Portrait of Dr William Rowlandson

Dr William Rowlandson

Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies

About

Dr William Rowlandson is Senior Lecturer in Hispanic Studies at the University of Kent. He has published on various areas of Latin American studies, including the history of Guantánamo Bay and Gitmo detention centre; rendition; torture; and Cuba during the War on Terror. 

William has also published studies of Borges, Lezama Lima, Cabrera Infante and Rulfo. 

Teaching

William teaches aspects of Latin American cultural history, the prose and poetry of Borges, Cuban literature and film of the revolutionary era.  

Publications

Article

  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). Can You See the Picture of Borges?: The Haunting Presence of Borges in Donald Cammell's 1970 Film Performance. Forum for Modern Language Studies [Online] 49:332-346. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fmls/cqt001.
    Visual references to Borges abound in Cammell's film Performance, passages from Borges's tales are read out, and Borges's face appears in the harrowing final scene. Cammell himself discusses the impact of Borges upon his art in many interviews and makes further reference to Borges in later films. However, perhaps owing to the psychedelic aesthetic of Performance and its counter-cultural embellishments, the strong influence of Borges upon it has been largely overlooked in the scholarship both of the film and of Borges. This article seeks to explore the deeper resonance of Borges not only on the script, but importantly upon the production and the cast. It becomes clear that Cammell's inclusion of Borges imagery was one aspect of an overt homage to the author, in which he evoked key elements in the plot and the characterization that play out philosophical and literary ideas central to Borges and his work.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). Musings on Good, Evil and the Conquest of Mexico: An Interview with Graham Hancock. Paranthropology 4:69-78.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2012). Nourished by Dreams, Visions and William James: The Radical Philosophies of Borges and Terence McKenna. Paranthropology 3:46-60.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2012). Confronting the Shadow: The Hero's Journey in Borges El Etnógrafo. Journal of Romance Studies [Online] 12:17-32. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/jrs.2012.120202.
    This article focuses on 'El Etnógrafo' ['The Anthropologist' (di Giovanni trans.)], a brief and deceptively simple tale from Borges' Elogio de la sombra (1969) [In Praise of Darkness (1975)]. The tale's protagonist, Fred Murdock, undergoes a profound transformation whilst conducting anthropological field research in the North American prairie, centred on his separation from his home and his dialogue with the tribal medicine man. In particular, under the instruction of the medicine man, Murdock learns to focus on and recount his dreams. The brief narrative may be appraised and amplified as embodying characteristics of the hero's journey as examined by Carl Jung, and as illustrated by Joseph Campbell. In this perspective, Murdock accepts the call to adventure, engages in symbolic struggles, experiences a deep and transformative healing with the shaman, and returns home empowered with deeper wisdom. In this article I concentrate on the pattern of the hero's journey as depicted both in 'El Etnógrafo' and in other tales of Borges, evaluating the particular healing dimension of the confrontation with the personal and collective shadow, the relationship with the wise senex-figure of the medicine man, and the attention to the language of dreams. I consider, consequently, the nature of psychic healing as portrayed both within the narrative – Murdock's journey – and outside the narrative – the reader's journey, as twin epistemological destinations. This article constitutes part of a larger project that evaluates the relationship between Borges' aesthetic obra and Jung's psychological writings, their shared attention to mysticism and to the role of dreams, myths, narratives, creativity and active imagination, healing and the process of individuation.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2011). Borges’s Reading of Dante and Swedenborg: Mysticism and the Real. Variaciones Borges 32:59-85.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2011). Hero, Lover, Demon, Fool: Fictional Appropriations of Che Guevara. Journal of Romance Studies [Online] 11:61-74. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/jrs.2011.110204.
    Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, visiting Cuba in 1960, met Ernesto Guevara and were struck by his personal and political presence. Sartre praised Guevara as the embodiment of existential freedom, referring to his ability to be led by his own assertive will, and not by the will of others, and allegedly described him as 'the most complete human being of our age' (Anderson 1997a: 468). From the time of his death until the present, Guevara has been cast in a wide array of historical reconstructions with varying degrees of fictional distance from biographical historicity. In particular, he has repeatedly appeared as a fictional character in novels, sometimes showing an alarming degree of poetic licence, betraying strong ideological motivations behind the fiction. This article analyses the ironic relationship between Jean-Paul Sartre's praise of Guevara as someone who has fully embraced the freedom of being and the fictionalization or categorization of Guevara as a novelistic character.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2010). "A myth is an owned image": Che Guevara in Lezama Lima's American Expression. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies [Online] 87:71-88. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3828/bhs.2009.5.
