Accounting and Finance and Economics

Mathematics and Accounting and Finance - BA (Hons)

UCAS code GN14

2019

Our modern world is heavily reliant on financial markets. Financial institutions depend on skilled individuals to manage their portfolios, applying mathematical modelling, statistical analysis and the problem-solving know-how of mathematics graduates.

Overview

Our joint honours programme combines the in-house expertise of our internationally-renowned mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries, with the industry know-how of Kent Business School lecturers to ensure you are fully prepared for your future career.

You will be encouraged to fulfil your potential whilst studying in our friendly and dynamic school based in the multi-award-winning Sibson Building.

Our degree programme

To help bridge the gap between school and university, you’ll attend small group tutorials in Stage 1, where you can practice the new mathematics you’ll be learning, ask questions and work with other students to find solutions. You’ll study a mixture of pure and applied mathematics, statistics and economics, providing you with a solid foundation for your later studies.

In Stage 2, you study some core modules from both the School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science and the Kent Business School which build upon the material learnt at Stage 1. You also start to tailor your degree to your interests through our range of optional modules, continuing to explore the areas you enjoy into Stage 3. 

Throughout your studies you’ll gain specialist skills and knowledge that respond to the needs and expectations of the modern accountancy and finance profession, allowing you to get a head-start in your chosen career.

Year in Industry

If you want to gain paid industry experience as part of your degree programme, our popular Year in Industry programme may be for you. If you decide to take the Year in Industry, our in-house Placements Team will support you in developing the skills and knowledge needed to successfully secure a placement through a specialist programme of workshops and events.

Foundation Year

If your grades do not qualify you for direct entry to this programme, you may be able to take this degree with a foundation year. For more details see Mathematics including a Foundation Year.

Study resources

You have access to a range of professional mathematical and statistical software such as:

  • Maple
  • MATLAB
  • Minitab.

Our staff use these packages in their teaching and research.

Extra activities

The School of Mathematics and Actuarial Science Student Society is run by students. It aims to improve the student experience for its members, socially and academically. In previous years the Society has organised:

  • talks and workshops
  • extra revision sessions
  • socials and networking events.
  • seminars and workshops employability events.

The School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science also puts on regular events that you are welcome to attend. In the past, these have included:

  • seminars and workshops
  • employability events.

Independent rankings

Mathematics at Kent scored 91.5 out of 100 in The Complete University Guide 2019.

In the National Student Survey 2018, over 87% of final-year Mathematics and Statistics students who completed the survey, were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.

Of Mathematics and Statistics students who graduated from Kent in 2017 and completed a national survey, over 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Teaching Excellence Framework

Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.

Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.

TEF Gold logo

Course structure

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  

On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take ‘elective’ modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.

Stage 1

Compulsory modules currently include Credits

This is an introductory module to introduce students to the role and evolution of accounting

Topics to be covered may include: single entry accounting; double entry bookkeeping; financial reporting conventions; recording transactions and adjusting entries; principal financial statements; institutional requirements; auditing; monetary items; purchases and sales; bad and doubtful debts; inventory valuation; non-current assets and depreciation methods; liabilities; sole traders and clubs, partnerships, companies; capital structures; cash flow statements; interpretation of accounts through ratio analysis; problems of, and alternatives to, historical cost accounting.

View full module details
30

This module is designed for students who have not studied Microeconomics for Business before or who have not previously completed a comprehensive introductory course in economics. However, the content is such that it is also appropriate for students with A-level Economics or equivalent, as it focuses on the analysis, tools and knowledge of microeconomics for business.

The module applies economics to business issues and each topic is introduced assuming no previous knowledge of the subject. The lectures and related seminar programme explain the economic principles underlying the analysis of each topic and relate the theory to the real world and business examples. In particular, many examples are taken from the real world to show how economic analysis and models can be used to understand the different parts of business and how policy has been used to intervene in the working of the economy. Workshops are included in the module to apply economic analysis and techniques to business situations.

The module is carefully designed to tell you what topics are covered under each major subject area, to give readings for these subjects, and to provide a list of different types of questions to test and extend your understanding of the material.

View full module details
15

Introduction to R and investigating data sets. Basic use of R (Input and manipulation of data). Graphical representations of data. Numerical summaries of data.

