Edwards, M., Leite, A., Randsley de Moura, G., & Marques, A. (2020). Let’s talk about Brexit: Intra-organizational communication, citizenship status, procedural justice and job insecurity in a context of potential immigration threat. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. doi:10.1080/09585192.2020.1754883
In this study we investigate the degree to which procedural justice and Brexit related intra-organizational communication interact with UK-citizenship status in alleviating/fostering job-insecurity. Intra-organizational communication is often negatively associated with job insecurity (Keim, Landis, Pierce and Earnest, 2014), especially in contexts of turmoil and uncertainty; we suggest that this association will depend upon citizenship status and whether employees work in a procedurally just organization. In a survey of 682 employees, we measured the degree to which organizations are perceived to communicate about Brexit, procedural justice, and job insecurity. We found a three-way interaction between procedural justice, citizenship status, and Brexit communication when predicting job insecurity. When experiencing low levels of procedural justice, employees were more responsive to Brexit communication. For non-UK citizens in low justice conditions, Brexit communication was associated with lower job insecurity; for UK citizens in the same lower justice conditions, Brexit communication was associated with higher job insecurity. These effects were less pronounced for employees who perceived their employer to be more procedurally just. The study highlights that procedurally just work environments can help ensure that employees do not respond negatively to organizational attempts at open communication when faced with uncertain contexts.
Morais, C., Abrams, D., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2020). Ethics Versus Success? The Acceptance of Unethical Leadership in the 2016 US Presidential Elections. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03089
Before and after the 2016 US Presidential Election, this research examined Trump and Clinton supporters’ attributions about behavior of each leader, both of whose ethicality had been publicly questioned. American voters (N = 268) attributed significantly more dispositional factors to the outgroup leader than to the ingroup leader. Moreover, when the ingroup candidate won the election (i.e., among Trump supporters), unethical leadership subsequently became more acceptable and there was less desire to tighten the election process when dealing with unethical candidates. The opposite pattern was found among voters whose ingroup candidate lost the election (Clinton supporters). The results and implications are discussed.
Tresh, F., Steeden, B., Randsley de Moura, G., Leite, A., Swift, H., & Player, A. (2019). Endorsing and Reinforcing Gender and Age Stereotypes: The Negative Effect on Self-Rated Leadership Potential for Women and Older Workers. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 688. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00688
Previous research has examined the impact of stereotypes on outcomes such as
career progression and hiring decisions. We present a novel approach to examine
the role of stereotypes in predicting self-rated leadership potential across gender and
age groups. This research sheds light on the impact of leadership-incongruent and
detrimental stereotypes about one’s gender and age, for women and older workers, on
self-ratings of leadership potential. Across three studies (total N = 640), correlational and
experimental evidence shows differential effects of stereotypes about women (vs. men)
and older (vs. younger) people on self-ratings of their own leadership potential. Results
suggest that both gender and age stereotypes affect older workers more than their
younger counterparts (Study 1). Specifically, effects on self-rated leadership potential
at the intersectional level show that endorsement of stereotypes has opposite effects on
older women to younger men (Study 1). Furthermore, stereotyped workplace cultures
impacted women’s and older worker’s perceptions of job fit (Studies 2 and 3), also
extending to job appeal for older workers (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of
career implications for both women and older workers, with a particular focus on older
women, whose intersecting identities are leadership stereotype-incongruent.
Player, A., Randsley de Moura, G., Leite, A., Abrams, D., & Tresh, F. (2019). Overlooked Leadership Potential: The Preference for Leadership Potential in Job Candidates Who Are Men vs. Women. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 755. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00755
Two experiments tested the value people attach to the leadership potential and leadership performance of female and male candidates for leadership positions in an organizational hiring simulation. In both experiments, participants (Total N = 297) valued leadership potential more highly than leadership performance, but only for male candidates. By contrast, female candidates were preferred when they demonstrated leadership performance over leadership potential. The findings reveal an overlooked potential effect that exclusively benefits men and hinders women who pursue leadership positions that require leadership potential. Implications for the representation of women in leadership positions and directions for future research are discussed.