    In his 1957 essays of La expresión americana, Cuban poet and novelist José Lezama Lima elaborates the process by which history enters the collective consciousness, examining how history is a shared memory, and that memory is creative. As a result, history becomes a consensual narrative or fiction, composed of the la imagen and the poetic myth. Lezama explored how figures such as el señor barroco or el romántico became mythical, forging an American historical identity to rival the European. This article examines Lezama’s vision, and analyses the pragmatic application of this theoretical model upon post-revolutionary Cuban history. In particular, the figure of Ernesto Guevara is analysed with reference to the Barthean concept of myth, exploring how the figure of Guevara is divorced from its history, imbued with mythical connotative ‘nature’, and appropriated into a variety of mythical codes, both within and outside of Cuba. As a result, it will be possible both to reconsider La expresión americana from a greater social perspective than has hitherto been undertaken, and consider the figure of Guevara in accordance with the theories of history explored by Lezama.
    -------------------------------------------------
    En los ensayos de La expresión americana, publicados en 1957, el poeta y novelista cubano José Lezama Lima elabora el proceso en el cual la historia entra en la conciencia colectiva, examinando cómo la historia es una memoria compartida, y que la memoria es creativa. Por consiguiente, la historia se convierte en una narrativa, o ficción, consensual, compuesta por ‘la imagen’ y el mito poético. Lezama presenta personajes como ‘el señor barroco’ y ‘el romántico’, examinando cómo se convierten en figuras míticas que crean así una identidad americana que rivaliza a la europea. Este artículo examina la visión de Lezama y analiza la aplicación práctica de este modelo teórico en la historia post-revolucionaria cubana. En particular, se explora la figura de Ernesto Guevara con referencia al concepto de mitología según Roland Barthes, cómo Guevara ha sido divorciado de su historia, vestido de una ‘naturaleza’ mítica connotativa, y apropiado en una variedad de códigos míticos tanto en Cuba como fuera de Cuba. Así pues es posible replantear La expresión americana desde una perspectiva social más amplia de la que ha sido considerada hasta ahora, y examinar la figura de Ernesto Guevara de acuerdo con las teorías históricas exploradas por Lezama.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2010). La revolución como era imaginaria. Lezama y la política mito-poética. Revista Letral 4:108-130.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2010). Understanding Guantánamo through its Parallels with Slavery. International Journal of Cuban Studies 2:217-231.
    There are tangible and unsettling links between the age of the Atlantic Slave Trade and the peculiar nature of capture, transportation and detention of terror suspects in the War on Terror. The detainees of Guantánamo Bay Detention Center share much with the slaves who, over a century before, lived and worked in the lands of eastern Cuba. They are mostly racially distinct from their captors, with different languages, different cultures and religions. As with the imported slaves, they have been transported to Cuba against their will, chained, bound and shackled and sensorially deprived. They are deliberately separated from kin in order to prevent bonding in captivity, housed in barracks, overlooked by guards in a watchtower, deprived of legal rights, labelled barbarous, and are brutally punished if perceived to dissent. Above all, they are denied their basic identity, their names, their background, and their voice. In this article I chart the parallel conditions, examining the echoes of the Atlantic Slave Trade in the process of capture and incarceration in today's conflict. This will lead to a discussion of a discordant Marxian model of production within this slave system, which will in turn lead to a reflection on the particular dimension of Guantánamo Bay and Gitmo Detention Center as prominent markers of a US imperialist venture in Cuba.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2010). 'Un mito es una imagen participada': Che Guevara in Lezama Lima's La expresión americana. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies [Online] 87:71-88. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3828/bhs.2009.5.