Sampling and sampling distributions. ?² distribution. t-distribution. F-distribution. Definition of sampling distribution. Standard error. Sampling distribution of sample mean (for arbitrary distributions) and sample variance (for normal distribution) .

Point estimation. Principles. Unbiased estimators. Bias, Likelihood estimation for samples of discrete r.v.s

Interval estimation. Concept. One-sided/two-sided confidence intervals. Examples for population mean, population variance (with normal data) and proportion.

Hypothesis testing. Concept. Type I and II errors, size, p-values and power function. One-sample test, two sample test and paired sample test. Examples for population mean and population variance for normal data. Testing hypotheses for a proportion with large n. Link between hypothesis test and confidence interval. Goodness-of-fit testing.

Association between variables. Product moment and rank correlation coefficients. Two-way contingency tables. ?² test of independence.

View full module details
15

This module serves as an introduction to algebraic methods and linear algebra methods. These are central in modern mathematics, having found applications in many other sciences and also in our everyday life.

Indicative module content:

Basic set theory, Functions and Relations, Systems of linear equations and Gaussian elimination, Matrices and Determinants, Vector spaces and Linear Transformations, Diagonalisation, Orthogonality.

View full module details
15

This module introduces widely-used mathematical methods for functions of a single variable. The emphasis is on the practical use of these methods; key theorems are stated but not proved at this stage. Tutorials and Maple worksheets will be used to support taught material.

Complex numbers: Complex arithmetic, the complex conjugate, the Argand diagram, de Moivre's Theorem, modulus-argument form; elementary functions

Polynomials: Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (statement only), roots, factorization, rational functions, partial fractions

Single variable calculus: Differentiation, including product and chain rules; Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (statement only), elementary integrals, change of variables, integration by parts, differentiation of integrals with variable limits

Scalar ordinary differential equations (ODEs): definition; methods for first-order ODEs; principle of superposition for linear ODEs; particular integrals; second-order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; initial-value problems

Curve sketching: graphs of elementary functions, maxima, minima and points of inflection, asymptotes

View full module details
15

This module introduces widely-used mathematical methods for vectors and functions of two or more variables. The emphasis is on the practical use of these methods; key theorems are stated but not proved at this stage. Tutorials and Maple worksheets will be used to support taught material.

Vectors: Cartesian coordinates; vector algebra; scalar, vector and triple products (and geometric interpretation); straight lines and planes expressed as vector equations; parametrized curves; differentiation of vector-valued functions of a scalar variable; tangent vectors; vector fields (with everyday examples)

Partial differentiation: Functions of two variables; partial differentiation (including the chain rule and change of variables); maxima, minima and saddle points; Lagrange multipliers

Integration in two dimensions: Double integrals in Cartesian coordinates; plane polar coordinates; change of variables for double integrals; line integrals; Green's theorem (statement – justification on rectangular domains only)

View full module details
15

Introduction to Probability. Concepts of events and sample space. Set theoretic description of probability, axioms of probability, interpretations of probability (objective and subjective probability).

Theory for unstructured sample spaces. Addition law for mutually exclusive events. Conditional probability. Independence. Law of total probability. Bayes' theorem. Permutations and combinations. Inclusion-Exclusion formula.

Discrete random variables. Concept of random variable (r.v.) and their distribution. Discrete r.v.: Probability function (p.f.). (Cumulative) distribution function (c.d.f.). Mean and variance of a discrete r.v. Examples: Binomial, Poisson, Geometric.

Continuous random variables. Probability density function; mean and variance; exponential, uniform and normal distributions; normal approximations: standardisation of the normal and use of tables. Transformation of a single r.v.

Joint distributions. Discrete r.v.'s; independent random variables; expectation and its application.

Generating functions. Idea of generating functions. Probability generating functions (pgfs) and moment generating functions (mgfs). Finding moments from pgfs and mgfs. Sums of independent random variables.

Laws of Large Numbers. Weak law of large numbers. Central Limit Theorem.

View full module details
15

Stage 2

Compulsory modules currently include Credits

Macroeconomics for business offers the possibility of analysing economic activity in a national economy and its interrelationships. Emphasis is on understanding the important questions in determination of level of national output, aggregate spending and fiscal policy, money supply and financial crisis, determinants of economic growth and relevant economic policies. The module explains the role of economic policies in addressing economic problems such as unemployment and inflation. Theoretical concepts are illustrated from a range of UK economy and international applications.