Player, A., Abrams, D., Van de Vyver, J., Meleady, R., Leite, A., Randsley de Moura, G., & Hopthrow, T. (2018). “We aren’t idlers”: Using subjective group dynamics to promote prosocial driver behaviour at long-wait stops. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 48, 643-648. doi:10.1111/jasp.12554
Idling engines are a substantial air pollutant which contribute to many health and environmental problems. In this field experiment (N = 419) we use the subjective group dynamics framework to test ways of motivating car drivers to turn off idle engines at a long wait stop where the majority leave their engines idling. One of three normative messages (descriptive norm, in-group prescriptive deviance, outgroup prescriptive deviance) was displayed when barriers were down at a busy railway level-crossing. Compared to the baseline, normative messages increased the proportion of drivers that turned off their engines. Consistent with subjective group dynamics theory, the most effective approach was to highlight instances of in-group prescriptive deviance (47% stopped idling, compared with 28% in the baseline). Implications for health and environmental outcomes and future research are discussed.
Randsley de Moura, G., Leicht, C., Leite, A., Crisp, R., & Gocłowska, M. (2018). Leadership Diversity: Effects of Counterstereotypical Thinking on the Support for Women Leaders under Uncertainty. Journal of Social Issues, 74, 165-183. doi:10.1111/josi.12262
Despite societal shifts, women are still underrepresented in leadership positions. Previous research has found that women are often placed in risky and precarious leadership positions. This is likely to be the case when the context (economic, social, political) is uncertain. This article investigates (1) the support given to women leaders with leadership styles that are congruent or not with gender stereotypes, under uncertainty (Study 1) and (2) the role of counterstereotypical thinking in strengthening the support for women leaders who are role congruent (vs. incongruent) under uncertainty (Study 2). Study 1 found a preference for strong, role incongruent women leaders in times of uncertainty (vs. certainty). Study 2 found that this preference can be attenuated and role congruent women leaders perceived as more effective following a counterstereotypical thinking intervention that challenge participants’ social cognitive processing styles. We discuss applied implications regarding how to effectively promote diversity in leadership.
Rast, III, D., Hogg, M., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2018). Leadership and Social Transformation: The Role of Marginalized Individuals and Groups. Journal of Social Issues, 74, 8-19. doi:10.1111/josi.12253
Leadership is a process of influence, an omnipresent feature of human societies, and an enduring focus of research and popular interest. Research tends to focus on individual and situational factors facilitating effective leadership and identifying obstacles to leadership. One key obstacle many leaders face it being stigmatized as an outsider who is not suited to leadership. This article and issue of the Journal of Social Issues focuses on how and when people can overcome these obstacles to leadership–the emergence of marginalized, deviant, or minority group members as leaders even when their success is unexpected. This article and issue discuss the challenges these leaders face and identifies conditions under which such leaders can exert influence to achieve social change. We cover various forms of marginal leadership, focusing on leaders who are marginal individuals (e.g., non?prototypical leaders), who belong to marginal minority subgroups (e.g., leaders from numerical minority groups), or who have marginal demographic status (e.g., female leaders). This article introduces and frames the subsequent articles in this issue of the Journal of Social Issues, on the psychology of being a marginal leader.
Van de Vyver, J., Abrams, D., Hopthrow, T., Purewal, K., Randsley de Moura, G., & Meleady, R. (2018). Motivating the selfish to stop idling: Self-interest cues can improve environmentally relevant driver behaviour. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 54, 79-85. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2018.01.015
Air pollution has a huge and negative impact on society, and idling engines are a major contributor to air pollution. The current paper draws on evolutionary models of environmental behaviour to test whether appeals to self-interest can encourage drivers to turn off their engines at long wait stops. Using an experimental design, drivers were shown one of three self-interest appeals (financial, health, kin) while waiting at a congested level-crossing site in the UK. Results showed that all three self-interest appeals increased the chances of drivers turning off their engines compared to the control condition. Specifically, drivers were approximately twice as likely to turn off their engines in the self-interest conditions (39–41% compliance) compared to drivers in the control condition (22% compliance). Thus, self-interest motives can be effective for promoting pro-environmental behavioural compliance. Theoretical and applied implications of this research are discussed.
Leicht, C., Goclowska, M., Van Breen, J., de Lemus, S., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2017). Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00883
Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women (N = 208) attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic) content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations.
