Azeez, Y., Collier, R., Ridler, N. and Young, P. (2019). Establishing a New Form of Primary Impedance Standard at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement [Online] 68:294-296. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2018.2872499.
This paper investigates the possibility of using layers of graphene to form primary impedance standards for millimeter-wave rectangular metallic waveguide. It is shown that standards with values of Y?, 2Y? and 3Y? can be produced by a monolayer, bilayer, or trilayer of graphene, respectively, where Y? is the characteristic admittance of the waveguide. These standards could then be used in the calibration of vector network analyzers.
Gu, C., Gao, S., Sanz Izquierdo, B., Gibbons, G., Young, P., Parker, E., Qin, F., Wen, G., Cheng, Z., Geng, Y. and Liu, Y. (2018). Wideband high-gain millimetre/submillimetre wave antenna using additive manufacturing. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation [Online] 12:1758-1764. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2018.5412.
This paper presents a novel design of a wideband high-gain resonant cavity antenna (RCA) for millimetre and
submillimetre wave bands, and its fabrication using additive manufacturing. The proposed RCA antenna consists of a partially
reflecting surface and three impedance matching layers fed by a waveguide. Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques are
utilized to fabricate the design operating at 30 GHz. Two fabrication techniques are assessed for printing the antenna. The
first technique is based on printing a dielectric material and fully coating the parts with a metallic layer, while the second
technique involves printing the parts in a single process using metal 3D printing. The first technique offers a lightweight
solution while the second technique can print the whole model in one run. The antenna design is investigated by both
simulations and experiments. The measured results show an 3dB gain bandwidth of about 10%, and high gain over 15 dBi
for all the three resulting antennas. Good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained. The antenna has a
low cost and achieved good performance in terms of wide bandwidth and high gain, thus it is potentially useful for highspeed
wireless communications at millimetre-wave and sub-millimetre-wave frequencies.
George, D., Chandroth, A., Ng, C. and Young, P. (2018). High-gain narrow-band slotted antenna based on ENZ SIW structure. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics [Online] 51. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aaad27.
The development of a Slotted Substrate Integrated Waveguide Antenna with Epsilon Near Zero material is
presented. Here, Epsilon Near Zero (ENZ) waveguide structure is used in the design. The ENZ material used to realize
unconventional tunneling of electromagnetic energy with ultra-thin subwavelength channels and it is considered to attain
a highly directive narrow band antenna. The effect of the various parameters of the antenna is studied by simulation. A
prototype is fabricated and the measurement results are compared with the simulated values.
Mirkhaydarov, B., Votsi, H., Sahu, A., Caroff, P., Young, P., Stolojan, V., King, S., Ng, C., Devabhaktuni, V., Tan, H., Jagadish, C., Aaen, P. and Shkunov, M. (2018). Solution-Processed InAs Nanowire Transistors as Microwave Switches. Advanced Electronic Materials [Online]:1800323. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.201800323.
The feasibility of using self?assembled InAs nanowire bottom?gated field?effect transistors as radio?frequency and microwave switches by direct integration into a transmission line is demonstrated. This proof of concept is demonstrated as a coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave transmission line, where the nanowires function as a tunable impedance in the CPW through gate biasing. The key to this switching capability is the high?performance, low impedance InAs nanowire transistor behavior with field?effect mobility of ?300 cm2 V?1 s?1, on/off ratio of 103, and resistance modulation from only 50 ? in the full accumulation mode, to ?50 k? when the nanowires are depleted of charge carriers. The gate biasing of the nanowires within the CPW results in a switching behavior, exhibited by a ?10 dB change in the transmission coefficient, S21, between the on/off switching states, over 5–33 GHz. This frequency range covers both the microwave and millimeter?wave bands dedicated to Internet of things and 5G applications. Demonstration of these switches creates opportunities for a new class of devices for microwave applications based on solution?processed semiconducting nanowires.