View full module details
15

This module is concerned with the principles which underlie the investment and financing decision making process. Before a rational decision can be made objectives need to be considered and models need to be built. Short-term decisions are dealt with first, together with relevant costs. One such cost is the time value of money. This leads to long term investment decisions which are examined using the economic theory of choice, first assuming perfect capital markets and certainty. These assumptions are then relaxed so that such problems as incorporating capital rationing and risk into the investment decision are fully considered. The module proceeds by looking at the financing decision. The financial system within which business organisations operate is examined, followed by the specific sources and costs of long and short-term capital, including the management of fixed and working capital

View full module details
30

In this module we will study linear partial differential equations, we will explore their properties and discuss the physical interpretation of certain equations and their solutions. We will learn how to solve first order equations using the method of characteristics and second order equations using the method of separation of variables.

Introduction to linear PDEs: Review of partial differentiation; first-order linear PDEs, the heat equation, Laplace's equation and the wave equation, with simple models that lead to these equations; the superposition principle; initial and boundary conditions

Separation of variables and series solutions: The method of separation of variables; simple separable solutions of the heat equation and Laplace’s equation; Fourier series; orthogonality of the Fourier basis; examples and interpretation of solutions

Solution by characteristics: the method of characteristics for first-order linear PDEs; examples and interpretation of solutions; characteristics of the wave equation; d’Alembert’s solution, with examples; domains of influence and dependence; causality.

View full module details
15
Optional modules may include Credits

Probability: Joint distributions of two or more discrete or continuous random variables. Marginal and conditional distributions. Independence. Properties of expectation, variance, covariance and correlation. Poisson process and its application. Sums of random variables with a random number of terms.

Transformations of random variables: Various methods for obtaining the distribution of a function of a random variable —method of distribution functions, method of transformations, method of generating functions. Method of transformations for several variables. Convolutions. Approximate method for transformations.

Sampling distributions: Sampling distributions related to the Normal distribution — distribution of sample mean and sample variance; independence of sample mean and variance; the t distribution in one- and two-sample problems.

Statistical inference: Basic ideas of inference — point and interval estimation, hypothesis testing.

Point estimation: Methods of comparing estimators — bias, variance, mean square error, consistency, efficiency. Method of moments estimation. The likelihood and log-likelihood functions. Maximum likelihood estimation.

Hypothesis testing: Basic ideas of hypothesis testing — null and alternative hypotheses; simple and composite hypotheses; one and two-sided alternatives; critical regions; types of error; size and power. Neyman-Pearson lemma. Simple null hypothesis versus composite alternative. Power functions. Locally and uniformly most powerful tests. Composite null hypotheses. The maximum likelihood ratio test.

Interval estimation: Confidence limits and intervals. Intervals related to sampling from the Normal distribution. The method of pivotal functions. Confidence intervals based on the large sample distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator – Fisher information, Cramer-Rao lower bound. Relationship with hypothesis tests. Likelihood-based intervals.

View full module details
15

This module is an introduction to the methods, tools and ideas of numerical computation. In mathematics, one often encounters standard problems for which there are no easily obtainable explicit solutions, given by a closed formula. Examples might be the task of determining the value of a particular integral, finding the roots of a certain non-linear equation or approximating the solution of a given differential equation. Different methods are presented for solving such problems on a modern computer, together with their applicability and error analysis. A significant part of the module is devoted to programming these methods and running them in MATLAB.

Introduction: Importance of numerical methods; short description of flops, round-off error, conditioning

Solution of linear and non-linear equations: bisection, Newton-Raphson, fixed point iteration

Interpolation and polynomial approximation: Taylor polynomials, Lagrange interpolation, divided differences, splines

Numerical integration: Newton-Cotes rules, Gaussian rules

Numerical differentiation: finite differences

Introduction to initial value problems for ODEs: Euler methods, trapezoidal method, Runge-Kutta methods.

View full module details
15

Formulation/Mathematical modelling of optimisation problems

Linear Optimisation: Graphical method, Simplex method, Phase I method, Dual problems,

Transportation problem.

Non-linear Optimisation: Unconstrained one dimensional problems, Unconstrained high dimensional problems, Constrained optimisation.

