Portrait of Dr Adolf Acquaye

Dr Adolf Acquaye

Reader in Sustainability
Head of Ethics

About

Dr Acquaye is a Reader in Sustainability at Kent Business School. He obtained his PhD in the research area of Energy, Environment and Sustainability from Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland and a Master's Degree in Engineering for Sustainable Development from the University of Cambridge, UK. He also has a First Class Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana.

Prior to joining Kent Business School, Dr  Acquaye was a Research Fellow at the University of Sheffield Management School and the Stockholm Environment Institute at the University of York.

Dr Acquaye has been appointed as Lead Author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), 2018-2021. He also previously acted as a Lead Author for the AR5 (2012-2014) and Contributing Author of the Technical Summary Report of the IPCC. Set up by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the IPCC is task to produce one of the leading international scientific reports that underpin global sustainability and climate change mitigation and adaptation assessment and response strategies.

He was Managing Guest Editor for the Journal: Energies for its Special Issue on Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems. He was also Guest Editor for the Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management on a Special issue on Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Sustainable Development: Theory, Models and Applications. Currently, he serves on the Editorial Board of the Annual Review of Social Partnerships (ARSP).

He currently serves as Chair of Kent Business School’s Research Ethics Committee, Coordinator of the school’s Q-Step Programme; KBS representative to the university’s Equality Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI) committee and he coordinates the school’s UN Principles for Responsible Management Education activities.

Research interests

Dr Adolf Acquaye's research interest covers:

  • Sustainability Research in Business Practice and CSR
  • Environmental Modelling and Lifecycle Assessments
  • Green Supply Chains Management
  • Sustainable Frameworks and Resource Accounting
  • Climate Change Policy and Mitigation
  • Development of Decision Support Tools
  • Sustainable and Renewable Energy Systems

Dr Acquaye’s research has been funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 and the Society for the Advancement of Management Studies. His research has been published in Associated of Business School (ABS) ranked journals such as:

  • European Journal of Operational Research
  • Ecological Economics
  • International Journal of Production Economics
  • Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
  • International Journal of Production Research
  • Omega: The International Journal of Management Science
  • Environmental Science and Technology
  • Journal of Environmental Management

He has also published in High Impact Factor journals such as Energy and Environmental Science, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Nature Scientific Reports, etc. In 2014, he won the Best Conference Paper in Operations, Logistics and Supply Chain Management track at the British Academy of Management annual conference.

He is a strong believer of the positive impact of research on society, academia and scholarship. For instance, he was part of the research team that developed the Supply Chain Environmental Analysis Tool (SCEnAT); a Decision Support Tool currently being used by a number of companies in industry to measure and manage the carbon impacts of their supply chains.

Research Grant Awards

  • European Commission H2020: Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions Innovative Training Networks (ITN) Call: H2020-MSCA-ITN-2018. “Re-Evaluating the Transition to the Circular Economy: Models, Methods and Applications (ReTraCE)” Kent PI, valued at €303,173.
  • Society for the Advancement of Management Studies: A Multi-disciplinary Research Approach to Environmental Sustainability Modelling: Methods and Applications; £4800
  • Q-Step Programme, Quantitative Research Training Fund (QRTF); £2000

Teaching

Module CodeModule TitleRole
CB733Business Ethics and Sustainable Management (Year 2 Undergraduates)Module Convenor
CB9085Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability Management (MBA Class)Module Convenor
CB8023Contemporary Topics in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (Masters Level) 

Supervision

Dr Acquaye welcomes enquiries by prospective PhD research in the areas of Sustainability Research in Business Practice and CSR, Environmental Modelling, Green Supply Chain Management, Renewable Energy Systems, Climate Change Policy and Mitigation and other related areas outlined in his research interest page.

Current Supervisees

  • Mohammad Javad Ramezankhani: Assessing the Economic Efficiency of the Circular Economy
  • John Makokha: Integrated Corporate Social Innovation: Unmasking a Values-Based Corporate Sustainability Framework for the Management of Corporate Sustainability Tensions Among Financial Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Rasmi Jamil Rasmi Meqbel: The role of family involvement in explaining the causal relationship between CSR and earnings management tendency: the perspective of socio-emotional wealth
  • Charles Turkson: Sustainability Assessment of Electricity Production and Consumption: Dea Systems Modelling Of Complex Internal Structures.
  • Martin Boakye OseiUsing The Triple Bottom Line Approach to analyse the influence of Corporate Culture on Supply Chain Sustainability Performance and assessing the mediation role of Supply Chain Integration
  • Ken Cheng: DEA collective evaluation of energy supply with emphasis on environmental sustainability
  • Mohammad Abweny: Credibility of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosures (CSR): The Contribution of External Auditing
  • Gift KugaraUsing Big Data and Predictive Analysis to enhance the Triple Bottom Line Sustainability

Past Supervisees

  • Norfaieqah Ahmad: The multi-objective routing with an emphasis on economic and environmental factors
  • Bradley Cronk: The relationship between political ideology and ethical consumption behaviour

Dr Adolf Acquaye acts as PhD External Advisor to:

  • David Glew: Validating the sustainability of bio-renewable replacements for petrochemical products, (University of York)
  • TaofeeqIbn-MohammedDevelopment of a novel and robust decision-making methodology that ranks and sequence a range of intervention options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in buildings, (DeMontfort University)

Professional

  • Fellow of the Higher Education Authority, UK
  • Lead Author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report-AR5 (Chapter 10-Industry)
  • Research Grant Review Panel Member-British Council’s Newton Fund Research Grants scheme 
  • Africa Centre Director, Advances in Clearer Production Network (ACPN)
  • Editorial Board Member, The Annual Reviews of Social Partnerships (ISSN: 2059-4291)
  • Member, The Academy of Business in Society (ABIS)

Publications

Showing 50 of 51 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.

