School of Anthropology & Conservation

Excellence in diversity Global in reach

Helen Pheasey

Methods of, and motives for, laundering a wildlife commodity beyond captive farms


Supervisor(s): Dr David Roberts (Main), Professor Richard Griffiths

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Wildlife trade regulations have failed to reduce the rate of decline for numerous high profile species and opportunities to launder illegal wildlife exist wherever there are legal trade routes. The lack of infrastructure in the resource-rich, yet impoverished, countries provides a breeding ground for illegal activity and opportunism, which in turn leads to corruption.

Both ex-situ and in-situ opportunities exist to launder wildlife. Wildlife farms launder wild specimens of the same species misdeclared as captive-sourced. Where a legal in-situ harvest exists, misuse of quota systems can enable the masquerading of illegal species as legal. A chief concern in the current debate on whether to legalise the rhino horn trade is the difficulty distinguishing between legal and illegal horn, and therefore concern that the legal trade will increase opportunities to launder the illegal product. Legally trading rhino would provide a fascinating example of in-situ laundering from a legal population. This, however, remains theoretical and the debate lacks data and case studies for policy-makers to draw upon.

Olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea)

Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)

© Lindsay Fendt

However, an opportunity exists to study this type of system. The legal harvest of turtle eggs from Ostional, Costa Rica provides a rare chance to assess in-situ wildlife laundering within a legal trade. Ostional is home to the only legal harvest of sea turtle eggs in Costa Rica. Olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) are characterised by mass-nesting events (arribadas) lasting 2-10 days, comprising 100,000 individuals. Olive ridley eggs can legally be harvested from Ostional. The long-term impact and wider implications of the trade have not been explored.

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  • Pheasey H, Smith P, Brouard JP, Atkinson K. 2014. 'Vanzosaura rubricauda (Red-tailed Vanzosaur) Trifurcation and Bifurcation.' Herpetological Review 45 (1) P138-139.
  • Smith P, Pheasey H, Atkinson K, Miller J, 2012. 'Records of the Phyllostomine bats Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823) and Lophostoma silvicolum d´Orbigny, 1836 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) associated with human dwellings in Paraguay.' Chiroptera Neotropical 18(2) P1139-1143.
  • Smith P, Pheasey H, Atkinson K, Ramakers J, Sarvary J, 2012. 'The Didelphimorphia (Didelphidae) of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay.' Acta zoológica lilloana 56 (1-2) P141–153.
  • Smith P, Scott N, Pheasey H, Atkinson K. June 2013. 'Confirmation of the presence of Philodryas nattereri STEINDACHNER, 1870, in Paraguay.' Herpetozoa 16 (1/2) P91-94.
  • Smith P, Cacciali P, Kallberg A, Atkinson K, Pheasey H, 2013. 'Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes, Lygophis paucidens Hoge, 1952: First records for Paraguay.' Check List 9(1) P131-132.
  • Smith P, Cacciali P, Atkinson K, Pheasey H, Motte M. 2012. 'New distributional records of amphibians for Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay (Amphibia).' Check List 8(5) P903-907.
  • Smith, P., Cacciali, P., Scott, N., Del Castillo, H., Pheasey, H., Atkinson, K. 2014. 'First record of the globally-threatened Cerrado endemic snake Philodryas livida (Amaral, 1923) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) from Paraguay, and the importance of the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca to its conservation.' Cuadernos de Herpetologia 28 (2): 169-171.
  • Smith, P., Atkinson, K., Brouard, JP., Pheasey, H., 2016. 'Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro: Paraguay’s first important area for the conservation of amphibians and reptiles?' Russian Journal of Herpetology 23 (1) 25-34.
  • Smith P, Cacciali P, Atkinson K, Kallberg A, Pheasey H. 2011. 'Nuevos registros de Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Sauria) en la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay y una clave para las especies Paraguayas.' Notulas Faunisticas 81 P1-6.
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Last Updated: 24/11/2016