View full module details
15

This module introduces the basic ideas to solve certain ordinary differential equations, like first order scalar equations, second order linear equations and systems of linear equations. It mainly considers their qualitative and analytical aspects. Outline syllabus includes: First-order scalar ODEs; Second-order scalar linear ODEs; Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions; Autonomous systems of two linear first-order ODEs.

View full module details
15

The security of our phone calls, bank transfers, etc. all rely on one area of Mathematics: Number Theory. This module is an elementary introduction to this wide area and focuses on solving Diophantine equations. In particular, we discuss (without proof) Fermat's Last Theorem, arguably one of the most spectacular mathematical achievements of the twentieth century. Outline syllabus includes: Modular Arithmetic; Prime Numbers; Introduction to Cryptography; Quadratic Residues; Diophantine Equations.

View full module details
15

This module covers aspects of Statistics which are particularly relevant to insurance. Some topics (such as risk theory and credibility theory) have been developed specifically for actuarial use. Other areas (such as Bayesian Statistics) have been developed in other contexts but now find applications in actuarial fields. Stochastic processes of events such as accidents, together with the financial flow of their payouts underpin much of the work. Since the earliest games of chance, the probability of ruin has been a topic of interest. Outline Syllabus includes: Decision Theory; Bayesian Statistics; Loss Distributions; Reinsurance; Credibility Theory; Empirical Bayes Credibility theory; Risk Models; Ruin Theory; Generalised Linear Models; Run-off Triangles.

View full module details
15

Constructing suitable models for data is a key part of statistics. For example, we might want to model the yield of a chemical process in terms of the temperature and pressure of the process. Even if the temperature and pressure are fixed, there will be variation in the yield which motivates the use of a statistical model which includes a random component. In this module, we study how suitable models can be constructed, how to fit them to data and how suitable conclusions can be drawn. Both theoretical and practical aspects are covered, including the use of R.

View full module details
15

Year in industry

You can choose to spend a year working in industry between Stages 2 and 3. We can offer help and advice in finding a placement. 

Spending a year in industry greatly enhances your CV and gives you the opportunity to put your academic skills into practice. It also gives you an idea of possible career options. Recent placements have included IBM, management consultancies, government departments, actuarial firms and banks.

Stage 3

Compulsory modules currently include Credits

The module will aim to cover the following topics:

• the conceptual framework of financial reporting

• the financial reporting environment

• the regulation of financial reporting

• group accounting

• the International Accounting Standards Board

• content and application of International Accounting Standards as appropriate

• accounting standards

• accounting for transactions in financial statements

View full module details
30
Optional modules may include Credits

A synopsis of the curriculum

The module will aim to cover the following topics:

• The UK tax system including the overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy, different types of taxes, principal sources of revenue law and practice, tax avoidance and tax evasion.

• Income tax liabilities including the scope of income tax, income from employment and self-employment, property and investment income, the computation of taxable income and income tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities.

• Corporation tax liabilities including the scope of corporation tax, profits chargeable to corporation tax, the computation of corporation tax liability, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising corporation tax liabilities.

• Chargeable gains including the scope of taxation of capital gains, the basic principles of computing gains and losses, gains and losses on the disposal of movable and immovable property, gains and losses on the disposal of shares and securities, the computation of capital gains tax payable by individuals, the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets.

• National insurance contributions including the scope of national insurance, class 1 and 1A contributions for employed persons, class 2 and 4 contributions for self-employed persons.

• Value added tax including the scope of VAT, registration requirements, computation of VAT liabilities.

• Inheritance tax and the use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities. Introduction to international tax strategy, implementation, compliance and defence. An understanding of principles of normative ethics in business and in taxation from local and global perspectives.

• The obligations of taxpayers and/or their agents including the systems for self-assessment and the making of returns, the time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax, the procedures relating to enquiries, appeals and disputes, penalties for non-compliance.

View full module details
30

This module is concerned with International Investment Banks’ products and strategies that involve the description and analyses of the characteristics of more commonly used financial derivative instruments such as forward and future contracts, swaps, and options involving commodities, interest, and equities markets. Modern financial techniques are used to value financial derivatives. The main emphasis of the module is on how International Investment Banks value, replicate, and arbitrage the financial instruments and how they encourage their clients to use derivative products to implement risk management strategies in the context of corporate applications.

