The language of tuition is English for all elements of the programme, including the thesis. At selection stage (see 'How to Apply'), non-native speakers of English must demonstrate, through the acquisition of a recognized qualification, proficiency in English at level C1 (‘proficient user’) as defined in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). This can be done in various ways, for example with an IELTS (International English Language Testing System) certificate at level 7.0, or through a score of 100 (including a minimum 22 in both writing and reading) in the internet-based TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). The paper-based TOEFL is not acceptable.
Applicants who have taken a whole degree (and not just individual courses) where the medium of instruction is entirely in the English language are not required to submit an English language qualification. In this case, the applicant is required to furnish evidence that the degree was taught in the English language.
During the programme, candidates will have the opportunity to attend basic language courses in the consortium languages of their two chosen places of study unless they are already competent in those languages. This will enable a good understanding of the technical vocabulary of criminology as well as a sensitivity to the differences and nuances of the host language in key areas of criminology. Language training opportunities will be provided at all four sites at no additional cost. These language courses are not used for credit towards the doctorate, but are recognised as an essential tool in the professional and personal development of the candidates. Candidates will be encouraged to document their language abilities through Europass