Mahmood, L., Hopthrow, T., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2016). A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness. PLoS ONE, 11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153923
Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Yetkili, O. (2015). Fewer but better: Proportionate size of the group affects evaluation of transgressive leaders. British Journal of Social Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjso.12125
A group may be badly affected if its leader transgresses important rules. Nonetheless, an emerging body of evidence suggests that in intergroup contexts, group members apply a double standard when judging ingroup leaders – They respond less punitively to transgressions by their leader than by non-leaders. In this article, two experiments investigated how proportionate ingroup size affects reactions to transgressive ingroup leaders. We demonstrate that ingroup leaders from larger, but not smaller, groups benefit from the double standard. The experiments testing the effects of two different types of transgressions (nepotistic favouritism and corruption, respectively) show that transgressive leaders from larger groups are evaluated more positively than both comparable non-leaders and leaders from smaller groups. In contrast, transgressive leaders from smaller groups are evaluated similarly to comparable transgressive non-leaders. Experiment 2 investigated a potential explanation for this phenomenon. Faced with a transgressive leader, members of a smaller group report greater embarrassment than do members of larger groups in relation to the leaders’ actions. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Russo, G. (2015). That is how we do it around here: Levels of identification, masculine honor, and social activism against organized crime in the south of Italy. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 342-348. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2100
Masculine honor is an important cultural code in the south of Italy. Italian criminal organizations (COs) manipulate and exploit this code to maintain legitimacy among local populations and exert social control in the territory where they operate. This research tested the hypothesis that different levels of identification—the region and the nation—would have opposite associations with male honor-related values and, indirectly, with intentions to oppose COs collectively. Results from a sample of young southern Italians (N?=?170) showed that regional identification positively predicted endorsement of male honor-related values, which in turn were associated with lowered intentions to oppose COs. In contrast, national identification negatively predicted male honor-related values, associated in turn with stronger intentions to oppose COs. These results also held when perceived risk and social dominance orientation were taken into account. Directions for future research are discussed.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., Marques, J., & Pinto, I. (2014). How groups react to disloyalty in the context of intergroup competition: Evaluations of group deserters and defectors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 178-187. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.05.006
Groups strongly value loyalty, especially in the context of intergroup competition. However, research has yet to investigate how groups respond to members who leave the group or join a competing outgroup. Three studies investigated groups' reactions to defectors (Experiment 1) and deserting members (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 1 used a minimal group paradigm to demonstrate that defectors trigger a stronger derogation of ingroup deviants than outgroup deviants vis-à-vis normative members. Experiments 2 and 3 compared group members' responses to defection versus desertion from minimal and self-assigned groups, respectively. Experiment 3 also explored an explanation for the evaluations of disloyalty. Across studies, participants evaluated normative ingroup members more positively than defectors and deserters. Outgroup deserting and defecting members were evaluated similarly. Derogation of ingroup as compared to outgroup targets emerged only for defectors. In addition, Experiment 3 demonstrated that negativity toward the outgroup was related to stronger derogation of disloyal targets. Negative outgroup attitudes trigger stricter criteria for responding to disloyalty. Directions for future research are discussed.