In particular, students will first cover the topics related to forward, futures and swap contracts. They will then be introduced to options and various strategies thereof. Valuing options using Black-Scholes model and binomial trees is also an important part of the module. The important finance concepts of no-arbitrage and risk-neutral valuation and their implications for pricing financial derivatives are also covered in the module. This will help students to learn the techniques used in valuing financial derivatives and hedging risk exposure.

Successful completion of the module will provide a solid base for the student wishing to pursue a career in International Investment Banking and Treasury Management. The students will have the knowledge of essential techniques of risk management and financial derivative trading.

View full module details
30

This module begins with a focus on the financial system of the UK, including the major players in the markets and key interrelations. It then proceeds to cover key topics, including: advanced portfolio theory, the capital asset pricing model, arbitrage pricing theory, the implications and empirical evidence relating to the efficient market hypothesis, capital structure and the cost of capital in a taxation environment, interaction of investment and financing decisions, decomposition of risk, options and pricing, risk management, dividends and dividend valuation models, mergers and failures and evaluating financial strategies.

View full module details
30

This module will cover the following topics:

• The historical development of auditing

• The nature, importance, objectives and underlying theory of auditing

• The philosophy, concepts and basic postulates of auditing

• The regulatory and socio-economic environment within which auditing process takes place

• Auditing implications of agency theories of the firm

• Auditing implications of the efficient markets hypothesis

• The statutory and contractual bases of auditing, including auditing regulation and auditors' legal duties and liabilities

• Truth and fairness in financial reporting

• Materiality and audit judgement

• Audit independence

• The nature and causes of the audit expectation gap

• Auditors' professional ethics and standards

• Audit quality control, planning, programming, performance, supervision and review

• The nature and types of audit evidence

• Principles of internal control

• Systems based auditing and the nature and relationship of compliance and substantive testing

• The audit risk model and statistical sampling

• Audit procedures for major classes of assets, liabilities, income and expenditure

• Audit reporting.

View full module details
30

The origins of Bayesian inference lie in Bayes' Theorem for density functions; the likelihood function and the prior distribution combine to provide a posterior distribution which reflects beliefs about an unknown parameter based on the data and prior beliefs. Statistical inference is determined solely by the posterior distribution. So, for example, an estimate of the parameter could be the mean value of the posterior distribution. This module will provide a full description of Bayesian analysis and cover popular models, such as the normal distribution. Initially, the flavour will be one of describing the Bayesian counterparts to well known classical procedures such as hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. Outline Syllabus includes: Bayes Theorem for density functions; Exchangeability; Choice of priors; Conjugate models; Predictive distribution; Bayes estimates; Sampling density functions; Gibbs samplers; OpenBUGS; Bayesian hierarchical models; Applications of hierarchical models; Bayesian model choice.

View full module details
15

Most differential equations which arise from physical systems cannot be solved explicitly in closed form, and thus numerical solutions are an invaluable way to obtain information about the underlying physical system. The first half of the module is concerned with ordinary differential equations. Several different numerical methods are introduced and error growth is studied. Both initial value and boundary value problems are investigated. The second half of the module deals with the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The syllabus includes: initial value problems for ordinary differential equations; Taylor methods; Runge-Kutta methods; multistep methods; error bounds and stability; boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations; finite difference schemes; difference schemes for partial differential equations; iterative methods; stability analysis.

View full module details
15

Combinatorics is a field in mathematics that studies discrete, usually finite, structures, such as graphs. It not only plays an important role in numerous parts of mathematics, but also has real world applications. In particular, it underpins a variety of computational processes used in digital technologies and the design of computing hardware.

Among other things, this module provides an introduction to graph theory. Graphs are discrete objects consisting of vertices that are connected by edges. We will discuss a variety of concepts and results in graph theory, and some fundamental graph algorithms. Topics may include, but are not restricted to: trees, shortest paths problems, walks on graphs, graph colourings and embeddings, flows and matchings, and matrices and graphs.

View full module details
15

Introduction: Principles and examples of stochastic modelling, types of stochastic process, Markov property and Markov processes, short-term and long-run properties. Applications in various research areas.