Xu, R., Young, P., Wang, X. and Zhou, G. (2017). Novel theoretical analyses of transverse resonance technique on loaded impedance waveguide. ICIC Express Letters [Online] 11. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.24507/icicel.11.12.1781.
A novel theoretical analysis of transmission characteristics of waveguide systems
by using transverse resonance technique (TRT) is presented. The purpose of this
study is to acquire a method which could simply analyze the propagation parameters of
the slotted waveguide which is loaded with discrete impedance. The mathematical model
is based on the equivalent transverse resonance circuit, in order to define the propagation
condition, the fast/slow modes and losses in the fundamental mode. The result shows that
the slotted waveguide will lose the fundamental mode if the loaded capacitive impedance
is higher than 77pF/m. The different phase constant pattern of slow mode causes the
fundamental mode to converge to the unusual direction and the loss increases rapidly.
This novel technique has the advantage of simplicity and compares well with results of
electromagnetic simulation and measurement.
Cole, A. and Young, P. (2017). Chipless Liquid Sensing Using a Slotted Cylindrical Resonator. IEEE Sensors Journal [Online] 18:149-156. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2017.2773023.
A method for the wireless sensing of the permittivity and level of liquids is presented. The use of a simple, thin-film slotted cylindrical cavity wrapped around a standard polytetrafluoroethylene pipe is proposed. Wireless interrogation of the slot excites a resonant mode whose frequency is dependent on the liquid currently present within the pipe. The proposed method allows for measurements to be taken in situ with no requirement for taking samples of potentially hazardous liquids. The device is capable of sensing materials of high relative permittivity, including water, as well as very lossy liquids. A comprehensive set of results is presented, including measurements of butanol, ethanol, methanol and water, for several device configurations. The proposed sensor is also shown to be sensitive to small changes in liquid level, allowing for accurate water level measurements down to 0:1 ml. This sensor is a good candidate for very low-cost, low-complexity real-time monitoring of liquids.
Zhang, L., Gao, S., Luo, Q., Young, P. and Li, Q. (2016). Inverted-S Antenna with Wideband Circular Polarization and Wide Axial Ratio Beamwidth. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation [Online] 65:1740-1748. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2016.2628714.
A novel broadband circularly polarized (CP) antenna with wide axial ratio (AR) beamwidth is proposed. It is composed of two curved arms shaped like an inverted “S”. The mechanisms of wideband CP operation and wide AR beamwidth are explained. To validate the concept, a prototype at C-band is manufactured and measured. Experimental results confirm that the antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 63% and a CP bandwidth of 42%. Furthermore, maximum AR beamwidth of 140o is achieved and wide AR beamwidth can be maintained in a frequency bandwidth of 35% in nearly all elevation planes. In addition, the antenna has the advantage of being easily extended to arrays. A 4-element array using the proposed antenna is investigated through both simulations and experiments, and achieves 60% CP bandwidth and wide AR beamwidth. The proposed inverted-S antenna can realize wide CP bandwidth and wide AR beamwidth, and is easy to form wideband CP arrays.
Zhang, L., Gao, S., Luo, Q., Young, P. and Li, Q. (2016). Planar Ultra-Thin Small Beam-Switching Antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation [Online]. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2016.2620490.
A novel planar ultrathin electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) is presented in this paper. Through theoretical analysis of the electric fields of orthogonally crossed dipoles in phase quadrature, it is found that the crossed dipoles radiate linearly polarized wave with a rotational electric field in the azimuth plane. This characteristic is then utilized to design a planar crossed dipole ESPAR, termed as “CD-ESPAR.” Furthermore, a simple but effective impedance matching method is also proposed and analyzed. To verify these concepts, a prototype with compact size and very low profile (0.42 ?0 × 0.42 ?0 ×0.006 ?0) resonating at 2.3 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results indicate that the proposed antenna achieves more than 17.8% impedance bandwidth and can produce four directional beams, covering the whole azimuth plane. Owing to its planar ultrathin structure, compact size, electronically beam-switching ability, low power, and low cost characteristics, it is promising for applications in wireless communications
Zhang, L., Gao, S., Luo, Q., Young, P. and Li, Q. (2016). Wideband Loop Antenna with Electronically Switchable Circular Polarization. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters [Online]:1-1. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2016.2570859.
