Kent Law School

Critical perspectives research led teaching

Law (Erasmus-Europe) - LLM



The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.

The LLM in Law (Erasmus-Europe) provides an exciting opportunity for students to obtain an LLM by studying both at Kent and at one of our partner universities in continental Europe (currently including the Université de Cergy-Pontoise in France) with all of the teaching conducted in English.

The programme gives you the opportunity to study at two high-quality law schools and also lets you experience two countries, their cultures and their legal systems.

About Kent Law School

Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.

In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.

The Law School offers its flagship Kent LLM at the University's Canterbury campus (and three defined LLM programmes at the University's Brussels centre). Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field.

You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School's world-class research.

National ratings

In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by Kent Law School was ranked 8th in the UK for research intensity. We were also ranked 7th for research power and in the top 20 for research output, research quality and research impact.

An impressive 99% of our research was judged to be of international quality and the School's environment was judged to be conducive to supporting the development of world-leading research.


Course structure

This programme enables you to obtain an LLM by spending your first term at Kent, and your second at one of our partner universities in Europe, before returning to Kent to complete a dissertation. During your second term, you complete a comparative research paper, supervised by Kent staff, on an area of law that you have studied at Kent and your partner university.

You are required to take three compulsory modules from the range of taught LLM modules at Kent, follow an approved programme of study at our European partner university and produce a comparative research paper of 7-8,000 words and a dissertation of 15-20,000 words.


The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

LW919 - Legal Research and Writing Skills (5 credits)

This is a compulsory module for all Masters students and must be completed within one academic year. Both Diploma and Certificate students can opt to take this module in addition to their required modules. It is a non-contributory module which does not count towards your degree, but it will appear on your final transcript with a Pass/Fail result. The module is timetabled from 1600-1800 on Mondays in Eliot Lecture Theatre 2 (ELT2).

The Autumn Term of this module will provide an introduction to the legal research and writing skills required to carry out research at Masters level. The Spring Term will enable students to acquire and develop the skills necessary to carry out a longer term research project, such as their dissertation. Students will be introduced to a range of theoretical frameworks that will enable them to develop their own critical approach to their chosen dissertation topic.

Please see separate programme for further details on each session.

Credits: 5 credits (2.5 ECTS credits).

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LW921 - Privacy and Data Protection Law (20 credits)

The module will explore emerging privacy and data protection issues, including Big Data, CTV surveillance, Internet and cyber surveillance, and cross-border information flows, legal structures and privacy protection measures. Students will be challenged to critically examine how personal, financial, health and transactional data are managed and who has access to this information. It will require students to assess emerging legal, regulatory, data protection and personal privacy issues raised by widespread access to personal information, including genetic data. The module will focus on the legal data protection, human rights, consent, confidentiality, and IT data security questions that arise when personal information is accessed by the state, law enforcement agencies, corporations and business, employers, health clinicians and researchers.

The essential aims and objectives of the module are to equip students to undertake a sustained analysis of privacy and data protection law. Students will be asked to critically examine whether privacy protection, consent and confidentiality measures are proportionate to the legal requirements to protect personal information while balancing the requirements of economic commerce, the state and public administrations to collect, use and share personal information.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW925 - Cultural Heritage Law (20 credits)

Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which was, historically, defined as historical monuments and has now widened to include intangible values.

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. This module aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property and it aims to give coherence to practices shaped by stakeholders, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law.

Lectures will first introduce the definition of heritage, then discuss the five UNESCO Conventions on cultural heritage as well as the restitution of trafficked objects and alternative dispute mechanisms. The last lecture will draw on the different topics studied to discuss the development of cultural rights, in particular the right to participate in cultural life and the right to access cultural heritage. Each lecture will focus on an object of cultural importance that reflects the theme of study (e.g. the Parthenon marbles, Palmyra in Syria, The Euphronios Krater )

This module will look at the different conventions and the existing legal framework protecting cultural heritage in order to enable students to:

Understand the key concepts, policy issues and principles underlying cultural heritage law

Analyse the theoretical and academic debates that underlie the substantive law of cultural heritage protection

Evaluate the role of international and national institutions as well as other stakeholders in the protection of the cultural heritage

Understand the practical context in which cultural heritage law operates

Compare existing legal regimes of the protection of the cultural heritage in England, the United States, and continental Europe

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW927 - Law and the Humanities 1: Ethos and Scholarship (Intensive Delivery) (20 credits)

This module provides students with a solid grounding in law and the humanities a dynamic and rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that offers alternative ways of understanding law by drawing upon humanities disciplines, such as political theory, literature, film studies, history and social theory. In employing this approach, key questions about law can be revisited from new and exciting perspectives and explored through a variety of novel methodologies.

The module is organized around three main questions. It begins by interrogating what is distinct about thinking of law as a humanities subject and what it means to utilise humanities based research methodologies in its study. We will examine these issues by focusing on the relationship between the legal scholar and the object of his/her inquiry - namely law - setting this relationship in the context of the legal tradition'. The second question explores the notion of "critical" scholarship and looks at how a humanities approach can shape legal critique using as examples key topics relating to politics, ethics and justice. Finally, we ask whether the interaction between the humanities and legal scholarship can provide a distinctive answer to the question of responsibility of the scholar and of scholarship.

In imaginatively engaging with questions of law, critique and responsibility from a humanities perspective this module broadens the horizons of the study of law in an original and creative way. The interdisciplinary insights it offers will cultivate and strengthen students' skills of reading, critical analysis, writing, and argument-making across a range of different texts, cultural media, and legal questions. These skills will help students develop an incisive paradigm for their master dissertation, whatever its subject or disciplinary orientation.