Abrams, D., Travaglino, G., Randsley de Moura, G., & May, P. (2014). A step too far? Leader racism inhibits transgression credit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 730-735. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2063
Prior research established that when in-group leaders commit serious transgressions, such as breaking enforceable rules or engaging in bribery, people treat them leniently compared with similarly transgressive regular group members or out-group leaders (‘transgression credit’). The present studies test a boundary condition of this phenomenon, specifically the hypothesis that transgression credit will be lost if a leader's action implies racist motivation. In study 1, in a corporate scenario, a transgressive in-group leader did or did not express racism. In study 2, in a sports scenario, an in-group or out-group leader or member transgressed rules with or without a racist connotation. Both studies showed that in-group transgressive leaders lost their transgression credit if their transgression included a racial connotation. Wider implications for constraining leaders' transgressions are discussed.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Russo, G. (2014). Men of Honor Don’t Talk: The Relationship between Masculine Honor and Social Activism against Criminal Organizations in Italy. Political Psychology, 37, 183-199. doi:10.1111/pops.12226
Criminal organizations have a strong influence on social, political and economic life in Italy and other parts of the world. Nonetheless, local populations display collective passivity against organized crime, a phenomenon known as omertà. Omertà is linked to the concepts of honor and masculinity. That is, in order to fit ideological constructions of manliness, individuals should display indifference toward illegal activities and should not collaborate with legal institutions. In two studies, we investigated the link between endorsement of a masculine honor ideology and collective action tendencies against criminal organizations (antimafia). Study 1 (N = 121) involved a Northern Italian sample, Study 2 (N = 301) involved a Southern Italian sample. Across studies, results showed that endorsement of masculine honor ideology was associated with lower willingness to engage in social activism against criminal organizations. This relationship was mediated by attitudes toward criminal organizations (Study 1 and 2) and, in line with the notion of omertà, by lower levels of collective motive and more anxiety about interacting with police (Study 2). Directions for future research are discussed.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2014). Men of Honor Don’t Talk: The Relationship Between Masculine Honor and Social Activism Against Criminal Organizations in Italy. Political Psychology. doi:10.1111/pops.12226
Criminal organizations have a strong influence on social, political, and economic life in Italy and other parts of the world. Nonetheless, local populations display collective passivity against organized crime, a phenomenon known as omertà. Omertà is linked to the concepts of honor and masculinity. That is, in order to fit ideological constructions of manliness, individuals should display indifference toward illegal activities and should not collaborate with legal institutions. In two studies, we investigated the link between endorsement of a masculine honor ideology and collective action intentions against criminal organizations (antimafia). Study 1 (N?=?121) involved a Northern Italian sample, and Study 2 (N?=?301) involved a Southern Italian sample. Across studies, results showed that endorsement of masculine honor ideology was associated with lower willingness to engage in social activism against criminal organizations. This relationship was mediated by attitudes toward criminal organizations (Study 1 and 2) and, in line with the notion of omertà, by lower levels of collective motive and more anxiety about interacting with police (Study 2). Directions for future research are discussed.
Leicht, C., Randsley de Moura, G., & Crisp, R. (2014). Contesting gender stereotypes stimulates generalized fairness in the selection of leaders. Leadership Quarterly, 25, 1025-1039. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.05.001
Exposure to counter-stereotypic gender role models (e.g., a woman engineer) has been shown to successfully reduce the application of biased gender stereotypes. We tested the hypothesis that such efforts may more generally lessen the application of stereotypic knowledge in other (non-gendered) domains. Specifically, based on the notion that counter-stereotypes can stimulate a lesser reliance on heuristic thinking, we predicted that contesting gender stereotypes would eliminate a more general group prototypicality bias in the selection of leaders. Three studies supported this hypothesis. After exposing participants to a counter-stereotypic gender role model, group prototypicality no longer predicted leadership evaluation and selection. We discuss the implications of these findings for groups and organizations seeking to capitalize on the benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce.
Travaglino, G., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Russo, G. (2014). Organized crime and group-based ideology: The association between masculine honor and collective opposition against criminal organizations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 17, 799-812. doi:10.1177/1368430214533394
What is the role of culture in establishing young people’s pathways into gang membership? Italian criminal organizations (COs) exhibit adherence to codes of honor and masculinity, important values in the context where they originated. Here it is proposed that the embedding of these values at an individual level may lessen young people’s group-based opposition to such organizations, and indirectly, create a space in which such organizations can persist and recruit. In a study of young Southern Italians (N = 176; Mage = 16.17), we found that those who endorsed ideological beliefs related to the honorableness of male violence reported lower intentions to engage in antimafia activities. Consistent with the hypothesized mechanisms, this relationship was mediated by more positive attitudes toward COs, and lower reported vicarious shame in relation to the activities of COs. Directions for future research and implications for research on gangs are discussed.
Hopthrow, T., Randsley de Moura, G., Meleady, R., Abrams, D., & Swift, H. (2014). Drinking in social groups. Does ’groupdrink’ provide safety in numbers when deciding about risk?. Addiction, 109, 913-921. doi:10.1111/add.12496
To investigate the impact of alcohol consumption on risk decisions taken both individually and while part of a four- to six-person ad-hoc group.