Article

  • Yamoah, F., Kaba, J., Amankwah-Amoah, J. and Acquaye, A. (2020). Stakeholder Collaboration in Climate-Smart Agricultural Production Innovations: Insights from the Cocoa Industry in Ghana. Environmental Management [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01327-z.
    Although collaboration is vital in addressing global environmental sustainability challenges, research understanding on stakeholder engagement in climate-smart production innovation adoption and implementation, remains limited. In this paper, we advance knowledge about stakeholder collaboration by examining the roles played by stakeholders in scaling up ecological sustainability innovations. Using the illustrative context and case of green cocoa industry in Ghana, the analysis identified three distinctive phases of stakeholder engagement in ecological sustainability innovations implemented from 1960-2017. We highlight defining periods of ecological challenges encompassing the production recovery sustainability initiative phase solely driven by the Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD)–a governmental body responsible for production, processing and marketing of cocoa, coffee and sheanut. During the period, major initiatives were driven by non-governmental organisations in collaboration with COCOBOD to implement the Climate-Smart agriculture scheme in the cocoa sector. The findings have implications for cocoa production research and stakeholder collaboration in environmental innovations adoption.
  • Turkson, C., Acquaye, A., Liu, W. and Papadopoulos, T. (2020). Sustainability assessment of energy production: A critical review of methods, measures and issues. Journal of Environmental Management [Online] 264. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110464.
    Sustainable operations of energy production systems have become an increasingly important policy agenda globally because of the massive pressure placed on energy resources needed to support economic development and population growth. Due to the increasing research interest in examining the operational impacts of energy production systems on the society and the environment, this paper critically reviews the academic literature on the clean, affordable and secure supply of energy focussing on methods of assessments, measures of sustainability and emerging issues in the literature. While there have been some surveys on the sustainability of energy production systems they have either tended to focus on one assessment approach or one type of energy generation technology. This study builds on previous studies by providing a broader and comprehensive examination of the literature across generation technologies and assessment methods. A systematic review of 128 scholarly articles covering a 20-year period, ending 2018, and gathered from ProQuest, Scopus, and manual search is conducted. Synthesis and critical evaluation of the reviewed papers highlight a number of research gaps that exist within the sustainable energy production systems research domain. In addition, using mapping and cluster analyses, the paper visually highlights the network of dominant research issues, which emerged from the review.
  • Yamoah, F. and Acquaye, A. (2019). Unravelling the Attitude-Behaviour Gap Paradox for Sustainable Food Consumption: Insight from the UK Apple Market. Journal of Cleaner Production [Online] 217:172-184. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.094.
    The remarkable progress made by the sustainable food industry as compared to the persistent small market share it holds, presents attitude-behaviour gap paradox which existing research is yet to address. The paper attempts to resolve this conundrum by addressing two key research objectives: Firstly, we draw on Campbell’s paradigm to develop a sustainable product purchase behaviour model by conceptualising and measuring behavioural difficulties in terms of behavioural inhibitors/promoters, which includes Past Purchase, Premium Pricing, and Product Availability and Product Variety barriers. Further to this, we establish the exact role of purchase behavioural inhibitors/promoters from the point of view of Campbell’s paradigm. This is achieved through analyses of actual behaviour data consisting of loyalty card data in the UK with a sample size of 1.8 million customers and supermarket shopper till receipt data in the UK. Evidence from the study established the existence of a sustainable product purchase inhibitor and promoter typology, which are critical to sustainable food purchase behaviour, but their degree of influence differ significantly. Our study subsequently, validates the Campbell’s paradigm theory since we were able to establish using the actual purchase behaviour data that indeed, the purchase inhibitors are what causes the so-called gap between claimed purchase behaviour and actual purchase behaviour. The study further highlights theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Reaney, I., Koh, S., Acquaye, A., Sinclair, D., Randall, C., Abubakar, F., Smith, L., Schileo, G. and Ozawa-Meida, L. (2018). Life cycle assessment and environmental profile evaluation of lead-free piezoelectrics in comparison with lead zirconate titanate. Journal of the European Ceramic Society [Online] 38:4922-4938. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.06.044.
    The prohibition of lead in many electronic components and devices due to its toxicity has reinvigorated the race to develop substitutes for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based mainly on the potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and sodium bismuth titanate (NBT). However, before successful transition from laboratory to market, critical environmental assessment of all aspects of their fabrication and development must be carried out in comparison with PZT. Given the recent findings that KNN is not intrinsically ‘greener’ than PZT, there is a tendency to see NBT as the solution to achieving environmentally lead-free piezoelectrics competitive with PZT. The lower energy consumed by NBT during synthesis results in a lower overall environmental profile compared to both PZT and KNN. However, bismuth and its oxide are mainly the by-product of lead smelting and comparison between NBT and PZT indicates that the environmental profile of bismuth oxide surpasses that of lead oxide across several key indicators, especially climate change, due to additional processing and refining steps which pose extra challenges in metallurgical recovery. Furthermore, bismuth compares unfavourably with lead due to its higher energy cost of recycling. The fact that roughly 90–95% of bismuth is derived as a by-product of lead smelting also constitutes a major concern for future upscaling. As such, NBT and KNN do not offer absolute competitive edge from an environmental perspective in comparison to PZT. The findings in this work have global practical implications for future Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) legislation for piezoelectric materials and demonstrate the need for a holistic approach to the development of sustainable functional materials.
  • Acquaye, A., Ibn-Mohammed, T., Genovese, A., Afrifa, G., Yamoah, F. and Oppon, E. (2018). A Quantitative Model for Environmentally Sustainable Supply Chain Performance Measurement. European Journal of Operational Research [Online] 269:188-205. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2017.10.057.
    The development of robust mechanisms for supply chain performance measurement have been identified as an integral step needed for the transition towards sustainable supply chain systems and a greener global economy. However, measuring the environmental performance of supply chains is a challenging task, due to several factors, such as the lack of standardised methodologies and the inherent multi-criteria nature of the problem. By leveraging the capability of a Multi-Regional Input-Output framework to handle the complex and global nature of supply chains, the current work presents a robust environmental sustainable performance measurement model underpinned by industrial lifecycle thinking.