This module will be delivered in Paris as an intensive version comprising of 8 x 2.5 hour seminars during one single week.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW932 - EU Citizenship and Residence Rights-Clinical Option (20 credits)

This module focuses on citizens of the EU and their family members who have chosen to exercise free movement and residence rights and thereby seek to rely on their 'rights' as EU citizens in the territory of another Member State. Students will investigate the idea of free movement and citizenship of the EU, including the foundational rules, principles, doctrines and their scope, through the prism of Clinical Legal Practice. The Clinical Option provides an opportunity for students to develop their knowledge of this contested and rapidly developing area of law by conducting, under the supervision of a Kent Law Clinic solicitor, a 'real' case where the law or rules said to derive from EU law are the subject of live as opposed to academic dispute/contestation. Each student will be allocated a case where a Clinic client is seeking to rely on free movement or citizenship rights in an appeal against a decision by the Department for Work and Pensions, the UK Border Agency or a local authority that s/he does not have a right to reside in the UK under EU law.

The module will explore topics such as: the legal, political, social and economic theories of citizenship; whether and how EU citizenship either meets or diverges from these theories; what legal, economic, political and/or social entitlements flow from EU citizenship and as opposed to freedom of movement; the extent to which citizens of the Union use or understand these rights; the reception and interpretation of EU citizenship and residence rights by the institutions of the EU; and, the extent to which their reception and interpretation is different or divergent within Member States with a particular emphasis on the UK and its domestic welfare benefit and immigration law as interpreted by in the jurisprudence of UKs tribunal and court system.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW801 - Intellectual Property 1: Copyright and Breach of Confidence (20 credits)

Over the past few decades, the scope of the law of copyright and the action for breach of confidence have grown significantly. The goal of the module is to provide an overview of these areas from different angles in order to be able to assess this expansion. In so doing, it will examine these areas of law from historical, theoretical and practical perspectives. The emphasis throughout the module is on reflexive critique. That is, we will study the different modes of justifying copyright and the action for breach of confidence; the different historical approaches to trace the ways in which we can understand them and we will look at the past to try to find ways of thinking about the present situation of international legal regimes. On a more contemporary level, we will study the interaction between copyright and secrecy, the problems and the challenges posed by photographs, confidential memoranda and personal diaries, as well as the more practical question on the way of producing evidence in copyright and breach of confidence trials. No prior knowledge or study of intellectual property is required.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW802 - International Business Transactions (20 credits)

This module will examine the problems that arise in commercial transactions between businesses established in different States. The module will concentrate specifically on the 'transnational' nature of such transactions, and some of the solutions characteristically adopted by different legal systems, with emphasis on International, English or the US systems, or where appropriate legal rules and materials of other jurisdictions by way of illustration. The module will also cover the unique features of current transnational business transactions such as Mergers and Acquisitions, and the importance of information and communication technologies.

Indicative topics covered

Sources of Transnational Commercial Law and the interactions of Lex Mercatoria with public international law, International Conventions, Model Uniform Law, UNCITRAL, Reception and Approximation in National Law, Conflicts of Law, International Commercial Customs and Practice, The Role of International Chamber of Commerce; International Sales of Goods, The Vienna Convention 1980, UNIDROIT Principles; Standard Trade Terms especially INCOTERMS; Commercial Paper and Finance of International Sales, Documents of Title, Bills of Lading, Mates' Receipts, Consignment Notes, Paperless Documents and EDI, UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce, comparative analysis of electronic commerce and electronic signature regimes, Negotiable Instruments, Payment Collection Arrangements, Mergers and Acquisition, Oil and Gas Transactions, Letters of Credit, Performance Bonds and Guarantees, Export Credit Guarantees; Licensing and Franchising; Dispute Resolution with special emphasis on the resolution of disputes involving parties across the developed and developing states divide.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW813 - Contemporary Topics in Intellectual Property Law (20 credits)

This module introduces in detail some of the most acute and pressing current problems in intellectual property, such as copyright and piracy in visual arts and music, justification for patents and their effects on scientific knowledge production, and the effects of logos and brands in capitalist symbolic economy. Offering a different way into the study of intellectual properties than by statues and case law, this course aims to provide students with a deep and nuanced understanding of intellectual properties both as social practices and cultural phenomena in today's 'knowledge economy'. Students will be introduced to the latest theoretical debates in humanities and social sciences about intellectual properties, which will complement a doctrinal study of intellectual property forms and allow for a differentiated assessment of laws effects and limitations. Topics to be explored may include:

What is original? Why is there so much value attached to 'originality?

Does free knowledge go hand in hand with precarious labour in creative industries?

What are the modes of intellectual credit? Are there other forms of credit than property?

What is the intellectual in intellectual properties? How do you draw contours around intangible knowledge?

Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into things?

Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?

Do trademarks commodify language?

Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory. Prior attendance of LW 801 Intellectual Property Law in autumn term is welcome, but not a prerequisite. No prior knowledge of study of patent, copyright or trademarks law is required. Interested students from various disciplines are welcome, subject to prior agreement.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW814 - Public International Law (20 credits)

This module provides a detailed study of the history, rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. It offers a critical analysis of the international legal order and a firm basis upon which to found arguments concerning the political importance of international law. The module pays special attention to the way in which the evolution and operation of the international legal order influence not only international relations, but also daily domestic life.

At the end of the course students will be able to assess, both internally and in context, the main the rules, doctrines and institutions of public international law. Students will also develop the necessary tools to reflect critically on some of the most important problems and tensions that define the contemporary global order: from calamities resulting from war, international interventions and surveillance strategies in countries like Afghanistan, Libya and Pakistan, to the everyday effects of increasing socio-economic disparities and environmental decay in both the Global South and the Global North.