    In his 1957 essays on La expresión americana, Cuban poet and novelist José Lezama Lima elaborates the process by which history enters the collective consciousness, examining how history is a shared memory, and that memory is creative. As a result, history becomes a consensual narrative or fiction, composed of la imagen and the poetic myth. Lezama explored how figures such as 'el señor barroco' or 'el romántico' became mythical, forging an American historical identity to rival the European. This article examines Lezama's vision, and analyses the pragmatic application of this theoretical model upon post-revolutionary Cuban history. In particular, the figure of Ernesto Guevara is analysed with reference to the Barthean concept of myth, exploring how the figure of Guevara is divorced from its history, imbued with mythical connotative 'nature', and appropriated into a variety of mythical codes, both within and outside Cuba. As a result, it will be possible to reconsider La expresión americana from a greater social perspective than has hitherto been undertaken, and to consider the figure of Guevara in accordance with the theories of history explored by Lezama.
    Resumen
    En los ensayos de La expresión americana, publicados en 1957, el poeta y novelista cubano José Lezama Lima elabora el proceso en el cual la historia entra en la conciencia colectiva, examinando cómo la historia es una memoria compartida, y que la memoria es creativa. Por consiguiente, la historia se convierte en una narrativa, o ficción, consensual, compuesta por 'la imagen' y el mito poético. Lezama presenta personajes como 'el señor barroco' y 'el romántico', examinando cómo se convierten en figuras míticas que crean así una identidad americana que rivaliza a la europea. Este artículo examina la visión de Lezama y analiza la aplicación práctica de este modelo teórico en la historia post-revolucionaria cubana. En particular, se explora la figura de Ernesto Guevara con referencia al concepto de mitología según Roland Barthes, demostrando cómo Guevara ha sido divorciado de su historia, vestido de una 'naturaleza' mítica connotativa, y apropiado en una variedad de códigos míticos tanto en Cuba como fuera de Cuba. Así pues es posible replantear La expresión americana desde una perspectiva social más amplia de la que ha sido considerada hasta ahora, y examinar la figura de Ernesto Guevara de acuerdo con las teorías históricas exploradas por Lezama.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2007). Dismantling Political Mythologies: Cabrera Infante’s Essays of Mea Cuba. Bulletin of Spanish Studies [Online] 84:497-515. Available at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a780199165~db=all~jumptype=rss.
    In light of the approaching fifty years of the Cuban Revolution and the ongoing interest in revolutionary images (Che Guevara exhibition at the RA summer 06), and in light of the recent death of Cuban author Guillermo Cabrera Infante, this article analyses Cabrera Infante’s essays of the collection Mea Cuba. The article argues essentially that many historical events and figures of the Cuban Revolution (up to today) have been recorded and understood in a manner akin to Roland Barthes ‘mythologisation process’. As a result, Cabrera Infante, as author, operates as a ‘demythologiser’ of such perspectives, exposing the distance between the reality of a historical event and its contemporary recording. But can Cabrera Infante’s text be deemed to be free of the rhetorical devices that he ascribes to propaganda texts? The possible dichotomy between heroism and suicide in relation to Che Guevara’s death, for example, is accordingly analysed from a position objectively removed from the politically-polarized perspectives of either official history or Cabrera Infante’s subversive revisionism. The article highlights issues of interpretation outside of Cuba of historical accounts, and draws attention to the mythologising process at work in the recording of such a socially and politically emotive era.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2006). The Journey into the Text – Reading Rulfo in Carlos Reygadas’s 2002 Film 'Japón'. Modern Language Review 101:1025-1034.
    This article analyses the presence of Juan Rulfo’s novel Pedro Páramo in Carlos Reygadas’s film Japón. While Pedro Páramo becomes allegorical of the nature of reading, Japón employs equivalent narrative devices to lead the spectator into a reassessment of the nature of film spectatorship. As Rulfo’s work questions the division between character and reader, so Japón questions the boundary between actor, character, and spectator. The article firstly analyses points of reference between the novel and the film, especially the journey of the protagonists seen as an allegorical journey into the nature of art. It then investigates the theoretical and allegorical implications of the narratives in regard to the role of the reader/spectator.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2003). Cabrera Infante and Parody: Tracking Hemingway in 'Tres Tristes Tigres'. Modern Language Review 98:620-633.
    This article analyses the operatives and the function of parody as the concept emerges through the novel Tres Tristes Tigres of Guillermo Cabrera Infante. In defence of the literary theorists who view parody as a complex, worthy and at times necessary art (Linda Hutcheon, Margaret Rose), this article adds the dimension, based on an analysis of the parodies of Ernest Hemingway within the novel, that parody operates for Cabrera Infante, both as a vehicle for humour, and as a means of overcoming the influence of Hemingway upon his own style, and upon the style of his contemporary Cuban writers. In light of the ongoing interest in the influence of Hemingway in Cuban letters and general culture (Padura Fuentes’ recent novel concerns a revision of Hemingway’s Cuban biography), this article focuses on a contemporary and polemic issue, charting the development of the argument from the sixties to the present day.