    As a result, some theoretical insights are provided and an empirical application of the model to the Metal Products industry of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) nations undertaken in an attempt to address some of the methodological and applied measurement challenges. In particular, this allowed the modelling of carbon emissions trends within, and between the BRICS nations and with the Rest-of-the-World over a 20-year period (1992-2011) as well as providing an opportunity to hypothesis on their future carbon emissions performances. Specific analyses of the Metal Product industry showed that demand represents the main driver for the increasing carbon footprint. However, the overall decline in reported carbon footprint was due to improvements in emissions intensity and efficiency gains induced by technology. The study further assesses the effects of imports and economic growth on carbon footprint and discusses the implications of the study to sustainability transition processes in the BRICS nations.
  • Oppon, E., Acquaye, A., Ibn-Mohammed, T. and Koh, L. (2018). Modelling Multi-regional Ecological Exchanges: The Case of UK and Africa. Ecological Economics [Online] 147:422-435. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.01.030.
    As environmental impacts continue to rise, the need to identify and quantify the underlying causes of these impacts has prompted important research questions. This is heightened by the fact that the production of goods and services is becoming increasingly global with countries relying on each other through trade. As such, it is important to have a mechanism in place to understand the environmental burden shifts from one country to another. To this end, this paper exploits a paradox in global environmental analysis, which stems from a false decoupling between economic and production systems as observed in most developed nations, which results in
    improved territorial emissions of these developed countries at the expense of developing countries. Ecological unequal exchange is one such contemporary ecological economic concept that is used to highlight such asymmetric transfer of embodied natural resources and biophysical indicators between countries. Attempts at environmental impacts reduction efforts has largely focused on carbon emissions but given the complex supply chain created through globalisation and international trade, it is important to consider other important metrics such as land and water use alongside carbon emissions to drive environmental policies that will holistically address ecologically unequal exchanges. For developing countries in Africa where the dependence on land use and water use for agricultural activities are crucial to the development of national economies and in combating poverty, an assessment of these metrics has become even more paramount. Against this backdrop, the current work draws upon the theoretical constructs of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework to trace country specific sectorial-level flows of the aforementioned metrics between a representative developed nation, UK, and 27 African regions in order to fully examine their ecological exchanges. Key findings in the study suggest that for water consumption and land use, there is a net externalisation of these impacts for all the 27 African regions by the UK. It was also determined that the extent of the imbalance between the UK and the African region is exceedingly far greater for water consumption. It is recommended that in formulating a robust multi-national environmental policy where so many factors are at play, country specific and industry targeted approach to ecological unequal exchange between nations provides better and improved insight into addressing ensuing environmental issues.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Koh, S., Reaney, I., Acquaye, A., Schileo, G., Mustapha, K. and Greenough, R. (2017). Perovskite solar cells: An integrated hybrid lifecycle assessment and review in comparison with other photovoltaic technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Online] 80:1321-1344. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.095.
    Solar cells are considered as one of the prominent sources of renewable energy suitable for large-scale adoption in a carbon-constrained world and can contribute to reduced reliance on energy imports, whilst improving the security of energy supply. A new arrival in the family of solar cells technologies is the organic-inorganic halide perovskite. The major thrust for endorsing these new solar cells pertains to their potential as an economically and environmentally viable option to traditional silicon-based technology. To verify this assertion, this paper presents a critical review of some existing photovoltaic (PV) technologies in comparison with perovskite-structured solar cells (PSCs), including material and performance parameters, production processes and manufacturing complexity, economics, key technological challenges for further developments and current research efforts. At present, there is limited environmental assessment of PSCs and consequently, a methodologically robust and environmentally expansive lifecycle supply chain assessment of two types of PSC modules A and B is also undertaken within the context of other PV technologies, to assess their potential for environmentally friendly innovation in the energy sector. Module A is based on MAPbX3 perovskite structure while module B is based on CsFAPbX3 with improved stability, reproducibility and high performance efficiency. The main outcomes, presented along with sensitivity analysis, show that PSCs offer more environmentally friendly and sustainable option, with the least energy payback period, as compared to other PV technologies. The review and analysis presented provide valuable insight and guidance in identifying pathways and windows of opportunity for future PV designs towards cleaner and sustainable energy production.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Koh, S., Reaney, I., Sinclair, D., Mustapha, K., Acquaye, A. and Wang, D. (2017). Are lead-free piezoelectrics more environmentally friendly?. MRS Communications [Online] 7:1-7. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2017.10.
    Considered as a less hazardous piezoelectric material, potassium sodium niobate (KNN) has been in the fore of the search for replacement of lead (Pb) zirconate titanate for piezoelectrics applications. Here, we challenge the environmental credentials of KNN due to the presence of ~60 wt% Nb2O5, a substance much less toxic to humans than Pb oxide, but whose mining and extraction cause significant environmental damage.
  • Genovese, A., Acquay, A., Figueroa, A. and Koh, S. (2017). Sustainable Supply Chain Management and the transition towards a Circular Economy: Evidence and some Applications. Omega [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2015.05.015.
    In the last decades, green and sustainable supply chain management practices have been developed, trying to integrate environmental concerns into organisations by reducing unintended negative consequences on the environment of production and consumption processes. In parallel to this, the circular economy discourse has been propagated in the industrial ecology literature and practice. Circular economy pushes the frontiers of environmental sustainability by emphasising the idea of transforming products in such a way that there are workable relationships between ecological systems and economic growth. Therefore, circular economy is not just concerned with the reduction of the use of the environment as a sink for residuals but rather with the creation of self-sustaining production systems in which materials are used over and over again.