The teaching, discussions and readings in the module will equip students both with a doctrinal understanding of public international law, and with an approach to the field that is grounded in a Critical, Socio-Legal and Law and Humanities perspective.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW815 - EU Constitutional and Institutional Law (20 credits)

This module focuses on the foundational rules, principles and doctrines underpinning the constitutional and institutional legal framework of the European Union. Against the backdrop of Brexit, financial turbulence within the Eurozone and the recent structural reforms to the Union introduced by the 2007 Lisbon Treaty, this core area of EU law has gained heightened political and legal significance in the context of on-going debates on the nature and extent of European legal integration.

The following specific topics will be considered in this module: the respective roles, competencies and powers of the EU's main political and judicial institutions; foundational legal principles underpinning the EU's legal framework including direct effect and supremacy of Union law; the relationship between the EUs Court of Justice and national courts of the Member States; enforcement mechanisms of EU law; human rights in EU law and the impact of EU Citizenship. In addition, at the end of the module students will have an opportunity to take stock and appraise the 'constitutional nature and impact of the Union.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW839 - Environmental Quality Law (20 credits)

This module provides an introduction to the law on environmental quality and a preface to regulatory themes that are pursued in other environmental modules. In common language, the module is about the law relating to 'pollution', but, as will be seen, this is a concept that is quite difficult to define with the precision that is needed as a basis for legal rights and duties. 'Environmental quality' is a broader term, encompassing issues as to the degree of contamination that is considered acceptable in relation to the three environmental media of water, air and land. Broadly, the module is organised around the progression of approaches that law has taken towards the regulation of those activities that have been identified as most damaging to the environmental media. Although, this involves careful examination and evaluation of national laws relating to pollution control, attention is increasingly focused upon regulatory requirements drawn from European Union and international law. The module seeks to assess different models and strategies for environmental quality regulation against broader objectives for the environment in reflecting upon what it is that is to be regulated, and why, and whether actual approaches to regulation are the best way of achieving this.

Topics covered

Session 1: Objectives of environmental quality law

Session 2: Environmental quality and private rights

Session 3: Environmental liability and environmental human rights

Session 4: Water quality regulation

Session 5: Air quality law

Session 6: Waste management law

Session 7: The Integration of pollution control

Session 8: Enforcement and the Environment Agency

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW844 - Legal Aspects of Contemporary International Problems (20 credits)

There are a number of ways to approach the field of international law. It can be treated doctrinally as a system of rules from various sources such as treaties, state practices that are seen to have the binding force of law, and general principles shared across domestic jurisdictions built up over time to regulate interactions between states and other entities. It can be studied as a historical phenomenon, emerging from out of a colonial history with contemporary implications. It can also be studied as an (imperfect) approach to addressing international 'problems', placing international law in broader social, political, and historical contexts as one possible source of 'solutions'. This course highlights international laws limits and possibilities in relation to a set of contemporary inter- and trans-national concerns, including the use of armed force, responses to emerging security threats, and unresolved territorial disputes. It focuses on key themes of international law, such as sovereignty, statehood, self-determination, and the regulation of armed conflict, drawing upon perspectives from the humanities and the interpretive social sciences. It explores these overlapping themes as they emerge across several issues and case studies, bringing international law into a relationship with contemporary geopolitics, political theory, and the fields historical inheritance. Along the way, we will address philosophical and theoretical questions such as the binding character of international law, problems of representation and interpretation, and the rhetorical dimensions of customary international law.

Topics covered

The topics covered vary year to year to align with changing circumstances and also according to student interest, but are anticipated to be as follows:

- The use of force and the law of armed conflict

- Reframing sovereignty: the responsibility to protect

- Regulating the global arms trade

- Targeted killing

- Enforcing the prohibition against torture

- Border conflicts and colonial legacies in international law

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW847 - World Trade Organisation (WTO) Law and Practice I (20 credits)

The establishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995 has signalled the beginning of a new era in international economic relations. Unlike the GATT, whose main purpose was the reduction of barriers on trade in goods, the WTO legal regime reach deeper into more areas of policy-making, ranging from the regulation of services and investments to the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, through its Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) the WTO has the capacity to generate case-law on the resolution of disputes under the WTO agreements that it covers. This marks a significant shift from the earlier GATT dispute settlement mechanism as it creates, for the first time on the multilateral level, a binding decision-making apparatus. Thus any serious attempt to understand the nature and development of international economic law requires a careful and detailed study of the WTO and its law and practice. It is the cornerstone of the new global economic order. This module offers a comprehensive overview of this evolving legal and regulatory order.

Topics covered

1. Theoretical and Political Approaches to International Economic Regulation of Trade; the main actors: states, multinational enterprises, civil society and NGOs

2. Free Trade Theory and Practice

3. The Institutional Context: the Bretton Woods System, the GATT and the WTO

4. The WTO and developing countries: GATT preferences and WTO Special and Differential Treatment

5. The Dispute Settlement Understanding

6. Trade in Agriculture

7. Trade in Services

8. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

9. The rise of 'mega-market' trade agreements

10. Alternative trade arrangements

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW852 - European Union Environmental Law and Policy (20 credits)

This module provides an overview of the policy and legislation of the European Union in relation to the environment and ecological protection, with particular sectors considered in more detail in other environmental modules. The overall purpose of the module is to appreciate the significance of European Union law as a system of regional international law seeking to harmonize the national laws of the Member States according to common principles of environmental regulation. An initial focus is upon foundational issues including the nature of the European Union, basic principles of European Union environmental policy and law, and problematic issues such as the tension between free trade and environmental protection. Attention is also given to particular examples of environmental measures, with some discussion of how these are implemented in national law. Finally, discussion is provided as to recent and forthcoming developments at European Union level, including critical issues of participation, implementation and enforcement, at European Union and national levels.