Book

  • Rowlandson, W. (2018). Sartre in Cuba–Cuba in Sartre. [Online]. Palgrave Macmillan. Available at: https://www.palgrave.com/gb/book/9783319616957.
    This book explores Sartre’s engagement with the Cuban Revolution.

    In early 1960 Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir accepted the invitation to visit Cuba and to report on the revolution. They arrived during the carnival in a land bursting with revolutionary activity. They visited Che Guevara, head of the National Bank. They toured the island with Fidel Castro. They met ministers, journalists, students, writers, artists, dockers and agricultural workers. Sartre spoke at the University of Havana.

    Sartre later published his Cuba reports in France-Soir.

    Sartre endorsed the Cuban Revolution. He made clear his political identification. He opposed colonialism. He saw the US as colonial in Cuban affairs from 1898. He supported Fidel Castro. He supported the agrarian reform. He supported the revolution.

    His Cuba accounts have been maligned, ignored and understudied.

    They have been denounced as blind praise of Castro, ‘unabashed propaganda.’ They have been criticised for ‘clichés,’ ‘panegyric’ and ‘analytical superficiality.’ They have been called ‘crazy’ and ‘incomprehensible.’ Sartre was called naïve. He was rebuked as a fellow traveller. He was, in the words of Cuban author Guillermo Cabrera Infante, duped by ‘Chic Guevara.’

    This book explores these accusations. Were Sartre’s Cuba texts propaganda? Are they blind praise? Was he naïve? Had he been deceived by Castro? Had he deceived his readers? Was he obligated to Castro or to the Revolution?

    He later buried the reports, and abandoned a separate Cuba book. His relationship with Castro later turned sour.

    What is the impact of Cuba on Sartre and of Sartre on Cuba?
  • Rowlandson, W. (2015). Imaginal Landscapes: Reflections on the Mystical Visions of Jorge Luis Borges and Emanuel Swedenborg. London: The Swedenborg Society.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). Borges, Swedenborg and Mysticism. Oxford: Peter Lang.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2007). Reading Lezama’s Paradiso. [Online]. Oxford: Peter Lang. Available at: http://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/hispanicstudies/files/10751_Rowlandson.pdf.
    This book focuses on the novel Paradiso of Cuban author José Lezama Lima (1910-1976), and in particular, on the protagonist José Cemí. Lezama declared that Cemí’s development throughout the novel can be viewed in three distinct phases: the first being the ‘placentario’ world of family protection, the second being Cemí’s awakening to the exterior world and the subsequent friendships made, and the third being his eventual encounters with Oppiano Licario. Cemí’s progression, and his growing ability to interpret and create texts, is investigated as analogous to the reader’s progression to the symbolic dimension of the novel. In a similar fashion, the connection between Cemí’s ‘guide’ Licario, and the author Lezama is investigated.