This paper presents a novel printed antenna with wide bandwidth, high gain and reconfigurable circular polarizations. A loop antenna is printed on both sides of a dielectric substrate: a dual PIN diode loaded loop is printed on one side while a dual gap loaded smaller loop is printed on the other side. By controlling the ON/OFF states of the PIN diodes, the polarization of the proposed antenna can be switched electronically to right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) or left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) over a wideband frequency range. A prototype is fabricated and measured to verify the performance of the antenna. The measured results indicate that the antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of over 30%, and a 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 12.7% and 14.9% for RHCP and LHCP, respectively. The measured gain is around 8 dBic for LHCP state and 7 dBic for RHCP state. Due to advantages of wide overlapped bandwidth, simple feeding structure and high gain, this antenna is promising for applications in dual-CP wireless communication systems.
Zhang, L., Gao, S., Luo, Q., Young, P., Li, Q., Geng, Y. and Abd-Alhameed, R. (2015). Single-feed ultra-wideband circularly polarized antenna with enhanced front-to-back ratio. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation [Online] PP:1-1. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2015.2501844.
This communication presents a single-feed ultra-wideband circularly polarized (CP) antenna with high front-to-back ratio (FBR). The antenna is composed of two orthogonally placed elliptical dipoles printed on both sides of a substrate. To realize high front-to-back ratio, a novel composite cavity is also proposed and integrated with the presented crossed dipoles, which effectively reduces the back-lobe of the crossed dipoles. Simulation results are in good agreement with measured results which demonstrate an impedance bandwidth from 0.9 to 2.95GHz (106.5%) and a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth from 1 to 2.87GHz (96.6%). The measured FBR is about 30dB across the whole GNSS band. Compared with other reported single-feed wideband CP antennas, the antenna has advantages such as a wider CP bandwidth and lower back-lobe radiation.
Zhang, L., Gao, S., Luo, Q., Young, P., Li, Q., Geng, Y. and Abd-Alhameed, R. (2015). Single-Feed Ultra-Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna With Enhanced Front-to-Back Ratio. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation [Online] 64:355-360. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2015.2501844.
This communication presents a single-feed ultra-wideband circularly polarized (CP) antenna with high front-to-back ratio (FBR). The antenna is composed of two orthogonally placed elliptical dipoles printed on both sides of a substrate. To realize high FBR, a novel composite cavity is also proposed and integrated with the presented crossed dipoles, which effectively reduces the backlobe of the crossed dipoles. Simulation results are in good agreement with the measured results that demonstrate an impedance bandwidth from 0.9 to 2.95 GHz (106.5%) and a 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth from 1 to 2.87 GHz (96.6%). The measured FBR is about 30 dB across the whole global navigation satellite system (GNSS) band. Compared with other reported single-feed wideband CP antennas, the antenna has advantages such as a wider CP bandwidth and lower backlobe radiation
Wu, L., Farrall, A. and Young, P. (2015). Substrate Integrated Waveguide Switched Beam Antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation [Online] 63:2301-2305. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2015.2405085.
This communication presents a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) switched beam antenna operating at 2.45 GHz. The design allows the beam to be switched between six discrete directions giving 360° coverage. The switch beam control is achieved using only four PIN diodes that are integrated directly to the structure allowing its nature to be electrically controlled. The design is no bigger than a single SIW slot antenna although a perpendicular reflector is used. The antenna is shown to be in good agreement with simulated results achieving measured gains between 3 and 6 dBi.
Xu, R., Farrall, A. and Young, P. (2013). Analysis of Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguides and Attenuators. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters [Online] 24:62-64. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2013.2288180.
