, c. 1910–39. It argues that the campaigns for the appointment of women as JPs and for new methods of dealing with delinquent children were closely connected from 1910 onwards, when the proposal was first made that ‘suitable’ persons should be appointed to hear ‘suitable’ cases in magistrates courts. Using evidence drawn from government records and other sources, the article examines the interaction of the two campaigns and of feminist and penal reform groups in securing the remodelling of London's juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Courts (Metropolis) Act of 1920. It argues that these arrangements, and similar ones adopted elsewhere in England, consciously reflected presumed familial and gender roles. It concludes that the replication of the ‘traditional’ family in the composition of the court may have limited the ability of the youth justice system to be innovative in its approach to juvenile delinquency in the period up to 1939.
Logan, A. (2017). The Politics of Penal Reform: Margery Fry and the Howard League. [Online]. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/The-Politics-of-Penal-Reform-Margery-Fry-and-the-Howard-League/Logan/p/book/9781138039377.This book considers the life and work of Margery Fry, the woman who created the modern Howard League and dominated it until her death in 1958, and places the UK's oldest surviving penal reform pressure group and its current work into their historical context.
Logan, A. (2008). Feminism and Criminal Justice: A Historical Perspective. [Online]. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Available at: http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=281229.Feminism and Criminal Justice is a wide-ranging study of the involvement of the women's movement in England and Wales with criminal justice policy in the period c. 1920-70. Challenging the assumption that feminist interest in criminal justice only began with the emergence of campaigns over rape and domestic violence and of feminist criminology in the 1970s…
This book provides a comprehensive study of the neglected story of the involvement of the women's movement with criminal justice policy in the 20th century. Taking the topic from the suffragette era to the early days of second-wave feminism, the book argues that criminal justice policy has been a continual concern for feminists.
Logan, A. (2017). A Companion to the History of Crime and Criminal Justice including 3 chapters: Juries; Magistrates; Penal Reform Pressure Groups. In: A Companion to the History of Crime and Criminal Justice. P:olicy Press.3 sections in a reference book
Logan, A. (2016). Feminist Criminology in Britain, 1910-1950. In: Kimble, S. and Rowekamp, M. eds. New Perspectives on European Women’s Legal History. New York: Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/New-Perspectives-on-European-Womens-Legal-History/Kimble-Rowekamp/p/book/9781138805545.
Logan, A. and Lee, C. (2014). Tunbridge Wells Women in the First World War. In: Cunningham, J. ed. The Shock of War Tunbridge Wells: Life on the Home Front 1914-19. Royal Tunbridge Wells Civic Society, pp. 132-164.
Logan, A. (2013). History of Crime. In: Hale, C., Hayward, K. J., Wahidin, A. and Wincup, E. eds. Criminology. Oxford University Press.
Logan, A. (2011). Gender and voluntarism in the criminal justice system: the campaigning activities of women magistrates in England and Wales, 1920-1960. In: Rochester, C., Campbell Gosling, G., Penn, A. and Zimmeck, M. eds. Understanding the Roots of Voluntary Action: Historical Perspectives on Current Social Policy. Sussex Academic Press.
Logan, A. (2010). Feminist Criminology in Britain c. 1920-1960: Education, Agency, and Activism Outside the Academy. In: Spence, J., Aiston, S. and Meikle, M. M. eds. Women, Education, and Agency, 1600-2000. Taylor & Francis Ltd, pp. 204-222. Available at: http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/books/details/9780415888363/.Women, Education, and Agency, 1600-2000;
This collection of essays brings together an international roster of contributors to provide historical insight into women's agency and activism in education throughout from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Topics discussed range from the strategies adopted by individual women to achieve a personal education and the influence of educated women upon their social environment, to the organized efforts of groups of women to pursue broader feminist goals in an educational context. The collection is designed to recover the variety of the voices of women inhabiting different geographical and social contexts while highlighting commonality and continuity with reference to creativity, achievement, and the management and transgression of structures of gender inequality
Logan, A. (2009). The Gluecks. In: Hayward, K. J., Maruna, S. and Mooney, J. eds. Fifty Key Thinkers in Criminology. Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Bradley, K. and Logan, A. (2018). Rochester and Borstal in the First World War: Selected Biographies of the Fallen. [Web page]. Bradley, K. and Logan, A. F. eds. Kent, UK: University of Kent. Available at: https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/rochesterborstalfirstworldwar/.This project uses the Rolls of Honour of the City of Rochester, major Churches and employers in the Rochester and Borstal area as the basis for presenting the biographies of all the men who served in the First World War in Rochester, Strood and Borstal. (Note Strood was part of Rochester at this point in time). The site is edited by Kate Bradley and Anne Logan, with entries written by project volunteers (credited at the end of each entry).
The project is funded by the AHRC Gateways to the First World War centre.
Bradley, K., Logan, A. and Shaw, S. (2009). Editorial: Youth and Crime: Centennial Reflections on the Children Act 1908. Crimes and Misdemeanours 3:1-17.
Logan, A. and Lee, C. (2013). Inspiring Women:Hidden Histories from West Kent [Website]. Available at: https://www.kent.ac.uk/sspssr/womenshistorykent/index.html.Website in connection with AHRC KT project with Tunbridge Wells Museum and Art Gallery (2013)