A 2 (alcohol: consuming versus not consuming alcohol) x 2 (decision: individual, group) mixed-model design; decision was a repeated measure. The dependent variable was risk preference, measured using choice dilemmas.
Opportunity sampling in campus bars and a music event at a campus-based university in the United Kingdom.
A total of 101 individuals were recruited from groups of four to six people who either were or were not consuming alcohol.
Participants privately opted for a level of risk in response to a choice dilemma and then, as a group, responded to a second choice dilemma. The choice dilemmas asked participants the level of accident risk at which they would recommend someone could drive while intoxicated.
Five three-level multi-level models were specified in the software program HLM 7. Decisions made in groups were less risky than those made individually (B = -0.73, P < 0.001). Individual alcohol consumers opted for higher risk than non-consumers (B = 1.27, P = 0.025). A significant alcohol?×?decision interaction (B = -2.79, P = 0.001) showed that individual consumers privately opted for higher risk than non-consumers, whereas risk judgements made in groups of either consumers or non-consumers were lower. Decisions made by groups of consumers were less risky than those made by groups of non-consumers (B = 1.23, P < 0.001).
Moderate alcohol consumption appears to produce a propensity among individuals towards increased risk-taking in deciding to drive while intoxicated, which can be mitigated by group monitoring processes within small (four- to six-person) groups.
Mahmood, L., Slabu, L., Randsley de Moura, G., & Hopthrow, T. (2014). Employability in the first degree: The role of work placements on students’ perceptions of graduate employability. Psychology Teaching Review, 20, 126-136.
Employers often claim that graduates are not ready for the world of work as they lack employability skills (Archer & Davison, 2008). One policy response to this claim has been to encourage students to undertake a work placement to enhance success in the competitive job market (The Dearing Report, 1997). The present research investigated whether psychology students, who were enrolled on an undergraduate degree programme that included a one-year work placement, understood the advantages and disadvantages of work placements and how they perceived its impact on employability. We present questionnaire data from 49 undergraduates at different stages of their degree programme – pre- and post-placement. Generally, students perceived the employability benefits of the work-placement. However, there were differences in how these were articulated by pre- and post-placement students, with post-placement students able to use more concrete terms. This suggests that there is some development throughout the applied degree, but emphasis needs to be placed on training students how to demonstrate the skills they have developed through the work placement to potential employers.
Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Travaglino, G. (2013). A Double Standard When Group Members Behave Badly: Transgression Credit to Ingroup Leaders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0033600
This research tested the hypothesis that people forgive serious transgressions by ingroup leaders but not by other group members or outgroup leaders. They apply a double standard in judgments of ingroup leaders. A series of studies (N = 623), using an array of different ingroups and outgroups, tested how group members judged ingroup or outgroup leaders and nonleaders who unexpectedly transgressed or did not transgress in important intergroup scenarios. Experiments 1, 2, and 4 focused on captains and players in either soccer or netball sports competitions. Across studies, transgressive captains of ingroup teams were evaluated more favorably than captains from outgroup teams and (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) more favorably than transgressive ingroup players. Experiment 3 demonstrated the double standard in a minimal group paradigm. Experiment 5 showed that the double standard is only applied if the leader is perceived as serving the group’s interest. Across studies, the double standard is evident in evaluations toward, inclusion and punishment of, and rewards to the transgressive targets. Implications for sport, politics, and business and intergroup conflict are discussed.
Leicht, C., Crisp, R., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2013). Need for structure predicts leadership preference. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 53-66. doi:10.1037/a0031476
Randsley de Moura, G., & Abrams, D. (2013). Bribery, blackmail, and the double standard for leader transgressions. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 43-52.