Topics covered

introductory session: a scan of the module

the evolution of European Union environmental competence

fundamental environmental objectives of the European Union

the basis for substantive environmental legislation

reconciling environmental protection and trade

substantive European Union legislation on waste regulation

environmental information and participation

alternative strategies in environmental regulation

the implementation and enforcement of environmental legislation

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW862 - Death and Dying (20 credits)

This module aims to explore how the law is involved in matters to do with death and dying. The curriculum includes an investigation of the dying process and how this impacts on definitions of death. The relationship of medical law and ethics to the criminal law in relation to physician assisted death will be explored and evaluated as it is manifested in various jurisdictions. The appropriate role for autonomy, rights and ethical considerations where making decisions over death is concerned will be related to existing mechanisms such as advance directives.

Topics covered

legal definitions of death

ethical, spiritual and medical frameworks underpinning understandings of death and the dying process

the practical and ethical difficulties associated with death and the dying process

the care and needs of the dying

euthanasia and clinically assisted death and their implications

overview of how different jurisdictions provide ethical and legal regulation of end of life decision making, and the impact this has on those concerned

the role of living wills, advance directives and clinical judgement

the role of patient autonomy in relation to death and dying

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW871 - Policing (20 credits)

This module offers a critical study of policing from historical, legal, political and social perspectives. It focuses primarily on policing in the United Kingdom, with other appropriate jurisdictions (including the European Union) being used for comparative purposes.

Topics covered

History of the structure, organisation and concept of the police

Ethical and legal principles underlying policing as well as the implications for policing of the European Convention on Human Rights

The different functions of policing

Police culture

Police powers and procedures

Public order policing

Police governance and accountability

Cross-border police co-operation

Private policing

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW886 - Transnational Criminal Law (20 credits)

In this module we study the main principles, key institutions, policies and politics of transnational criminal law. We explore selected examples of transnational offending and international legal responses thereto in the light of current theoretical, political and doctrinal debates. We consider transnational crimes and the mechanisms by which states cooperate with each other and with international institutions in order to enforce their domestic criminal law. Some of the key debates considered include: the nature of transnational criminal law as an emerging regime; the relationship between human rights and transnational criminal law; the role of the United Nations Security Council in transnational criminal law and critically the role of the individual in the transnational criminal legal system.

Topics covered

The historical development of transnational criminal law

The phenomenon of transnational organized crime and jurisdiction over transnational crime

Money laundering and terrorist financing


Drug trafficking

People trafficking

Extradition and Abduction

Mutual Legal Assistance

International Police Cooperation

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW899 - Corporate Governance (20 credits)

In recent years corporate governance - meaning the governance of the large corporations which dominate modern economic life - has emerged as a major area of political and academic interest. Increasing attention has come to be focused, in particular, on the comparative aspects of corporate governance and on the different legal regimes found in different parts of the world, with policy makers striving to determine which regimes are most likely to deliver (so-called) `efficiency' and competitive success. In this context much has been made of the differences between shareholder-oriented, Anglo-American governance regimes and the more inclusive (more stakeholder-oriented) regimes to be found in certain parts of continental Europe and Japan. One result is that the increasing interest in corporate governance has re-opened old questions about the nature of corporations, about the role and duties of corporate managers and about the goal of corporate activities and the interests in which corporations should be run.

This module will explore these debates. More generally, the question of corporate governance has become entangled with other important debates, most notably that surrounding the merits (or otherwise) of different models of capitalism: Anglo-American regimes are associated with stock market-based versions of capitalism, while European regimes are associated with so-called welfare-based versions of capitalism.

The question of corporate governance has, therefore, become embroiled with debates about the morality and efficiency of different models of capitalism. These too will be explored in this module.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW900 - Critical International Migration Law (20 credits)

This module offers a survey of international legal principles relating to migration. This module offers an introduction to international law relating to the movement of persons across international frontiers and to some extent, within the boundaries of states. It examines the complex sets of laws and policies that both form and inform the field of migration law. In particular, the course examines the context of international migration control; the concept of state sovereignty and its impact on migration law and practice; and the development of international protection and regulation. It will provide a critical evaluation of international labour migration law, international asylum and refugee law, internal displacement, environmental displacement, forced labour and human smuggling and trafficking. It will also evaluate the rights of human beings who happen to be migrants what rights are possessed by smuggled migrants, trafficked migrants, asylum seekers, labour migrants and their families, and those who are internally displaced.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW904 - Laws of the Maritime, Air and Outer Spaces II (20 credits)

The module aims to facilitate a holistic understanding of the legal regulation of activities in the sovereign and non-sovereign parts of maritime, airspace and outer space territories. This includes an examination of the key private international law and to some extent public international law concepts and jurisprudential relationships that exist between maritime law, the law of the sea, air law and space law. The module also examines the international regulation of transnational enterprise activities in the spaces under study. This module complements the departmental emphasis on cross disciplinary approaches to the study of law and examination of the interaction of law with other disciplines, particularly international relations, politics, business and economics, as well as science and technology.