This letter provides an approximate analysis of a slotted substrate integrated waveguide with periodic loading elements using the transverse resonance technique. The technique is used to design a travelling wave attenuator whereby pin diodes are capacitively coupled to the waveguide slot. By changing the bias, and therefore loading resistance, a very constant, variable attenuation is produced over the waveguide band.
Giannakis, N., Inglesfield, J., Jastrzebski, A. and Young, P. (2013). Photonic modes of a chain of nanocylinders by the embedding method. Journal of the Optical Society of America B [Online] 30:1755. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.30.001755.
The photonic band structure of a linear array of metallic nanocylinders is calculated using the embedding method. The coupling to the vacuum on either side of the array is treated exactly, allowing the continuum states and plasmon broadening above the light-line to be treated accurately. In addition to the plasmon bands, which broaden at larger cylinder radius, there are two guided modes, with the character of surface plasmon polaritons. These split off the light-line at small wave-vector, becoming almost dispersionless as they enter the plasmon bands. The electric fields associated with the modes are calculated, and their symmetries are discussed.
Young, P., Aanandan, C., Mathew, T. and Krishna, D. (2012). Wearable Antennas and Systems. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation [Online] 2012:1-2. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/573202.
Xu, R., Sanz-Izquierdo, B. and Young, P. (2011). Switchable Substrate Integrated Waveguide. IEEE Microwave and Components Letters [Online] 21:194-196. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2011.2108274.
A switchable substrate integrated waveguide is presented that can be switched between two different modes of propagation via the biasing of a pin diode switch. To demonstrate the usefulness of the design a single pole single through (SPST) waveguide switch is presented. The switch is shown to have approximately 50 dB isolation and 3 dB insertion loss over the switchable bandwidth.
Henry, M., Free, C., Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Batchelor, J. and Young, P. (2009). Millimeter Wave Substrate Integrated Waveguide Antennas: Design and Fabrication Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging [Online] 32:93-100. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TADVP.2008.2011284.
The paper presents a new concept in antenna design, whereby a photo-imageable thick-film process is used to integrate a waveguide antenna within a multilayer structure. This has yielded a very compact, high performance antenna working at high millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies, with a high degree of repeatability and reliability in antenna construction. Theoretical and experimental results for 70 GHz mm-wave integrated antennas, fabricated using the new technique are presented. The antennas were formed from miniature slotted waveguide arrays using up to 18 layers of photo-imageable material. To enhance the electrical performance a novel folded waveguide array was also investigated. The fabrication process is analysed in detail and the critical issues involved in the fabrication cycle are discussed. The losses in the substrate integrated waveguide have been calculated. The performance of the new integrated antenna is compared to conventional metallic, air-filled waveguide antennas, and also to conventional microstrip antenna arrays operating at the same frequencies.
Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Young, P., Bai, Q. and Batchelor, J. (2006). Compact UWB Monopole for Multilayer Applications. Electronics Letters 42:5-7.
A novel compact, dual layer UWB monopole antenna is presented. This low profile ultra-wideband antenna is fed by a 50 ? shielded strip-line with an array of metal vias making the conducting walls. A printed disc monopole with a circular cut is the radiating element. The dual layer, shielded strip line feed allows for integration in multilayer technologies. The ultra-wideband, monopole characteristics of the antenna are confirmed experimentally.
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Cole, A., Ng, C. and Young, P. (2017). Conformal switched beam antenna. In: 2016 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). IEEE. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2016.7807599.
A cylindrical switched beam antenna making use of Kapton film and aperture-coupling is presented. The use of four elements controlled via a high frequency switching stage is proposed. Using very simple bias circuitry, switching can be achieved to provide four-way coverage at 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Elements consist of an aperture-coupled patch making use of thin film technology to provide an air substrate for increased efficiency and therefore gain. Four direction beam switching is performed using only three switches integrated into the structure. Simulated results of a single element are presented, followed by measured results of the fully fabricated structure
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Young, P. and Shkunov, M. (2014). Characterization of Ink-Jet Printed CPW on Kapton Substrates At 60 GHz. In: 2014 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC). IEEE, pp. 676-678. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2014.6996484.