Zagefka, H., Noor, M., Brown, R., Hopthrow, T., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2012). Eliciting donations to disaster victims: Psychological considerations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 221-230. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2012.01378.x
Predictors of monetary donations to victims of humanitarian disasters were examined. Participants (N = 219) chose between donating to different scenarios and justified their choices in an open response format. This was followed by a questionnaire. The perceived extent of the victims’ Need, the Impact of a potential donation, and the Amount donated by others all influenced donation decisions. There was a three-way interaction between these factors: The perceived Need for help only mattered if the perceived Impact of a donation was high, and the perceived Amount donated by others was small. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Zagefka, H., Noor, M., Brown, R., Randsley de Moura, G., & Hopthrow, T. (2011). Donating to disaster victims: Responses to natural and humanly caused events. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 353-363. doi:10.1002/ejsp.781
The effect of the cause of a disaster, i.e. whether it was perceived to be caused by human or natural factors, on willingness to donate money to disaster victims was examined. In Study 1 (N=76), the cause of a fictitious disaster was experimentally varied. In Study 2 (N=219), participants were asked about their views regarding donations to two real-life disasters, one of which was perceived to be naturally caused while the other one was perceived to be caused by humans. In Study 3 (N=115), the cause of a fictitious disaster was experimentally varied, but this time measures of the proposed psychological mediators of the effect on donations were included, namely perceived victim blame and the extent to which victims were thought to make an effort to help themselves. A measure of real donation behaviour was also added. In Study 4 (N=196), the proposed psychological mediators were manipulated directly, and the effect of this on donations was monitored. Across all studies, more donations were elicited by naturally caused rather than humanly caused disasters. This difference was driven by a perception that the victims of natural disasters are to be blamed less for their plight, and that they make more of an effort to help themselves. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Frings, D., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Marques, J. (2010). The effects of cost, normative support, and issue importance on motivation to persuade in-group deviants. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 14, 80-91. doi:10.1037/a0016092
Persuading in-group deviants to become normative may carry costs that outweigh the advantages of group consensus. This study investigates the effects of potential cost, normative support, and issue importance on group members' efforts to change the views of in-group deviants (N = 115). In line with previous research into bystander intervention, the authors show that when costs are low, high levels of either importance or normative support are sufficient to increase persuasion action tendency. When costs are higher, higher levels of both issue importance and normative support are necessary to increase persuasion action tendency. In addition, content analysis of messages sent to in-group deviants show that high potential costs and low levels of issue importance reduce the proportion of messages sent that are persuasive. These results are discussed in terms of theories of approach/avoidance and social identity.
Randsley de Moura, G., Abrams, D., Retter, C., Gunnarsdottir, S., & Ando, K. (2009). Identification as an organizational anchor: How identification and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 540-557. doi:10.1002/ejsp.553
The article examines the role of organizational identification and job satisfaction in relation to turnover intentions in seven organizations. Two models are proposed in which either job satisfaction ororganizational identification was treated as a mediator of the other's relationship with turnover intention. The organizations varied in terms of culture (Japan vs. UK), and institutional domain (academic,business, health, mail, legal).Within each organization,and meta-analytically combined across the seven samples (N=1392),organizational identification, mediated the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention more than job satisfaction mediated the relationship between organizational identification, and turnover intention. Organizational identification also had the larger overall relationship with turnover intention. This pattern remained true when gender, age, type of organization, culture, and length of tenure were accounted for, although the direct relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention was stronger in private than public organizations and when the ratio of men was higher. The findings are
consistent with a social identity theory (SIT) perspective and with the idea that identification is a more proximal predictor of turnover intention. Over and above job satisfaction, organizational identification offers a sting psychological anchor that discourages turnover intention ill a range of organizational contexts.
Randsley de Moura, G., Leader, T., Pelletier, J., & Abrams, D. (2008). Prospects for group processes and intergroup relations research: A review of 70 years’ progress. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11, 575-596. doi:10.1177/1368430208095406
Three archival analyses are presented substantially extending empirical reviews of the progress of group-related research. First, an analysis of social psychological research from 1935 to 2007 (cf. Abrams & Hogg, 1998) showed that group-related research has a steadily increasing proportion of titles in the principal journals and currently accounts for over a sixth of all the research in our list of social psychological journals. Second, analysis of the most cited papers from a set of principal social psychology journals from 1998 to 2007 showed that a third of high-impact articles in social psychology focus on groups. Third, analysis of the content of two major specialist journals in the field, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations and Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, showed that together these journals cover a broad range of group-related research, and that the only keyword common to both journals was social identity. These findings demonstrate the health and major contributions of research into group processes and intergroup relations to social psychology as a whole.
Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., Marques, J., & Hutchison, P. (2008). Innovation credit: When can leaders oppose their group’s norms?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 662-678. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Two preliminary studies and 5 experiments examined judgments of leaders who challenge their group's norms. Participants viewed information about group members whose attitudes were normative or deviated in a pronormative or antinormative direction. The antinorm member was identified as (a) either a nonleader or an established leader (Study 1), (b) an ex-leader (Studies 2 and 5), or (c) a future leader (Studies 3, 4, and 5). Antinorm future leaders were judged more positively and were granted greater innovation credit (license to innovate and remuneration) relative to antinorm members, ex-leaders, and established leaders. Results are discussed in terms of the idea that leadership can accrue from prototypicality and can also confer the right to define prescriptive norms. However, innovation credit is only granted in the case of future leaders.
Morris, L., Abrams, D., Randsley de Moura, G., & Durlach, P. (2003). Delaying the inevitable? The effects of "time to think" on responses to innovative concepts. European Journal of Marketing, 37, 1440-1456. doi:10.1108/03090560310487185
Abstract: This article explores how different market research methodologies impact on consumers' responses to innovative concepts. Although there is a fierce competition among companies to be first to the market with innovative products, a recent report has shown that the vast majority of such products fail in the marketplace within a year. To avoid such costly mistakes, companies invest in market research to test the potential market appeal of new product concepts. The most common form of concept test is the "picture-board" technique. This technique normally features a graphic representation of a potential new product, accompanied by a short textual description of it. Various alternative concept-testing techniques have been developed to address this issue, including the "living with the concept" method. This method requires participants to keep materials describing the concept at home for a period of time. During this time they are asked to think about the concept and its uses in their life.
Morais, C. (2017). Do Ethics really matter? Understanding group reactions to unethical leadership.
Most research on ethical leadership has disregarded the role of group processes, and particularly of group membership. Using social identity theory of leadership as a framework, this thesis aims to understand the impact of ethical and unethical leaders on group members' perceptions about the leader, as well as to investigate under which circumstances group members may be willing to accept and endorse unethical leaders. To test these ideas, seven experimental studies and one longitudinal study were conducted. Study 1 (N = 90) manipulated whether participants evaluated an ethical or unethical leader, providing empirical support to the idea that unethical leaders have a less positive impact on group members, especially if they belong to the outgroup (N = 129). Study 3 (N = 229) also manipulated target status, showing that unethical behavior displayed by a regular member had a less negative impact when compared to unethical leaders. Study 4 (N = 125) revealed that the intention of behavior is an important factor too, as group members considered the group-promoting leader more prototypical, warmer and competent. Attributions of behavior also changed based on the context (Study 5, N = 226), with leaders' behavior attributed more to internal and stable dispositions in an intragroup (compared to an intergroup) context. Studies 6 and 7 (Ns = 178, 170) extended these findings by showing that attributions were also shaped by the outcome of the behavior to the group. Moreover, leaders who benefited the group (even if they were unethical) were perceived as more competent and more endorsed. Study 8 (N = 260) showed that when the outcome was positive to the group, group members were more willing to accept unethical leadership and to exert less social control. Taken together, the results suggest that leaders play an important role in setting ethical and normative behavior, but also that, under certain circumstances, leaders' ethicality might be overlooked, as long as the behavior is in the group's best interest.
Mahmood, L. (2016). Moments of State Mindfulness: Development of an online tool and its application to social judgements.
The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the effectiveness of a 5-minute online mindfulness practice, and test its applications to social judgements including attribution and decision-making. The seven experiments (N = 959) presented in this thesis address an important gap in the current literature on mindfulness. Specifically: 1) the empirical test of the effectiveness of a 5-minute, single-session, online mindfulness manipulation and; 2) the impact of a brief mindfulness manipulation on social judgements.