Topics and issues to be dealt with include Common trends in Intermodal transportation: sea, air and space payload delivery; Carriage of goods by Sea: Hague Rules, Hague/Visby Rules and the Hamburg Rules; European Community Shipping Law and Policy; legal and commercial aspects of sovereignty in the air and jurisdiction in outer space; Aviation insurance; Airline alliances, investment, bankruptcy, computer reservation systems, and airport slots; Satellite telecommunications and the allocation of slots and frequencies; Legal and economic implications of the development of space tourism; Legal aspects of the Commercialization of Space Transportation Systems; Liability, insurance and intellectual property concerns of space activities; The legal regulation of the International Space Station.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW905 - International Financial Services Regulation (20 credits)

This module is about the regulatory regimes that govern financial sectors of the economy. It focuses on the very recent history of regulation in this field and it examines domestic and international aspects of how states and societies enact and perform regulation of financial firms and transactions. The module is built around three inter-related elements:

Development of the New International Financial Architecture (NIFA), a set of institutions, standards and processes that have been established during the last ten years to increase the stability of financial sectors globally, particularly in the so-called "emerging economies", and to expand markets for the services and products of financial firms. This element of the module will entail study of (a) the construction of economic crises of the 1990s as a threat to the global economic order; (b) the creation of new international groupings and institutions, (eg., the Financial Stability Forum and the G-20) and new roles for older institutions (e.g. surveillance by the IMF and the World Bank Group through the Financial System Assessment Program) to address the threat, (c) regulatory technique in the international arena, including standard setting, harmonization and compliance, and other dimensions of governance through soft law.

Relationships between the NIFA and the changing modes of governing domestic financial sectors: This element of the module will entail study of (a) the emergence of integrated financial sector regulators in many jurisdictions; (b) interaction between the domestic / regional and the international spheres in response to concerns about financial instability, risk and 'contagion'. (Relevant responses include implementation of Basel II, the Lender of Last Resort, and the development of international standards of insurance supervision); and (c) comparative analysis of the market governance regimes established by integrated regulators in terms of their capacities to protect domestic consumers of financial services.

Critical analysis of scholarly and policy literature on regulation of the financial sectors. This element of the module will entail reflective assessment of how authors of literature on financial sector regulation execute the craft of research by reference to factors such as linkages to relevant literatures, originality of authors' claims, strength of argument and analysis of data.

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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LW906 - International Enviromental Law - Legal Foundations (20 credits)

This module is designed to examine and assess the core foundational legal principles and regulatory structures underpinning international environmental law (IEL) and policy. Specifically, it considers the various core sources of IEL, the principal international institutions involved in its development as well as legal issues involved relating to its implementation and enforcement.

Whilst specific topic areas may vary according to the pedagogical preferences of the Module Convenor, indicatively the module may be expected to cover all or most of the following topic areas which address key aspects of the legal foundations of IEL:

Historical context and development of international environmental law

Legal sources: (1) sources and structures of public international law; legal instrumentation; (2) general principles of international environmental law; (3) international human rights and the environment

Institutional issues: the role of international organisations, states and non-governmental actors in international environmental law's development, the legal relations between the EU and the international community in the environmental sector

Implementation and enforcement (1): the role of public institutions at international level (responsibilities of states and the role of international institutions); (2) the role of private persons and access to environmental justice under international environmental law

Selected case study on application of foundational principles of IEL (eg climate change)

Credits: 20 credits (10 ECTS credits).

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Teaching and Assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules are normally assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15-20,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

  • offer you a rigorous programme of study that includes the experience of studying and living in another European country as well as the UK. This experience will allow you to develop your personal/professional skills of flexibility, adaptability, problem-solving and resourcefulness, to strengthen language skills and cross-cultural literacy, to broaden horizons and develop your networking skills in an internationalised setting
  • increase the opportunities for you to engage in comparative study of two distinct legal systems at postgraduate Master's level
  • provide a sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures and policy environments for the operation of English law and the law of an Erasmus-Europe LLM partner institution
  • foster the development of critical and analytical skills that can be applied in a wide range of settings, particularly settings where comparative methods and approaches offer useful analytical perspectives on contested legal questions
  • provide a postgraduate qualification of value to those intending to play a leading role in any field of law
  • provide opportunities to develop expertise in subject areas offered by the University of Kent and an Erasmus-Europe LLM partner institution
  • provide training in research, analytical, written and oral communication skills of general value to those seeking postgraduate employment
  • encourage you to develop a critical awareness of the operation of law and policy, particularly in contexts which are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution
  • provide you with the skills to undertake supervised research in law and to encourage the production of original and evaluative commentary that meets high standards of scholarship
  • develop your skills of academic legal research, particularly by the written presentation of arguments in a manner which meets relevant academic conventions
  • assist those students who are minded to pursue academic research at a higher level in acquiring a sophisticated grounding in the essential techniques involved by following specialised modules in research methods
  • contribute to widening participation in higher education by taking account of the past experience of applicants in determining admissions whilst ensuring that all students that are admitted possess the potential to complete the programme successfully.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the institutions sources, concepts, principles and structures of selected areas of English law and those of the Erasmus-Europe partner's jurisdiction
  • methods of comparative analysis of policy, sources, concepts, principles and structures of law
  • substantive law and policy relevant to a your chosen specialised modules and dissertation and the contextual setting of the law and policy in these fields
  • leading theoretical, social and academic debates that shape developments in the substantive areas of law that you study
  • critical, theoretical and evaluative frameworks for explaining, assessing, and critiquing English law and policy and the law and policy of the selected Erasmus-Europe partner's jurisdiction.