This paper characterizes coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines formed by ink-jet printed conductors on flexible Kapton substrates at frequencies up to 60 GHz. It is shown that the lines have losses of approximately 1.5 dB/mm but that this relatively high loss is predominantly due to the loss tangent of the substrates and not the lower conductivity of the silver inks used in this implementation. On an Alumina sample the loss is shown to be 0.8 dB/mm for the same ink-jet printed lines. CST simulation has been used to verify the calculated results.
Farrall, A. and Young, P. (2014). Microstrip to Rotated Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide Planar Transition. In: 2014 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC). IEEE. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2014.6996332.
A novel broadband planar microwave transition is presented for use in the Ku Band. The transition is from a microstrip transmission line to a rotated half-mode substrate integrated waveguide, using a high dielectric constant PTFE laminate. A key feature of the transition is that the electric field is rotated from vertical orientation at the microstrip input port to horizontal on the top dielectric surface at the output port.
Liu, Y., Ravelo, B., Young, P. and Jastrzebski, A. (2013). Analysis of time-domain near-field coupling for complex shape wiring systems. In: 2013 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. IEEE, pp. 966-971. Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6653441.
A predictive time-domain (TD) analysis of near-field (NF) coupling for complex shape wiring system is reported. Based on the Taylor model, methodological approach enabling to determine the transient voltage coupling induced by electromagnetic (EM) near-field action on the metallic wiring structure is presented. The basic steps indicating how the coupling time-dependent voltages were calculated are described. The feasibility of the TD calculation method under study was confirmed by investigating the NF coupling between 200-mm I-shape wire as a radiating culprit and Z-shape victim wire of 60mm distance. An arbitrary form pulse having 40-ns-time-width was considered as transient perturbation. Comparison between the time-dependent voltages calculated across the victim wire extremities and full wave simulations performed with a commercial tool is addressed. The potential application of the proposed method notably for EMC characterization is discussed.
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Young, P., Kelly, S. and Batchelor, J. (2012). Comparison of 3D scanned human models for off-body communications using motion capture. In: 2012 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). IEEE, pp. 1-4. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2012.6403082.
Body area networks are complex to analyze as there are several channel mechanisms occurring simultaneously, i.e. environmental multipath together with body motion and close coupling between worn antennas and human tissue. Electromagnetic (EM) simulation is an important tool since not all studies can be done on a real human. In order to gain insight into off-body communication involving a worn antenna, this paper uses a 3D animated model obtained from a 3D surface scanner and a motion capture system for full wave simulation of channels at 2.45 and 5.5GHz. To evaluate if the model can represent body area radio channels in general, a comparison of S21 of the simulated model with measurements from 5 other models of similar height to the main test subject is presented.
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Young, P. and Batchelor, J. (2011). Animated human walking movement for body worn antenna study. In: 2011 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference. IEEE. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2011.6113966.
This paper presents how an animated human model with walking movement has been created and used in the body worn electromagnetic simulation software, XFdtd. A 3D-surface scan of a human body has been combined with the walking movement captured using a motion capture system to generate the animated model. A comparison between measurement results taken on the real human subject and simulation results from the created animated model of the same human subject is examined to select the appropriate mesh size and material representing the body and antennas. The effect of body gesture on the on and off-body radio channels has been investigated with the ultimate aim of reducing transmit power between antennas.
Young, P. (2007). Scattering Parameters and Circuit Analysis. In: Collier, R. J. and Skinner, D. eds. Microwave Measurements, 3rd Edition. Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology, pp. 19-42.
Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Young, P., Bai, Q. and Batchelor, J. (2006). Compact UWB Monopole for System-on-Package Applications. In: IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, 2005. IEEE, pp. 68-71. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWAT.2006.1608977.
A novel compact, dual layer UWB monopole antenna is presented. This low profile ultra-wideband antenna is fed by a 50 omega shielded strip-line with an array of metal vias making the conducting walls. A circular shaped monopole is the radiating element. The dual layer, shielded strip line feeding design characteristic of the antenna allows for integration in multilayer System-on-Package technologies. The ultra-wideband, monopole characteristics of the antenna are confirmed experimentally.