Random walks: The simple random walk. Walk with two absorbing barriers. First–step decomposition technique. Probabilities of absorption. Duration of walk. Application of results to other simple random walks. General random walks. Applications.

Discrete time Markov chains: n–step transition probabilities. Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. Classification of states. Equilibrium and stationary distribution. Mean recurrence times. Simple estimation of transition probabilities. Time inhomogeneous chains. Elementary renewal theory. Simulations. Applications.

Continuous time Markov chains: Transition probability functions. Generator matrix. Kolmogorov forward and backward equations. Poisson process. Birth and death processes. Time inhomogeneous chains. Renewal processes. Applications.

Queues and branching processes: Properties of queues - arrivals, service time, length of the queue, waiting times, busy periods. The single-server queue and its stationary behaviour. Queues with several servers. Branching processes. Applications.

Marks on this module can count towards exemption from the professional examination CT4 of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries. Please see http://www.kent.ac.uk/casri/Accreditation/index.html for further details.

View full module details
15

A time series is a collection of observations made sequentially in time. Examples occur in a variety of fields, ranging from economics to engineering, and methods of analysing time series constitute an important area of statistics. This module focuses initially on various time series models, including some recent developments, and provides modern statistical tools for their analysis. The second part of the module covers extensively simulation methods. These methods are becoming increasingly important tools as simulation models can be easily designed and run on modern PCs. Various practical examples are considered to help students tackle the analysis of real data.The syllabus includes: Difference equations, Stationary Time Series: ARMA process. Nonstationary Processes: ARIMA Model Building and Testing: Estimation, Box Jenkins, Criteria for choosing between models, Diagnostic tests.Forecasting: Box-Jenkins, Prediction bounds. Testing for Trends and Unit Roots: Dickey-Fuller, ADF, Structural change, Trend-stationarity vs difference stationarity. Seasonality and Volatility: ARCH, GARCH, ML estimation. Multiequation Time Series Models: Spectral Analysis. Generation of pseudo – random numbers, simulation methods: inverse transform and acceptance-rejection, design issues and sensitivity analysis.

Marks on this module can count towards exemption from the professional examination CT6 of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries. Please see http://www.kent.ac.uk/casri/Accreditation/index.html for further details.

View full module details
15

There is no specific mathematical syllabus for this module; students will chose a topic in mathematics, statistics or financial mathematics from a published list on which to base their coursework assessments (different topics for levels 6 and 7). The coursework is supported by a series of workshops covering various forms of written and oral communication. These may include critically evaluating the following: a research article in mathematics, statistics or finance; a survey or magazine article aimed at a scientifically-literate but non-specialist audience; a mathematical biography; a poster presentation of a mathematical topic; a curriculum vitae; an oral presentation with slides or board; a video or podcast on a mathematical topic. Guidance will be given on typesetting mathematics using LaTeX.

View full module details
15

In this module we study the fundamental concepts and results in game theory. We start by analysing combinatorial games, and discuss game trees, winning strategies, and the classification of positions in so called impartial combinatorial games. We then move on to discuss two-player zero-sum games and introduce security levels, pure and mixed strategies, and prove the famous von Neumann Minimax Theorem. We will see how to solve zero-sum two player games using domination and discuss a general method based on linear programming. Subsequently we analyse arbitrary sum two-player games and discuss utility, best responses, Nash equilibria, and the Nash Equilibrium Theorem. The final part of the module is devoted to multi-player games and cooperation; we analyse coalitions, the core of the game, and the Shapley value.

View full module details
15

Sampling: Simple random sampling. Sampling for proportions and percentages. Estimation of sample size. Stratified sampling. Systematic sampling. Ratio and regression estimates. Cluster sampling. Multi-stage sampling and design effect. Questionnaire design. Response bias and non-response.

General principles of experimental design: blocking, randomization, replication. One-way ANOVA. Two-way ANOVA. Orthogonal and non-orthogonal designs. Factorial designs: confounding, fractional replication. Analysis of covariance.

Design of clinical trials: blinding, placebos, eligibility, ethics, data monitoring and interim analysis. Good clinical practice, the statistical analysis plan, the protocol. Equivalence and noninferiority.

View full module details
15

Multivariate normal distribution, Inference from multivariate normal samples, principal component analysis, mixture models, factor analysis, clustering methods, discrimination and classification, graphical models, the use of appropriate software.