Intellectual skills

You develop intellectual skills in:

  • the ability to apply specialist knowledge of English law and policy and the law and policy of the Erasmus-Europe partner to solve problems
  • the capacity to evaluate selected issues in English law and the law of the Erasmus-Europe partner according to critical theoretical frameworks for explaining and critiquing law and policy
  • understanding how to construct critical comparative arguments on central issues and areas of controversy and to present a reasoned opinion based upon relevant materials
  • knowledge of how to locate and collect relevant information and literatures and how to access key paper and digital sources
  • the ability to construct critical arguments on central issues and areas of controversy
  • the ability to present reasoned opinions supported by reference to reliable and relevant materials
  • the ability to recognise potential alternative arguments and evidence contrary to your own position and to present a reasoned justification for that position
  • a capacity to offer critical challenge to received understanding on particular issues and to demonstrate independence of mind
  • the ability to reflect constructively on your learning progression
  • the ability to present information and arguments in written form, in accordance with academic conventions and appropriately to the intended readership.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in:

  • the ability to identify relevant issues in English law and the law of the selected Erasmus-Europe partner's jurisdiction from potentially complex factual situations and evaluate critically and comparatively how the two legal systems respond to such situations
  • the ability to research and access the main sources of law and policy which are relevant to solving complex factual problems within the specialist areas of law studied at the University of Kent and the Erasmus-Europe partner
  • the ability to appreciate and evaluate the main theoretical and political perspectives that underlie legal provisions in the specialist areas of law studied at the University of Kent and the Erasmus-Europe partner
  • the ability to provide a reasoned and justified opinion as to the possible legal consequences of particular factual scenarios within the specialist areas of law studied at the University of Kent and at the Erasmus-Europe partner
  • the ability to identify the limitations of present knowledge and matters needing to be resolved by further research into English law and policy and the law and policy of the Erasmus-Europe partner
  • the ability to utilise your research skills to commence further research into unresolved issues.

Transferable skills

You gain the following transferable skills:

  • the use of information technology in research and writing
  • problem-solving
  • written and oral communication skills
  • critical thinking
  • independent learning
  • strengthening cross-cultural literacy and confidence
  • improved language skills.

Study support

Postgraduate resources

Postgraduate students at Kent Law School have access to a postgraduate computing room, study area and common room with wireless internet access. The Law School has an active and inclusive extra-curricular academic and social scene, with weekly graduate seminars, a postgraduate student group for all students, and a regular guest lecture programme organised by our research centres (which include the Centre for Critical International Law, the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, and the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law).

Award-winning Law Library

Our Law Library has long been a leader in the development of electronic resources for legal teaching and research. The extensive and up-to-date law collection in the University's Templeman Library is particularly strong on electronic material, and the Electronic Law Library includes numerous legal databases, which are increasingly invaluable tools for research. In addition, you can access the text of thousands of law journals online. Our law librarian is available to train you to use these resources and runs regular legal research classes with postgraduate students.


We have a dedicated postgraduate office, offering support from application to graduation. Research students benefit from a research training programme in the first year. An academic staff member acts as postgraduate research co-ordinator and runs a weekly postgraduate study group, at which students present and discuss research. The Law School provides research students with an allowance for conferences and other research expenses, and an annual printing allowance.

Dynamic publishing culture

Staff publish regularly and widely in journals, conference proceedings and books. Recent contributions include: Modern Law Review; Social & Legal Studies; The Canadian Journal of Law & Society; Legal Studies; Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society.

Global Skills Award

All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme. The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability.  


Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School's Employability Blog.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country's diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a 'stage' at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: over 96% of our postgraduate students who graduated in 2015 found a job or further study opportunity within six months.

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog.

Entry requirements

A first or 2.1 honours degree or equivalent, in law or a related subject. Students who achieve a high 2.2 standard may also be considered at the discretion of Kent Law School (KLS). The School may also take account of relevant work experience when considering applications.

General entry requirements

All applicants are considered on an individual basis and additional qualifications, and professional qualifications and experience will also be taken into account when considering applications. 

International students

Please see our International Student website for entry requirements by country and other relevant information for your country. 

Meet our staff in your country

For more advise about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.

English language entry requirements

For detailed information see our English language requirements web pages. 

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

Research areas

Criminal Justice

Much of the School's research activity in criminal justice takes place in co-operation with the School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research and under the auspices of the Kent Criminal Justice Centre. Established in 1996, the Centre co-ordinates and encourages research in the field of criminal justice, and develops teaching and education initiatives, especially in co-operation with local criminal justice agencies.

Critical Commercial Law and Business Law and Regulation

Kent Law School has established a rich tradition of critical scholarship on the legal regulation of the business practices and commercial relations of market economies. Our experts inform research-led teaching in such fields as consumer debt and bankruptcy, secured credit, intellectual property, International Financial Institutions, economic development, international trade and business transactions, commercial arbitration, international labour regulation, corporate governance, regulation of personal financial services, e-commerce, and the law relating to banking and information technology.

Critical Obligations

Our expertise in the area of obligations shares a commitment to challenging the apparently coherent and common-sense rules of contract and tort. We do this by identifying the conflicts in the world outside of the textbook that shape and destabilise the operation of these rules, and by revealing the ideological, political, and distributive biases that the rules of contract and tort help to perpetuate.

Environmental Law

The Law School has long been established as a recognised centre of excellence in research and graduate teaching in environmental law, spanning international, EC and national law and policy. Current research interests include climate change, the aquatic environment, biodiversity conservation, regulation and enforcement, and trade.

European and Comparative Law

European and Comparative Law is being conducted both at an individual level as well as at the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law, which was established in 2004 with a view to providing a framework for the further development of the Law School's research and teaching activities in this area. Research and teaching reaches from general areas of comparative and European public and private law to more specialised areas and specific projects.

Gender and Sexuality

Home to the Kent Centre for Law, Gender and Sexuality, Kent Law School makes a significant contribution to the development of feminist perspectives on law, nationally and internationally. The Centre produces wide-ranging interdisciplinary work, drawing on a broad range of intellectual trajectories in addition to legal studies, including political theory, philosophy, sociology, political economy, cultural studies, geography, history, and drama. The Centre explores how sexuality is produced through political categories of difference and how it is governed. The research carried out by the Centre demonstrates a shared preoccupation with inequality and social change.