Tse, S. and Young, P. (2006). Photonic Crystal Non-Radiative Dielectric Waveguide using Low Dielectric Constant Materials. In: 2006 IET Seminar on Metamaterials for Microwave and (Sub) Millimetrewave Applications. IEEE, pp. 128-130.
A Ka band non-radiative dielectric (NRD) waveguide formed by a low dielectric electromagnetic bandgap is presented. It is shown that the insertion loss of this guide is similar to that of a conventional NRD guide.
Votsi, H., Mirkhaydarov, B., Gillespie, S., Young, P., Shkunov, M. and Aaen, P. (2018). Modelling of Solution Processed Indium Arsenide Nanowire Microwave Switches. In: 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. IEEE, pp. 232-235. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/MWSYM.2018.8439648?.
This paper presents the modelling of a coplanarwaveguide bottom-gated FET switch using indium-arsenide nanowires. The nanowires have been included on the switch using dielectrophoresis, which is a solution processable technique. This is a necessary first step towards developing a fully printable switch on a flexible substrate, for low cost microwave devices, built using additive manufacturing methods. The measured S-parameters show the switching capabilities of the device with an insertion loss of 9 dB, when the switch is open (gate voltage ? 60 V). The development of a distributed circuit model that matches the measured data is described, alongside the calculated network parameters used to represent the coplanar-waveguide and the nanowires. The model fits the measured results within 8%, making it suitable for inclusion in a CAD based circuit simulator.
Cole, A., Ng, C., Almalki, F. and Young, P. (2016). Chipless RF liquid sensor. In: 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and RF Conference (IMaRC). IEEE, pp. 243-245. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IMaRC.2015.7411378.
A method for the wireless evaluation of the dielectric permittivity of liquids is presented. The use of a thin-film, slotted waveguide sleeve around a standard unplasticised polyvinyl chloride pipe is proposed. Wireless interrogation of the slot with a plane wave excites a resonant mode whose frequency is dependent on the dielectric permittivity within the pipe. The proposed method allows for measurements to be taken in situ with no need for samples. The device has good potential for very low-cost monitoring applications, which may require real-time, continuous assessment
Shukunov, M., Constantinou, M., Mirkhaydarov, B. and Young, P. (2014). Printed Nanowire Transistors for Reconfigurable Antenna Applications. In: Materials Research Society Fall Meeting and Exhibit.
Woods, M., Rakibet, O., Young, P., Alfredsson, M. and Batchelor, J. (2014). Integrated Antenna-Battery for Low-profile Short Range Communications. In: EuCAP 2014. Available at: http://www.eucap2014.org/.
An integrated antenna-battery was designed in order to function at 2.45GHz, with short range Bluetooth applications considered. The model was derived from a previous study in which an integrated system was first explored. The tan ? was investigated for the substrate and this new structure was found to give favourable gains and efficiencies compared to the previous study. Experimental parameters were also applied to the model in the presence of a dielectric material. These experimental
Lindo, A., Anju, P., Aanandan, C., Farrel, A. and Young, P. (2013). Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide without via. In: Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2013 Loughborough. IEEE, pp. 131-134. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2013.6711867.
SIW and HMSIW have been proven as one of the best solutions for millimeter-wave waveguide propagation. Fabrication of these structures requires expensive and problematic metalised via construction. In this paper we propose a new method to construct HMSIW without via which eliminate the fabrication difficulties and achieve the same performance. The concept is verified by simulation using CST®.
Farrall, A. and Young, P. (2013). Rotated Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide. In: Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2013 Loughborough. IEEE, pp. 514-517. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LAPC.2013.6711953.
This paper outlines a new variant of a Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide which enables direct interaction with the wave energy; the rotated Half-Mode SIW. SIW discontinuities are normally vias, but the rHMSIW allows SIW discontinuities to be fabricated directly in copper and hence improved manufacturing tolerances.