At present, the majority of mindfulness research has focused on multiple sessions of practice over a number of weeks as part of a course, usually aimed at clinical populations, and at enhancing trait mindfulness (Brown & Ryan, 2003). There is evidence that such courses can be effectively delivered online (Allexandre, Neuman, Hunter, Morledge, & Roizen, 2012; Krusche, Cyhlarova, King, & Williams, 2012; Krusche, Cyhlarova, & Williams, 2013; Morledge et al., 2013) and emerging evidence for the use of single-session mindfulness with non-clinical samples (Erisman & Roemer, 2010; Heppner et al., 2008; Hong, Lishner, & Han, 2014; Hooper, Erdogan, Keen, Lawton, & Mchugh, 2015a; Jordan, Wang, Donatoni, & Meier, 2014; Kiken & Shook, 2011; Papies, Barsalou, & Custers, 2012; Weger, Hooper, Meier, & Hopthrow, 2012) that aims to increase state mindfulness (Bishop et al., 2004; Lau et al., 2006). In addition, although mindfulness exercises are readily available online and via smartphone apps, there has yet to be an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of self-help online practices, and whether brief, single-session practices actually enhance levels of mindfulness.
Based on evidence that some people prefer to complete such practices in their own surroundings (Beattie, Shaw, Kaur, & Kessler, 2009; Cavanagh et al., 2013), and that a smartphone app was preferred to an in-person and web-based mindfulness practice, it is expected that a short (5-minute) single-session, online mindfulness manipulation will effectively increase state mindfulness, measured by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS, Lau et al., 2006).
Mindfulness is thought to be effective in slowing automatic responding (Jordan et al., 2014; Kiken & Shook, 2011; Papies et al., 2012) and may reduce reliance on previously learnt associations (Langer & Moldoveanu, 2000b), allowing attention to be refocused on aspects of the environment that usually go unnoticed. As such, it has the potential to reduce errors in attribution. Reliance on automatic processes in social judgements can be detrimental for social harmony. For example, the mindless use of heuristics and stereotypes in person judgement can lead to prejudice and discrimination (Abrams, 2010). Furthermore, dysfunctional group dynamics can lead to poorly made decisions (Berger & Zelditch, 1998; Larson, Foster-Fishman, & Franz, 1998; Stasser & Stewart, 1992; Stasser, Taylor, & Hanna, 1989). With this in mind, the beneficial effects that mindfulness can have on interpersonal relationships (e.g. increased empathy; Block-Lerner, Adair, Plumb, Rhatigan, & Orsillo, 2007) should also help to improve group decision-making.
The core aim of this thesis is to test whether a 5-minute, single-session, online mindfulness manipulation effectively increases state mindfulness, and then apply this to social judgements. Specifically, whether the mindfulness manipulation is effective in reducing attribution errors, and improving group decision-making. It is expected that after the mindfulness manipulation, participants will be less likely to respond in an automatic way when asked to attribute another individual's behaviour, or the cause of a situation based on limited information. Moreover, this is expected to improve the social experience of individuals working in groups and therefore increase decision-making accuracy.
This thesis presents seven experiments in which a 5-minute mindfulness manipulation is tested in different settings (Chapter 4), applied to two attribution errors (Chapters 5 and 6), and used before a group decision-making task (Chapter 7). A summary of the findings, and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are presented alongside limitations and avenues for future research in the final chapter of this thesis (Chapter 8).
Player, A. (2015). Leadership Selection: Leadership Potential, Leadership Performance and Gender.
Leadership potential is now one of the most desirable traits in candidates applying for a job or promotion (Church, 2014), and experimental evidence proposes that leadership potential is preferable to previous leadership performance in leadership candidates (Tormala, Jia, & Norton, 2012). Reports suggests that it is possible for men to progress on their future leadership potential whereas women progress on their past leadership performance (Catalyst, 2013; McKinsey, 2012). However, this has yet to be empirically tested and very little is known about the social and psychological processes behind the relationship between gender and leadership potential. This thesis presents a series of nine studies investigating leadership potential and gender in hiring situations. These studies indicate that male candidates who demonstrate leadership potential are the most likely to be selected ahead of other equally qualified candidates, whereas female candidates are selected on the basis of leadership performance. The robustness of the association between leadership potential and gender was further reinforced by examining its relationship in different management levels (junior vs. senior; Studies 5-7) and social contexts (masculine vs. feminine; Studies 8 & 9). Moreover, this thesis starts to explore the psychological constructs behind the preference for leadership potential in male candidates and the preference for leadership performance in female candidates (Study 9). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed, in addition to future directions for research.