Governance and Regulation

Legal research involves studying processes of regulation and governance. This research cluster focuses on the character of regulation and governance to critically understand the different modes through which governing takes place such as the conditions, relations of power and effects of governance and regulation. Work within this area is methodologically diverse. Intellectually, it draws on a range of areas including socio-legal studies; Foucauldian perspectives on power and governmentality; Actor Network Theory; feminist political theory and political economy; postcolonial studies; continental political philosophy; and cultural and utopian studies.

Healthcare Law and Ethics

A number of Kent Law School (KLS) staff have interests in the area of Health Care Law and Ethics, focusing in particular on issues relating to human reproduction. Much of the research carried out by scholars in this area is critical and theoretical and has a strong interdisciplinary flavour. In addition to conducting their own research projects, staff have developed strong and fruitful collaborations with ethicists and medical professionals.

International Law

The starting point for research in international law at Kent Law School is that international law is not apolitical and that its political ideology reflects the interests of powerful states and transnational economic actors. In both research and teaching, staff situate international law in the context of histories of colonialism to analyse critically its development, doctrines and ramifications. Critical International Law at KLS engages with theories of political economy, international relations and gender and sexuality to contribute to scholarly and policy debates across the spectrum of international law, which includes public, economic, human rights, criminal and commercial law. Scholars at the Centre for Critical International Law engage in the practical application of international law through litigation, training, research and consultancies for international organisations, NGOs and states.

Law and Political Economy & Law and Development

Law and its relation to political economy are addressed from a variety of angles, including the exploration of the micro and macrolevel of economic regulations as well as theoretical aspects of law and political economy.

Legal Theories and Philosophy

Identifying the fact that several academics do work in cultural theory and political theory (including on normative concepts, religion and the state). While feminist and critical legal theories are focal points at Kent Law School, the departmental expertise also covers more essential aspects such as classical jurisprudence and the application of philosophy to law.

Property Law

Kent Law School's property lawyers have a range of overlapping interests in both global and local property issues. Their work covers indigenous people's rights, the environment, housing, community land, social enterprise, cultural heritage law and urban design, as well as the question of intellectual property. They have links with anthropologists working at the University and have run a very successful series of workshops exploring common interests. Their research draws on a multiplicity of theoretical perspectives including postcolonialism, feminism, and Foucault.

Other research areas within KLS include:

  • human rights
  • labour law
  • law and culture
  • law, science and technology
  • legal methods and epistemology
  • public law
  • race, religion and the law.

Staff research interests

Full details of staff research interests can be found on the School's website.

Professor Anneli Albi: Professor

Comparative constitutional law; EU constitutional law; EU enlargements; European Neighbourhood Policy.


Dr Donatella Alessandrini: Reader

International trade theory and practice; neoliberalism; international political economy; development studies.


Professor Yutaka Arai: Reader

International humanitarian law (including part of international criminal law); the relationship between international humanitarian law and international human rights law.


Dr Nicola Barker: Senior Lecturer

Marriage and civil partnerships; welfare; human rights.


Dr Kate Bedford: Reader

Gender, sexuality and international political economy; critical development studies; the World Bank; Latin America, heteronormativity and social policy; gambling regulation and economic regeneration, especially bingo; UK equalities law and policy.


Dr Anne Bottomley: Reader

Property practices in relation to urban planning and architecture – drawing from Deleuze and theoretical perspectives emerging in anthropology and social theory. Debates surrounding theoretical perspectives within feminism.


Dr Ruth Cain: Lecturer

Regulation and representation of reproduction and parenting, especially maternity, tracking relationships between law, literature, popular culture and the media, and how these shape perceptions of gender, sexuality and embodiment, health care law, including mental health law; the gendering of capitalism, neo-imperialism and post 9/11 trauma.


Dr Helen Carr: Reader

Housing law and social welfare, with particular interests in regulation of the poor and with the gendered and racialised dimensions of that regulation.


Donal Casey: Lecturer

Food governance and regulation; the issues of legitimacy and accountability.


Dr Emilie Cloatre: Senior Lecturer

The intersection between law and contemporary ‘science and society’ issues, for example patent law and access to health care, and the regulatory networks of climate change. This is particularly (although not exclusively) in the context of developing countries.


Professor Davina Cooper: Professor

Social and political theory; cultural geography; feminism and sexuality; governance and radical politics; Utopian studies. 


Eleanor Curran: Senior Lecturer

Hobbes; rights theory and the history of rights theory; political theory; moral theory; jurisprudence.


Dr Karen Devine: Lecturer

The law of obligations; tortious legal issues, particularly those relating to the collection, storage and use of human tissue; decision-making in health care and the role of informed consent; medical law and ethics generally.


Lisa Dickson: Senior Lecturer

Forensic science and the law; evidence and the trial process; general areas of criminal justice.


Maria Drakopoulou: Reader

Feminist theory; feminist jurisprudence; legal theory and philosophy; legal history; Roman law; equity and trusts.


Mairead Enright: Lecturer

Legal regulation of culture and religion, and particularly the effects of legal engagement with traditionally ‘private’ aspects of religious practice for ‘public’ conceptions of membership.


Professor John Fitzpatrick: Professor; Director of Kent Law Clinic

Human rights law; constitutional law; public legal services; legal process.


Iain Frame: Lecturer

Legal and economic history, monetary theory, and social and legal theory.


Dr Simone Glanert: Senior Lecturer

Comparative legal studies; legal translation; statutory interpretation; European law; French law and German law. Recent publications include: De la traductibilité du droit (2011); Comparative Law: Engaging Translation (ed, 2012).