Yang, S., Young, P., Jastrzebski, A. and Ravelo, B. (2013). Equivalence between the near-field EM maps radiated by a cylindrical transmission line and a microstrip line. In: Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference.
Farrell, A., Wu, L., Xu, R. and Young, P. (2012). Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguides. In: 13th Antennas and Propagation Symposium. pp. 207-210.
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Kelly, S., Young, P. and Batchelor, J. (2012). Evaluation of 3D animated human model from 3D scanner and motion capture to be used in electromagnetic simulator for body-centric system. In: Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), 2012 5th International Conference. pp. 632-636. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BMEI.2012.6513037.
Body-worn physiological sensors can facilitate ambulatory patient monitoring, particularly if communication between sensors is wireless; but the communication channel must be robust. This paper presents how a 3D animated human model is created using a 3D scanner and a motion capture system. Then this model is used in XFdtd, electromagnetic simulation software to obtain body worn channel properties. Three walking gestures from the created model, wearing dual band metallic button antennas, DBMBAs, were simulated and compared with the original measurements carried out on the real test human model. Furthermore, verification of the 3D animated model was achieved by comparing the simulation results of the main test model with measurements from 5 additional test models
Anju, P., Lindo, A., Aanandan, C., Krishna, D. and Young, P. (2012). Novel Millimeter-Wave Antenna Array Using Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW). In: Advances in Computing and Communications (ICACC), 2012 International Conference. pp. 274-277. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICACC.2012.63.
A millimeter wave antenna using Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW) is presented. Narrow rectangular patch is used as radiating element fed by the open end of the HMSIW. Simulation results are presented for antenna array designed on Alumina substrate for 24GHz and 60GHz band.
Swaisaenyakorn, S., Young, P. and Batchelor, J. (2011). Animated Human Movement and Posture Capture for Body Worn Antenna Simulation. In: EuCAP 2011, 5th European Conference of Antennas and Propagation. pp. 3791-3795.
Young, P. (2010). Substrate Integrated Waveguides and Tuneable Devices. In: 12th Antennas and Propagation Symposium.
Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Wu, L., Batchelor, J. and Young, P. (2010). Textile Integrated Waveguide Slot Antenna. In: IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. pp. 1-4. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2010.5561831.
Rectangular waveguides (RWGs) are low loss guiding structures whose characteristics and advantages are well known. At microwave frequencies, they are traditionally found as hollow waveguides. A number of researchers have proposed the integration of RWGs to planar microwave circuits using multilayer LTCC, multi- and single-layer microwave laminates and photoimageable thick films. These so-called substrate integrated guides (SIW) result in dielectric filled rectangular waveguide and as such have a width reduction of ?r-1/2 over conventional waveguide. Several researchers have investigated microwave antennas in substrate-integrated waveguide technology.
Xu, R. and Young, P. (2009). Shielded Stripline Left-Handed Transmission Lines. In: 3rd International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics.
Wu, L., Sanz-Izquierdo, B. and Young, P. (2009). Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide Slot Antenna. In: 2009 IEEE AP-S International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation.
Henry, M., Free, C., Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Batchelor, J. and Young, P. (2007). A New Integrated Waveguide Antenna using Multi-Layer Photo-Imageable Thick Film Technology. In: European Microelectronic and Packaging Conference, EMPC 2007.
Henry, M., Free, C., Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Batchelor, J. and Young, P. (2006). Photo-Imageable Thick-Film Circuits up to 100 GhZ. In: 39th International Symposium on Microelectronics, IMAPS. pp. 230-236.
Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Young, P., Bai, Q. and Batchelor, J. (2006). Compact Dual Layer UWB Antennas. In: Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). pp. 233-235.
Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Young, P. and Batchelor, J. (2006). E-Band Waveguide Slot Array using Thick Film Processing. In: Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC). pp. 389-391.
Henry, M., Free, C., Sanz-Izquierdo, B., Batchelor, J. and Young, P. (2006). Integrated Slotted Waveguide Antenna Array using Photo-Imageable Thick-film Techniques for E-Band Operation. In: Antennas and Propagation Symposia. pp. 135-138.