    Through two case studies from different process industries (chemical and food), this paper compares the performances of traditional and circular production systems across a range of indicators. Direct, indirect and total lifecycle emissions, waste recovered, virgin resources use, as well as carbon maps (which provide a holistic visibility of the entire supply chain) are presented. The paper asserts that an integration of circular economy principles within sustainable supply chain management can provide clear advantages from an environmental point view. Emerging supply chain management challenges and market dynamics are also highlighted and discussed.
  • Koh, S., Ibn-Mohammed, T., Acquaye, A., Feng, K., Reaney, I., Hubacek, K., Fujii, H. and Khatab, K. (2016). Drivers of U.S. toxicological footprints trajectory 1998–2013. Scientific Reports [Online] 6:39514. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep39514.
    By exploiting data from the Toxic Release Inventory of the United States, we have established that the toxicological footprint (TF) increased by 3.3% (88.4 Mt) between 1998 and 1999 and decreased by 39% (1088.5 Mt) between 1999 and 2013. From 1999 to 2006, the decreasing TF was driven by improvements in emissions intensity (i.e. gains in production efficiency) through toxic chemical management options: cleaner production; end of pipe treatment; transfer for further waste management; and production scale. In particular, the mining sector reduced its TF through outsourcing processes. Between 2006 and 2009, decreasing TF was due to decrease in consumption volume triggered by economic recession. Since 2009, the economic recovery increased TF, overwhelming the influence of improved emissions intensity through population growth, consumption and production structures. Accordingly, attaining a less-toxic economy and environment will be influenced by a combination of gains in production efficiency through improvement in emissions mitigation technologies and changes in consumption patterns. Overall, the current analysis highlights the structural dynamics of toxic chemical release and would inform future formulation of effective mitigation standards and management protocols towards the detoxification of the environment
  • Acquaye, A., Feng, K., Oppon, E., Salhi, S., Ibn-Mohammed, T., Genovese, A. and Hubacek, K. (2016). Measuring the Environmental Sustainability Performance of Global Supply Chains: a Multi-Regional Input-Output analysis for Carbon, Sulphur Oxide and Water Footprints. Journal of Environmental Management [Online] 187:571-585. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.059.
    Measuring the performance of what an environmentally sustainable supply chain has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances.
    By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary sectors). It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modelling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO2, SO2, biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between countries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the results highlights include: On average, direct carbon emissions in the electricity sector across all 27 member states of the EU was estimated to be 1368 million tonnes and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tonnes per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62.8 gSOx/$ and 84.4 gSOx/$ although being higher than in other countries. In terms of water use, the high water use intensity in China (1040.27 litres/$) and India (961.63 litres/$), which are among the highest in the sector in the electricity sector is exacerbated by both countries being ranked as High Water Stress Risk countries.
    The paper also highlights many merits of the MRIO including: a 15-year time series study (which provides a measurement of environmental performance of key industries and an opportunity to assess technical and technological change during the investigated time period), a supply chain approach that provides a consistent methodological framework and accounts for all upstream supply chain environmental impacts throughout entire global supply chains.
    The paper also discusses the implications of the study to environmental sustainability performance measurement in terms of the level of analysis from a value chain hierarchy perspective, methodological issues, performance indicators, environmental exchanges and policy relevance.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Koh, S., Reaney, I., Acquaye, A., Wang, D., Taylor, S. and Genovese, A. (2016). Integrated Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment and Supply Chain Environmental Profile Evaluations of Lead-based (Lead Zirconate Titanate) versus Lead-free (Potassium Sodium Niobate) Piezoelectric Ceramics. Energy & Environmental Science [Online] 9:3495-3520. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6EE02429G.
    The increasing awareness of the environmental and health threats of lead as well as environmental legislation, both in the EU and around the world targeted at decreasing the use of hazardous substances in electrical appliances and products has reinvigorated the race to develop lead-free alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT), which presently dominates the market for piezoelectric materials. Emphasis has been placed on one of the most likely piezoelectric materials, potassium sodium niobate (KNN), as a lead-free replacement for PZT. KNN has been speculated to have better environmental credentials and is considered as a “greener” replacement to PZT. However, a comparative environmental impact assessment of the life cycle phases of KNN versus PZT piezoelectric materials has not been carried out. Such a life cycle assessment is crucial before any valid claims of “greenness” or environmental viability of one material over the other can be made and is the focus of this paper. Against this backdrop, a methodologically robust life cycle supply chain assessment based on integrated hybrid life cycle framework is undertaken within the context of the two piezoelectric materials. Results show that the presence of niobium in KNN constitutes far greater impact across all the 16 categories considered in comparison with PZT. The increased environmental impact of KNN occurs in the early stages of the LCA due to raw material extraction and processing. As a result, the environmental damage has already occurred before its use in piezoelectric applications during which it doesn’t constitute any threat. As such, the use of the term “environmentally friendly” for the description of KNN should be avoided. Cost-benefit analysis of substituting PZT with KNN also indicates that the initial cost of conversion to KNN is greater, especially for energy usage during production. This environmental assessment has allowed us to define and address environmental health and safety as well as sustainability issues that are essential for future development of these materials. Overall, this work demonstrates insightful findings that can be garnered through the application of life cycle assessment and supply chain management to a strategic engineering question which allows industries and policy makers to make informed decisions regarding the environmental consequences of substitute materials, designs, fabrication processes and usage.
  • Nasir, M., Genovese, A., Acquaye, A., Koh, S. and Yamoah, F. (2016). Comparing linear and circular supply chains: A case study from the construction industry. International Journal of Production Economics [Online] 183:443-457. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.06.008.
    In the last decades, green and sustainable supply chain management practices have been developed in efforts to try and reduce the negative consequences of production and consumption processes on the environment. In parallel to this, the circular economy discourse has been propagated in the industrial ecology and production economics literature and, lately, in business and practice. The ideals of circular economy principles suggests that the frontiers of environmental sustainability can be pushed by emphasising the idea of transforming products in such a way that there are workable relationships between ecological systems and economic growth.