Book section

  • Rowlandson, W. (2015). Asthma and its Symbolism: The Respiratory Aesthetics of José Lezama Lima. in: Novillo-Corvalan, P. ed. Latin American and Iberian Perspectives on Literature and Medicine. Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/Latin-American-and-Iberian-Perspectives-on-Literature-and-Medicine/Novillo-Corvalan/p/book/9781138823907.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). "Necessary Monsters": Borges' Book of Imaginary Beings and the Ontology of the Daimonic. in: Rowlandson, W. and Voss, A. eds. Daimonic Imagination: Uncanny Intelligence. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 203-227.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). The Anaesthetic Revelation: Psychedelia and Mysticism. in: Adams, C. et al. eds. Breaking Conventions: Essays on Psychedelic Consciousness. London: Strange Attractor Press, pp. 229-241.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2012). Cimarrón, testimonio y la Revolución. in: Barnet, M. ed. Biografía De Un Cimarrón. Estudios Y Ensayos. Venezuela: Fundación Biblioteca Ayacucho, pp. 1-78.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2005). Borges y Lezama: dos acercamientos a la epifanía y al arquetipo. in: Archer, R. et al. eds. Antes y Después del Quijote. Valencia: Biblioteca Valenciana, pp. 713-723.

Edited book

  • Voss, A. (2013). Daimonic Imagination: Uncanny Intelligence. Rowlandson, W. and Voss, A. eds. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    From the artistic genius to the tarot reader, a sense of communication with another order of reality is commonly affirmed; this 'other' may be termed god, angel, spirit, muse, daimon or alien, or it may be seen as an aspect of the human imagination or the 'unconscious' in a psychological sense. This volume of essays celebrates the daimonic presence in a diversity of manifestations, presenting new insights into inspired creativity and human beings' relationship with mysterious and numinous dimensions of reality. In art and literature, many visual and poetic forms have been given to the daimonic intelligence, and in the realm of new age practices, encounters with spirit beings are facilitated through an increasing variety of methods including shamanism, hypnotherapy, mediumship and psychedelics. The contributors to this book are not concerned with 'proving' or 'disproving' the existence of such beings. Rather, they paint a broad canvas with many colours, evoking the daimon through the perspectives of history, literature, encounter and performance, and showing how it informs, and has always informed, human experience.
  • Rowlandson, W. ed. (2010). Biografía de un Cimarrón. [Online]. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Available at: http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719080913.
    Biography of a runaway slave is arguably the best-known book to have been written and published in revolutionary Cuba, being the testimonial narrative of Esteban Montejo, a former slave, runaway, and soldier in the Cuban wars of independence. The text is the collaboration between ethnographer Miguel Barnet and Montejo, the result of three years of tape-recorded interviews, transcribed, edited and annotated by Barnet. Montejo provides a first-hand account of slavery in nineteenth-century Cuba – the language, religion, music, and customs – and describes life in the sugar plantations and mills and as a runaway slave. Montejo’s text also covers key historical moments, from slavery to Abolition, the Ten Years War, the Spanish American War, and US intervention in the new republic. Reflecting the growing interest in Latin American and Cuban Studies, this student edition includes the complete text in Spanish, notes in English, a time-line of Cuban history and themes for debate and discussion. The extensive introduction focuses on three main areas: an overview of Cuban history featuring slavery, wars of independence and the new republic; an overview of the genre of the testimonial narrative as it emerged as an important literary style in revolutionary Cuba; and an analysis of the relationship between the Cuban Revolution and the publication of the text. There is also an extensive bibliography.
  • Kaufmann, P. and Rowlandson, W. (2006). 'The Sister' by Paola Kaufmann (Translation). Rowlandson, W. ed. Richmond, Surrey: Alma Books Ltd.
    This work is the winner of the South American literary Prize, Casa de Las Americas. Very little is known about the life of poet Emily Dickinson. As a woman, she is most known as a recluse; as a poet, she is known for producing some of the most daring and original verse of the nineteenth century. This verse is often said to be her only contact with the outside world, but not much is understood about the inner world which gave rise to it. "My Sister Emily" probes into this world, revealing her tense relationship with her parents, her hidden passions and aspirations, and her secret views on religion and love, all seen through the eyes of one of those closest to her, her younger sister Lavinia. Based on authentic journals, documents and letters from the Dickinson family, "My Sister Emily" is a tribute to the struggle of a woman to vindicate the memory and perpetuate the legacy of her beloved sister. An intimate portrait of an extraordinary woman, it brings the 'mad woman' out of the attic and reveals her as the living, breathing human being she was, filling in a vital missing piece of the jigsaw, the enigma that is Emily Dickinson.