View full module details
15

• Scalar autonomous nonlinear first-order ODEs. Review of steady states and their stability; the slope fields and phase lines.

• Autonomous systems of two nonlinear first-order ODEs. The phase plane; Equilibra and nullclines; Linearisation about equilibra; Stability analysis; Constructing phase portraits; Applications. Nondimensionalisation.

• Stability, instability and limit cycles. Liapunov functions and Liapunov's theorem; periodic solutions and limit cycles; Bendixson's Negative Criterion; The Dulac criterion; the Poincare-Bendixson theorem; Examples.

• Dynamics of first order difference equations. Linear first order difference equations; Simple models and cobwebbing: a graphical procedure of solution; Equilibrium points and their stability; Periodic solutions and cycles. The discrete logistic model and bifurcations.

View full module details
15

Linear PDEs. Dispersion relations. Review of d'Alembert’s solutions of the wave equation. Review of Fourier transforms for solving linear diffusion equations.

Quasi-linear first-order PDEs. Total differential equations. Integral curves and integrability conditions. The method of characteristics.

Shock waves. Discontinuous solutions. Breaking time. Rankine-Hugoniot jump condition. Shock waves. Rarefaction waves. Applications of shock waves, including traffic flow.

General first-order nonlinear PDEs. Charpit's method, Monge Cone, the complete integral.

Nonlinear PDEs. Burgers' equation; the Cole-Hopf transformation and exact solutions. Travelling wave and scaling solutions of nonlinear PDEs. Applications of travelling wave and scaling solutions to reaction-diffusion equations. Exact solutions of nonlinear PDEs. Applications of nonlinear waves, including to ocean waves (e.g. rogue waves, tsunamis).

View full module details
15

Statistics methods contribute significantly to areas such as biology, ecology, sociology and economics. The real data collected does not always follow standard statistical models. This module looks at modern statistical models and methods that can be utilised for such data, making use of R programs to execute these methods.

Indicative module content: Motivating examples; model fitting through maximum likelihood for specific examples; function optimization methods; profile likelihood; score tests; Wald tests; confidence interval construction; latent variable models; EM algorithm; mixture models; simulation methods; importance sampling; kernel density estimation; Monte Carlo inference; bootstrap; permutation tests; R programs.

View full module details
15

Teaching and assessment

Teaching is by a combination of lectures and seminars. Modules that involve programming or working with computer software packages usually include practical sessions.

Assessment is by a combination of coursework and examination.  Both Stage 2 and 3 marks count towards your final degree result.

Contact Hours

For a student studying full time, each academic year of the programme will comprise 1200 learning hours which include both direct contact hours and private study hours.  The precise breakdown of hours will be subject dependent and will vary according to modules.  Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.

Methods of assessment will vary according to subject specialism and individual modules.  Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.

Programme aims

For programme aims to:

  • equip students with the technical appreciation, skills and knowledge appropriate to graduates in Mathematics and Accounting and Finance.
  • develop students’ facilities of rigorous reasoning and precise expression.
  • develop students’ capabilities to formulate and solve mathematical problems.
  • develop in students appreciation of recent developments in Mathematics, and of the links between the theory of Mathematics and its practical application.
  • develop in students a logical, mathematical approach to solving problems.
  • develop in students an enhanced capacity for independent thought and work.
  • ensure students are competent in the use of information technology, and are familiar with computers, together with the relevant software.
  • provide students with opportunities to study advanced topics in Mathematics and develop communication and personal skills.
  • (for the programme involving a year in industry) enable students to gain awareness of the application of technical concepts in the workplace.
  • develop students’ understanding of some of the contexts in which accounting operates
  • develop students’ understanding of aspects of the conceptual underpinning to accounting
  • provide students with knowledge, understanding and skills, predominantly from a UK perspective, relevant to a career in accounting or a related area and professional training in accounting provide students with opportunities to obtain a range of exemptions at the initial stages of professional examinations.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • Core mathematical understanding in the principles of calculus, algebra, mathematical methods, discrete mathematics, analysis and linear algebra. 
  • Statistical understanding in the subjects of probability and inference. 
  • Information technology skills as relevant to mathematicians. 
  • Methods and techniques of mathematics. 
  • The role of logical mathematical argument and deductive reasoning. 
  • Some of the contexts in which accounting operates 
  • Aspects of the conceptual underpinning to accounting 
  • The main current technical language and practices of accounting in the UK
  • Some of the alternative technical languages and practices of accounting