    By arguing for these ideals to be integrated into green supply chain management theory and practice, the paper uses a case study from the construction industry to demonstrate the environmental gains in terms of carbon emissions that can be achieved through some circular economy principles as against traditional linear production systems. The paper therefore asserts that an integration of circular economy principles within sustainable supply chain management can provide clear advantages from an environmental point view despite some external supply chain influences and scenarios.

    Further to this, emerging supply chain management challenges and market dynamics are also highlighted and discussed.
  • Glew, D., Stringer, L., Acquaye, A. and McQueen-Mason, S. (2015). Evaluating the Potential for Harmonized Prediction and Comparison of Disposal?Stage Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Biomaterial Products. Journal of Industrial Ecology [Online]:1-15. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12421.
    The carbon footprint (CF) of biofuels and biomaterials is a barrier to their acceptance, yet the greenhouse gas emissions associated with disposing of biomaterials are frequently omitted from analyses. This article investigates whether harmonization is appropriate for calculating the importance of biomaterials’ disposal. This research shows that disposal stages could double a biomaterial's CF, or reduce it to the point that it could claim to be zero carbon. Incineration with combined heat and power coupled with on-site energy production in the biorefinery are identified as prerequisites to being zero carbon. The article assesses the current UK waste infrastructure's ability to support a low-carbon bio-based future economy, and finds that presently it only achieves marginal net reductions when compared to landfill and so cannot be said to support low-carbon biomaterials, though the article challenges the polluter pays principle where low-carbon disposal infrastructure are not available. Reuse and recycling are shown to have the potential to offset all the emissions caused by landfill of biomaterials. However, the savings are not so great as to offset the biomaterial's upstream emissions. The study explores the ability to overcome the barriers to incorporating disposal into life cycle assessment while identifying limitations of using harmonization as an assessment method. Specifically, data availability and industry consensus are flagged as major barriers. The study also uses sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of methodological choices, such as allowing additional reuse and recycling stages, classifying biomaterials into different types, and choosing between opposing allocation methods.
  • Dadhich, P., Genovese, A., Kumar, N. and Acquaye, A. (2014). Developing sustainable supply chains in the UK construction industry: A case study. International Journal of Production Economics [Online] 164. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527314003958.
    In recent years, increased concerns over pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have initiated a wave of policy change in both governmental, industry and non-governmental organisations in order to reduce the overall environmental impact and ensure a sustainable future. The UK Green Building Council for instance has identified construction as one of the most emission-intensive industries, accounting for around 50% of greenhouse gas production in the UK. In this study, a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) technique is used to analyse the plasterboard supply chain; the most commonly used product in the UK construction industry of one of the Europe?s leading distributor and contractor of building materials. This study demonstrates how emission ‘hotspots’ across the lifecycle of products can be identified and analysed using different intervention options in the supply chain in an attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For the plasterboard supply chain, the implementation of cross-docking principles and use of renewable sources of energy in warehousing were determined to be major decarbonzation interventions.
  • Acquaye, A., Yamoah, F. and Feng, K. (2014). An integrated environmental and fairtrade labelling scheme for product supply chains. International Journal of Production Economics [Online] 164:472-483. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.12.014.
    Environmental initiatives such as carbon labelling have been suggested as a driver for achieving sustainable production systems of product supply chains. The paper therefore presents a systematic process of developing an environmental labelling framework as an extension of carbon labelling using the fairtrade certification as a platform to facilitate the process. Using the general theoretical constructs of lifecycle assessments, the framework presented provides insight into the formulation of multi-regional supply chains which has been specifically characterised in this paper for the UK–India–Rest of the World supply chain. The environmental labelling process presented in this paper is based on two key principles; Quantitative Principle in Eco-labelling and the Principle of Whole Lifecycle Perspective and it is used to inform two key stakeholder groups in the supply chain: consumers and supply chain partners.