Dr Emily Grabham: Senior Lecturer

Citizenship; belonging and corporeality; feminist and queer theories of embodiment; labour law; welfare reform and its connection to work/family policy.


Professor Nick Grief: Professor

Public international law, human rights and EU law, with particular reference to the legal status of nuclear weapons.


Dr Emily Haslam: Lecturer

Public international law; international criminal law; civil society.


Martin Hedemann-Robinson: Senior Lecturer

European Union and international environmental law, notably in relation to law enforcement.


Professor Didi Herman: Professor; Head of School

Gender and sexuality; race, religion and ethnicity; popular culture; social movement; law reform. 


Dr Kirsty Horsey: Senior Lecturer

Human reproduction and genetics, particularly where these overlap with issues in family law; legal education.


Professor William Howarth: Professor

Environmental and ecological law, with particular emphasis on the legal protection of the aquatic environment and the ecosystems that it supports.


Dr Suhraiya Jivraj: Lecturer

Law and religion; equalities, anti-discrimination and human rights law; critical race/postcolonial studies; gender and sexuality; Muslim feminisms and Islamic law. 


Per Laleng: Lecturer; Director of Mooting

Law of tort – focused on the concept of causation particularly in the context of industrial and other diseases. Other research interests include law and football, and law and photography. 


Sian Lewis-Anthony: Lecturer

International human rights law, in particular, the right to a fair trial and the issue of the independence and impartiality of the judiciary.


Professor Robin Mackenzie: Professor

Bioscience and law; body modification; constructions of addiction; death and the dying process; enhancement; feminist perspectives; genetics and other new technologies; neuroethics and law; neuroscience; propertisation and biovalue; psychoactive substances; public health governance; reprogenetics; strategic rhetoric in regulation; surrogacy; critical and cultural theory applied to all of the above.


Dr Alex Magaisa: Senior Lecturer

Financial services regulation, with special focus on international finance centres (offshore finance jurisdictions); the law relating to corporate groups, with special interest in responsibility for corporate torts; intellectual property and developing countries; general interest in the interaction between law and politics in Africa.


Dr Gbenga Oduntan: Senior Lecturer

Private and public international law; international courts and tribunals; arbitration; international commercial law; land and maritime boundary and territorial disputes; air and space law; international economic law; immigration and asylum law; constitutional law; criminal justice; scientific and technological issues in policing.


Connal Parsley: Lecturer

Jurisprudence; critical legal theory; political theory; public law; law and aesthetics; law and film; Australian Aboriginal legal issues; legal ethics.


Sebastian Payne: Lecturer

The Crown; constitutional reform; the royal prerogative; oversight issues relating to the intelligence and security services; decision making and its relation to law.


Professor Amanda Perry-Kessaris: Professor

Law and development, including econo-socio-legal development; the role of legal indicators and legal systems in development; economic approaches to law and development.


Dr Stephen Pethick: Senior Lecturer

Jurisprudence, with emphasis on epistemology and metaphysics and the law; philosophy of language and the law; reasoning and the law; the concept of coherence and its use in legal theory and legal reasoning; the legal writings of Francis Bacon; the history of legal ideas from the early modern period onwards; analytic legal theory; legal history; the law of evidence.


Nick Piska: Lecturer

A critical engagement with private law, particularly in the area of equity and trusts, and a broader interest in the figure of the equitable subject and the ways in which equitable subjects are produced in modernity.


David Radlett: Lecturer

The shift in power from the elected and notionally representative and accountable to the unelected and obviously unrepresentatitive and unaccountable.


Professor Iain Ramsay: Professor

Regulation of consumer markets at the national, regional and international level, with a particular interest in issues of credit and insolvency, commercial credit and commercial law, focusing on the role of credit law in development.


Sinead Ring: Lecturer

The legitimacy of the criminal trial, particularly the substantive implications of the criminal process’ professed commitment to the rule of law.


Professor Geoffrey Samuel: Professor

Law of obligations (English, Roman and French); comparative law; legal remedies; legal theory; legal epistemology.


Professor Harm Schepel: Professor

Legal sociology; international and European economic law.


Professor Sally Sheldon: Professor

Medical ethics and law, particularly with reference to reproductive issues; legal regulation of gender and sexuality; fatherhood.


Dr Sophie Vigneron: Senior Lecturer

French public and private law; English tort law; art law; the Europeanisation of private law; cultural heritage law.


Professor Dermot Walsh: Professor

Policing and criminal justice; criminal procedure; human rights; European criminal law and procedure.


John Wightman: Senior Lecturer; Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences

Theory, history, and empirical work relating to private law, especially tort and contract.


Professor Toni Williams: Professor

Regulation and governance of economic development and market relations; regulation of consumer financial services; the implications of information technology for the regulation of consumer markets.


Dr Simone Wong: Senior Lecturer

Equity; banking and finance; cohabitation and other domestic relationships.


Enquire or order a prospectus

LLM Law (Erasmus, Europe)



Admissions enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

Subject enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 824595

F: +44 (0)1227 827442


School website

Open days

We hold regular Open Events at our Canterbury and Medway campuses. You will be able to talk to specialist academics and admissions staff, find out about our competitive fees, discuss funding opportunities and tour the campuses.

You can also discuss the programmes we run at our specialist centres in Brussels, Athens, Rome and Paris at the Canterbury Open Events. If you can't attend but would like to find out more you can come for an informal visit, contact our information team or find out more on our website.  

Please check which of our locations offers the courses you are interested in before choosing which event to attend.


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*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills or Research Council UK) they will be increased up to the allowable level.


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Last Updated: 20/07/2015