Intellectual skills

You develop your intellectual skills in the following areas:

  • Ability to demonstrate a reasonable understanding of the basic body of knowledge for Mathematics. 
  • Ability to demonstrate a reasonable level of skill in calculation and manipulation of the material written within the programme and some capability to solve problems formulated within it. 
  • Ability to apply a range of core concepts and principles in well-defined contexts relevant to mathematics. 
  • Ability to use logical argument. 
  • Ability to demonstrate skill in solving mathematical problems by various appropriate methods. 
  • Ability in relevant computer skills and usage. 
  • Ability to work with relatively little guidance. 
  • Critically evaluate arguments and evidence.
  • Analyse and draw reasoned conclusions concerning structures and, to a more limited extent, unstructured problems.
  • Apply numeracy skills.


Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in the following areas:

  • Ability to demonstrate knowledge of core mathematical concepts and topics, both explicitly and by applying them to the solution of problems. 
  • Ability to comprehend problems, abstract the essentials of problems and formulate them mathematically and in symbolic form so as to facilitate their analysis and solution. 
  • Ability to use computational and more general IT facilities as an aid to mathematical processes. 
  • Ability to present their mathematical arguments and the conclusions from them with clarity and accuracy. 
  • Record and summarise economic events.
  • Prepare financial statements.
  • Undertake financial analysis and prepare financial projections.


Transferable skills

You gain transferable skills in the following areas:

  • Problem-solving skills, relating to qualitative and quantitative information. 
  • Communication skills, covering both written and oral communication. 
  • Numeracy and computational skills. 
  • Information technology skills such as word-processing and spreadsheet use, internet communication, etc. 
  • Personal and interpersonal skills, work as a member of a team.
  • Time-management and organisational skills, as evidenced by the ability to plan and implement efficient and effective modes of working. 
  • Study skills needed for continuing professional development. 
  • Locate, extract and analyse data from multiple sources.
  • Undertake independent and self-managed learning.
  • Use communications and information technology in acquiring, analysing and communicating information.
  • Communicate effectively.
  • Work in groups and apply other inter-personal skills.


Careers

Recent graduates have gone into careers in accountancy training with firms such as KPMG and Ernst & Young, medical statistics, the pharmaceutical industry, the aerospace industry, software development, teaching, actuarial work, Civil Service statistics, chartered accountancy, the oil industry and postgraduate research.

You acquire many transferable skills including the ability to deal with challenging ideas, to think critically, to write well and to present your ideas clearly, all of which are considered essential by graduate employers.

Professional recognition

The degree provides various exemptions from the examinations of the Institute of Chartered Accountants.

Kent is consistently ranked highly in university league tables, which is testimony to the high academic standards achieved by its graduates.

Christine Livingston Accounting and Finance BA

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice. 

It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

New GCSE grades

If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

ABB including Mathematics at grade A. Use of Maths A level is not accepted as a required subject. Only one of General Studies or Critical Thinking can count as a third A level.

If taking both A level Mathematics and A level Further Mathematics:

ABC including Mathematics at grade A and Further Mathematics at grade C. Use of Maths A level is not accepted as a required subject. Only one of General Studies or Critical Thinking can count as a third A level.

Access to HE Diploma

The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. 

If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 16 points at HL including Mathematics 6 at HL

International students

The University receives applications from over 140 different nationalities and consequently will consider applications from prospective students offering a wide range of international qualifications. Our International Development Office will be happy to advise prospective students on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about our country-specific requirements.

Please note that if you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, the School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science offers a foundation year.

English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme. 

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Fees

The 2019/20 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £15700

For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* 

Your fee status

The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.

Fees for Year in Industry

For 2019/20 entrants, the standard year in industry fee for home, EU and international students is £1,385

Fees for Year Abroad

UK, EU and international students on an approved year abroad for the full 2019/20 academic year pay £1,385 for that year. 

Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status. 

General additional costs

Find out more about accommodation and living costs, plus general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details. 

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. 

The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either mathematics or a modern foreign language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. 

Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.