    For consumers, a consistent way of presenting the environmental label information is presented highlighting the supply chain impacts across the indicators of CO2-eq emissions, water consumption and land use in addition to regional contributions to these impacts from a global supply chain perspective. Additionally, communicating the environmental impacts to supply chain partners provides a decision support to take actions to reduce the overall impacts by identifying processes within the global supply chain that needed prioritisation.

    Given that fairtrade partnership is based on participatory development and a strict guidelines and standardisation process, it is envisaged that synergies can be derived by integrating environmental labelling with the fairtrade scheme to enhance the environmental sustainability of product supply chains.
  • Lake, A., Acquaye, A., Genovese, A., Niraj, K. and Koh, S. (2014). An application of hybrid life cycle assessment as a decision support framework for green supply chains. International Journal of Production Research [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2014.951092.
    In an effort to achieve sustainable operations, green supply chain management has become an important area for firms to concentrate on due to its inherent involvement with all the processes that provide foundations to successful business. Modelling methodologies of product supply chain environmental assessment are usually guided by the principles of life cycle assessment (LCA). However, a review of the extant literature suggests that LCA techniques suffer from a wide range of limitations that prevent a wider application in real-world contexts; hence, they need to be incorporated within decision support frameworks to aid environmental sustainability strategies. Thus, this paper contributes in understanding and overcoming the dichotomy between LCA model development and the emerging practical implementation to inform carbon emissions mitigation strategies within supply chains. Therefore, the paper provides both theoretical insights and a practical application to inform the process of adopting a decision support framework based on a LCA methodology in a real-world scenario. The supply chain of a product from the steel industry is considered to evaluate its environmental impact and carbon ‘hotspots’. The study helps understanding how operational strategies geared towards environmental sustainability can be informed using knowledge and information generated from supply chain environmental assessments, and for highlighting inherent challenges in this process.
  • Acquaye, A., Genovese, A., Barrett, J. and Koh, L. (2014). Benchmarking Carbon Emissions Performance in Supply Chains. Supply Chain Management [Online] 19:306-321. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/SCM-11-2013-0419.
    Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data have limited the development of approaches for evaluating performances of product supply chains. This industry-level benchmarking approach ensures that individual firms can compare their carbon emissions against other similarly structured firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data have limited the development of approaches for evaluating performances of product supply chains. The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address these issues, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. This industry-level benchmarking approach ensures that individual firms can compare their carbon emissions against other similarly structured firms.

    Findings – Supply chain carbon maps are developed as a means of producing industry-level benchmarks to set a measure for the environmental sustainability of product supply chains. The industry-level benchmark provides the first step for firms to manage the environmental performance, identify and target high carbon emission hot-spots and for cross-sectorial benchmarking.