    Translation by Dr William Rowlandson.
  • Cervantes, M. and Rowlandson, W. (2004). 'The Dialogue of the Dogs' by Miguel de Cervantes (Translation). Rowlandson, W. ed. London: Hesperus Press Ltd.
    The Dialogue of the Dogs is an inspired work of psychological observation by the master of the picaresque novel. In it, Cervantes displays all the clarity and warmth that marks the rich prose of Don Quixote. Given the gift of speech for a day, two dogs set about satirising humans, their supposed superiors. In an exchange reminiscent of the ancient Greek Dialogues, they recount their experiences under their various masters - but whether butcher, constable, merchant or gypsy, each is decried as corrupt to the core. Through the scathing Berganza and the critical Scipio, Cervantes delivers an ingenious critique of the morality of sixteenth-century Spain, and a timeless and telling portrayal of the heart of man.

    8000-word critical Introduction by Dr William Rowlandson.
    Translation of text, annotation and bibliography by Dr William Rowlandson.
    Foreword by Ben Okri.

Review

  • Rowlandson, W. (2014). Review of: 'Talking with the Spirits: Ethnographies from between the Worlds' Hunter, J. and Luke, D. eds. Paranthropology 5:44-45.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). Review of Richard L. Harris, 'Che Guevara: A Biography'. Bulletin of Latin American Research [Online] 32:365-367. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/blar.12057.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2013). Review of Olivier Besancenot and Michael Lowy, 'Che Guevara: His Revolutionary Legacy'. Bulletin of Latin American Research [Online] 32:115-117. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-9856.2012.00785.x.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2012). Review of Gillian McGillivray, 'Blazing Cane: Sugar Communities, Class, and State Formation in Cuba, 1868-1959'. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies [Online] 89:215-216. Available at: https://doi.org/2647783331.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2012). Review of Kenneth Routon, 'Hidden Powers of State in the Cuban Imagination'. Bulletin of Spanish Studies: Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America [Online] 89:975-977. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753820.2012.712329.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2011). Review of Christopher Warnes, 'Magical Realism and the Postcolonial Novel: Between Faith and Irreverence'. Modern Language Review 106:216-217.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2010). Review of Will Fowler and Peter Lambert, 'Political Violence and the Construction of National Identity in Latin America'. Bulletin of Spanish Studies [Online] 87:429-430. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753821003711008.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2009). Review of Araceli Tinajero, 'El lector de tabaquería: historia de una tradición cubana'. Bulletin of Spanish Studies [Online] 86:715-716. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753820902969550.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2008). Review of Samuel Farber, 'The Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered'. Bulletin of Spanish Studies [Online] 85:402-403. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753820802048588.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2008). Review of Ana Cairo, 'José Martí y la novela de la cultura cubana'. Bulletin of Spanish Studies [Online] 85:263-265. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14753820701855455.
  • Rowlandson, W. (2005). Review of Carmen Teresa Hartman, 'Cabrera Infante's `Tres tristes tigres': The Trapping Effect of the Signifier over Subject and Text'. Modern Language Review 100:240-242.
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