WU, L. (2015). Substrate Integrated Waveguide Antenna Applications.
The research objective of this thesis is to provide a better solution for signal interference and reduce the size of waveguide antenna. The background investigations of different waveguide fabrication technologies and switch control methods are detailed in the introductory part of this thesis. Several novel substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) antennas for different purpose are demonstrated in the body of the thesis. The designs are mainly divided into two kinds.
The first focuses on the switch beam SIW antennas working at 2.4 GHz frequency band. Compared to the corresponding waveguide antennas of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), phased array and switch beam, the proposed SIW antennas have advantages in compact size, easy fabrication and high gain. By DC biasing the surface mounted PIN diodes, the waveguide slots radiate at diode-off state of reverse bias, and are shielded at diode-on state of forward bias. Based on different requirement, the SIW antennas can achieve two-direction, four-direction and six-direction transmission. The gain can be easily changed by extending the size of reflector walls.
The second focuses on reducing the volume of SIW antennas, working at 5 GHz frequency band. A new folded SIW antenna is introduced. By folded the antenna front end part to second layer, the SIW antenna reduces the total length by the size of one-quarter guided wavelength. This folded antenna can radiate either monopole mode or dipole mode, based on the metal surface area. Another two new SIW antennas reduce the total length by directly cutting the front-end part at the slot center. By utilized the intrinsic coupling radiation, the SIW antennas use two half-length slots at different broad-wall plane to achieve 360 degree propagation and wide-band end-fire radiation.
Farrall, A. (2015). Rotated Half-Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide and Other Planar Integrated Structures.
High data rate communication channels are becoming more and more integrated into our increasingly technological society. Substrate Integrated Waveguides (SIW) are one planar solution available to the microwave engineer, offering a low-loss and low dispersion means of propagating these high speed, high bandwidth signals.
In this thesis, a brief synopsis of SIW structures and components is presented covering the basic waveguide propagating modes and cut-off frequencies. The main analysis techniques associated with SIWs including full wave electromagnetic modelling methods are overviewed, and the associated loss mechanisms of conduction, dielectric and radiation defined, leading to the design rules and guidelines on how best to mitigate them.
SIW antennas as both leaky-wave and radiating slots are discussed and an example of a single and dual resonating slot antenna design is presented, along with a detailed review of a novel switch beam antenna developed for use within the current WiFi bands.
The Slot SIW (or SSIW), which has a small longitudinal gap in one of the main conducting surfaces, allows easy integration of lumped elements or active devices, enabling the waveguide to be loaded with impedances or to be shorted. When the slot is shorted, the waveguide reverts back to the full SIW mode, and when partially loaded an intermediate state results. This is discussed, and the SSIW analysed with the transverse resonance technique, leading to the development of a travelling wave attenuator with the SSIW being periodically loaded with pin diodes. The application of the pin diodes required the use of a capacitive overlay, a development of flexi circuit design to allow capacitive coupling of impedances to connect to the waveguide. The overlay concept is extended further, to form novel passive bandpass filters, with the introduction of virtual vias.
A limitation of the SSIW is that the majority of the field resides within the dielectric; this allows only a limited interaction with the field at the slot. The rotated Half Mode SIW (rHMSIW), a new variant of the SIW family, places the maximum of the electric field directly on the top dielectric surface, allowing for direct interaction. The waveguide width a is now defined by the dielectric thickness, allowing for the waveguide height b to be adjustable, in normal SIWs this is the other way round; the dielectric thickness fixing the waveguide height and the waveguide width being adjustable. The rHMSIW is characterised with regard to the height and width ratios b/a and the dielectric exposed width (which is adjustable). These parameters effect the modal cut-off frequency, this is investigated and a new equation describing the fundamental mode cut-off frequency is empirically derived. Finally a test coupon which spans the Ku band is designed and measured, which required the development of a novel waveguide transition.