    Originality/value – The paper links the theoretical development of supply chain environmental system based on the Multi-Regional Input–Output model to the innovative development of supply chain carbon maps, such that an industry-level benchmarking framework is produced as a means of setting product supply chain carbon emissions benchmarks.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2014). Integrating economic considerations with operational and embodied emissions into a decision support system for the optimal ranking of building retrofit options. Building and Environment [Online] 72:82-101. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.10.018.
    In the UK, 87% of dwellings and 60% of non-domestic buildings that will be standing in 2050 have already been built. Therefore, the greatest energy savings and emissions reductions will be achieved through retrofit of existing buildings. This usually involves decision-making processes targeted at reducing operational energy consumption and maintenance bills. For this reason, retrofit decisions by building stakeholders are typically driven by financial considerations. However, recent trends towards environmentally conscious design and retrofit have focused on the environmental merits of these options, emphasising a lifecycle approach to emissions reduction. Building stakeholders cannot easily quantify and compare the sustainability impacts of retrofit options since they lack the resources to perform an effective decision analysis. In part, this is due to the inadequacy of existing methods to assess and compare the cost, operational performance and environmental merit of the options. Current methods to quantify these parameters are considered in isolation when making decisions about energy conservation in buildings. To effectively manage the reduction of lifecycle environmental impacts, it is necessary to link financial cost with both operational and embodied emissions. This paper presents a robust Decision Support System which integrates economic and net environmental benefits (including embodied and operational emissions) to produce optimal decisions based on marginal abatement cost methods and Pareto optimisation. The implication of the DSS within the current climate change policies is also discussed. Overall, the methodology developed provides stakeholders with an efficient and reliable decision process that is informed by both environmental and financial considerations.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2013). Operational vs. Embodied Emissions in Buildings — A Review of Current Trends. Energy and Buildings [Online] 66:232-245. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.026.
    Global awareness of environmental impacts such as climate change and depletion of ozone layer has increased significantly in the last few years and the implication for emissions reductions in buildings are widely acknowledged. The goal, therefore, is to design and construct buildings with minimum environmental impacts. Lifecycle emissions resulting from buildings consist of two components: operational and embodied emissions. A great deal of effort has been put into reducing the former as it is assumed that it is higher than the latter. However, studies have revealed the growing significance of embodied emissions in buildings but its importance is often underestimated in lifecycle emissions analysis. This paper takes a retrospective approach to critically review the relationship between embodied and operational emissions over the lifecycle of buildings. This is done to highlight and demonstrate the increasing proportion of embodied emissions that is one consequence of efforts to decrease operational emissions. The paper draws on a wide array of issues, including complications concerning embodied emissions computation and also discusses the benefits that come with its consideration. The implication of neglecting embodied emissions and the need for an urgent policy framework within the current climate of energy and climate change policies are also discussed.
  • Genovese, A., Koh, S. and Acquaye, A. (2013). Energy efficiency retrofitting services supply chains: Evidence about stakeholders and configurations from the Yorskhire and Humber Region. International Journal of Production Economics [Online] 144:20-43. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.12.019.
    Interest in energy efficiency has risen rapidly in the last few years. In particular, Government institutions have launched several initiatives for improving housing energy efficiency through the implementation of retrofitting measures. As a result, the UK Energy Efficiency Retrofitting Services (EERS) market (estimated at around £2bn in 2010) has significant growth potential related to such large government initiatives. Despite this rapid growth in interest, research into the EERS sector has historically been limited, especially concerning supply chain implications. The supply chain of the EERS sector involves multiple stakeholders. It involves public and private bodies as a significant portion of work is undertaken within large publicly funded projects. This research is the first to examine empirically and theoretically the distinctiveness of the supply chain configurations in the EERS sector. A Delphi-like method is adopted to collect a wide range of data from the organisations operating in the EERS supply chain and government bodies (Local Authorities) in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. These data were used to capture and characterise the EERS sector in the region. Stakeholder theory is used to theorise on the public–private interaction mechanisms shaping the supply chain structure in the EERS sector. Three ideal types of supply chain configurations were identified based on the size and scope of the energy efficiency retrofitting project. The influence of these configurations on the performance of the supply chains was also explored.
  • Genovese, A., Lenny Koh, S. and Acquaye, A. (2013). Energy efficiency retrofitting services supply chains: Evidence about stakeholders and configurations from the Yorskhire and Humber region case. International Journal of Production Economics [Online] 144:20-43. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.12.019.
    Interest in energy efficiency has risen rapidly in the last few years. In particular, Government institutions have launched several initiatives for improving housing energy efficiency through the implementation of retrofitting measures. As a result, the UK Energy Efficiency Retrofitting Services (EERS) market (estimated at around £2bn in 2010) has significant growth potential related to such large government initiatives. Despite this rapid growth in interest, research into the EERS sector has historically been limited, especially concerning supply chain implications. The supply chain of the EERS sector involves multiple stakeholders. It involves public and private bodies as a significant portion of work is undertaken within large publicly funded projects. This research is the first to examine empirically and theoretically the distinctiveness of the supply chain configurations in the EERS sector. A Delphi-like method is adopted to collect a wide range of data from the organisations operating in the EERS supply chain and government bodies (Local Authorities) in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. These data were used to capture and characterise the EERS sector in the region. Stakeholder theory is used to theorise on the public–private interaction mechanisms shaping the supply chain structure in the EERS sector. Three ideal types of supply chain configurations were identified based on the size and scope of the energy efficiency retrofitting project. The influence of these configurations on the performance of the supply chains was also explored.
  • Koh, S., Genovese, A., Acquaye, A., Barratt, P., Rana, N., Kuylenstierna, J. and Gibbs, D. (2013). Decarbonising product supply chains: design and development of an integrated evidence-based decision support system - the supply chain environmental analysis tool (SCEnAT). International Journal of Production Research [Online] 51:2092-2109. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2012.705042.
    Based upon an increasing academic and business interest in greening the industrial supply chains, this paper establishes the need for a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for carbon emissions accounting and management, mainly across the product supply chains by identifying methodological shortcomings in existing tools, and proposing a supply chain (SC) framework which provide businesses with a holistic understanding of their supply chains and ensuring partners within supply chain collaborative networks have a shared understanding of their emissions. It describes the design and development of a DSS now known as supply chain environmental analysis tool (SCEnAT) in detail, putting its unique and innovative features into a comparative perspective vis-a`-vis existing tools and software of different types. The methodological framework used to design and develop SCEnAT integrates different individual techniques/methods of supply chain (SC) mapping, SC carbon accounting, SC interventions and SC interventions evaluation on a range of key performance indicators (KPIs). These individual methods have been used and applied innovatively to the challenge of designing SCEnAT within the desired framework. Finally, we demonstrate the
    application of SCEnAT, especially the advantage of using a robust carbon accounting methodology, to a SC case study. The SCEnAT framework pushes the theoretical boundary by addressing the problems of intraorganisational approach in decision making for lowering carbon along the supply chain; with an open innovation, cutting edge, hybridised framework that considers the supply chain as a whole in co-decision
    making for lowering carbon along the supply chain with the most robust methodology of hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA) that considers direct and indirect emissions and interventional performance evaluation for low carbon technology investment and business case building in order to adapt and mitigate climate change problems. This research has implications for future sustainability research in SC, decisions science,
    management theory, practice and policy.
  • Acquaye, A., Sherwen, T., Genovese, A., Kuylenstierna, J., Koh, S. and McQueen-Mason, S. (2012). Biofuels and their potential to aid the UK towards achieving emissions reduction policy targets. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Online] 16:5414-5422. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.04.046.
    The potential of biofuels contributing to the UK emission reduction targets in the formulated UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (LCTP) and the UK’s obligation in the wider EU emissions reduction targets are assessed using four scenarios. The scenarios were evaluated using hybrid lifecycle assessment developed in a multi-regional input–output (MRIO) framework. In the hybrid MRIO LCA framework, technology-specific processes in the biofuels and fossil fuels LCA systems are integrated into a generalised 2-region (UK and Rest of the World) environmental-economic input–output framework in order to account for economy-wide indirect GHG emissions in the biofuels and fossil fuels LCA systems in addition to other indirect impacts such as indirect land use change. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel (soybean, palm, rape, waste cooking oil) and bio-ethanol (sugarcane, sugarbeet, corn) were assessed and compared to fossil fuel (diesel and petrol) baseline. From one of the scenarios, biodiesel production from waste cooking oil and bioethanol from sugarbeet offer the biggest potential for emissions savings relative to fossil fuel equivalent and offering a maximum emission savings of 4.1% observed with a biofuel market share of 10% reached in 2020. It was also established that under current biofuel feedstock mix, to achieve the 6% emissions saving primarily from biofuels as proposed in the LCTP, 23.8% of the transport fuels market would be required to be held by biofuels by 2020.
  • Glew, D., Stringer, L., Acquaye, A. and McQueen-Mason, S. (2012). How do end of life scenarios influence the environmental impact of product supply chains? Comparing biomaterial and petrochemical products. Journal of Cleaner Production [Online] 29-30:122-131. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.02.005.
    In this research natural fibre (biomaterial) pocket spring mattresses are shown to emit marginally less greenhouse gasses (GHG) than foam (petrochemical) pocket spring mattresses. However, when end of life scenarios are considered, the results suggest much larger GHG emission reductions for natural fibre than foam mattresses. Refurbishing natural fibre mattresses and reusing the springs, coupled with recycling the waste components, can reduce GHG emissions by 90% compared to sending the mattresses to landfill. Incinerating mattresses via combined heat and power plants for electricity production and converting the waste textiles to ethanol are also shown to reduce GHG emissions, though to a lesser extent than refurbishment and recycling. Mattresses are normally disposed of via landfill however designing for reuse and recycling, coupled with supportive policy and legislation, may encourage more natural fibre mattresses and recycling. Such changes could save between 210 and 2092 thousand tCO2-eq in the European Union annually.
  • Acquaye, A., Barrett, P., Topi, C., Glew, D., Kuylenstierna, J., Barrett, J., Koh, S. and McQueen-Mason, S. (2012). Green supply chain management: the development of supply chain carbon maps. International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics [Online] 3:175-192. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJEME.2012.049891.
    In recent times, environmental thinking has become a prominent feature in the design of supply chain networks leading to the concepts of low carbon supply chains and green supply chain management. Understanding the sources and levels of emissions within the supply chain is the first step needed to fully design a low carbon supply chain. This paper helps to develop the concept of supply chain carbon map which provides a visual representation of the sources, levels of emissions and hotspots at a whole supply chain level. This is developed within an extended system framework using the hybrid lifecycle assessment methodology to generate carbon emissions for a mono crystalline silicon PV system and using a multi-regional input-output model to ensure system boundary completeness. The paper also discusses how the development of a whole supply chain perspective of carbon maps ensures that collaborative supply chain networks of firms can be mapped hence firms can gain a better understanding of their supply chain impacts and therefore help its sustainable management.
  • Acquaye, A., Duffy, A. and Basu, B. (2011). Embodied emissions abatement-A policy assessment using stochastic analysis. Energy Policy [Online] 39:429-441. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.10.022.
    Policymakers traditionally focus on regulating operational energy use in buildings, ignoring other life cycle components such as embodied energy even though this may account for a significant portion of life cycle emissions. Data relating to embodied energy and emissions in buildings is limited. However, stochastic techniques can be used to estimate the distribution of such emissions from buildings. This helps policymakers identify which instruments are appropriate for achieving emissions reductions. A primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate this approach using a sample of apartment buildings in Ireland. A Monte-Carlo simulation suggests that the average probability distribution of embodied greenhouse gases in a sample of Irish apartment buildings is characteristic of a Wakeby distribution with a long tail which can be targeted for improvement through the implementation of appropriate policies. Two policies are investigated: one regulatory whereby the embodied emissions of building materials are limited to the 80th percentile of their current distributions; and one informational where buildings are given an embodied emissions rating. It is estimated that such policies could result in an average reduction of 450 gCO2-eq/€ for the sample of apartment buildings analysed and could result in savings of €2bn to EU-27 countries in avoided carbon credits.
  • Acquaye, A., Wiedmann, T., Feng, K., Crawford, R., Barrett, J., Kuylenstierna, J., Duffy, A., Koh, S. and McQueen-Mason, S. (2011). Identification of ’Carbon Hot-Spots’ and Quantification of GHG Intensities in the Biodiesel Supply Chain Using Hybrid LCA and Structural Path Analysis. Environmental Science and Technology [Online] 45:2471-2478. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103410q.
    It is expected that biodiesel production in the EU will remain the dominant contributor as part of a 10% minimum binding target for biofuel in transportation fuel by 2020 within the 20% renewable energy target in the overall EU energy mix. Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N2O emissions from fertilizer application. In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO2 equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. The methodology uses input-output analysis to estimate upstream indirect emissions in order to complement traditional process LCA in a hybrid framework. It was estimated that traditional LCA accounted for 2.7 kg CO2-eq per kg of RME or 36.6% of total life cycle emissions of the RME supply chin. Further to the inclusion of upstream indirect impacts in the LCA system (which accounted for 23% of the total life cycle emissions), emissions due to direct land use change (6%) and indirect land use change (16.5%) and N2O emissions from fertilizer applications (17.9%) were also calculated. Structural path analysis is used to decompose upstream indirect emissions paths of the biodiesel supply chain in order to identify, quantify, and rank high carbon emissions paths or ‘hot-spots’ in the biodiesel supply chain. It was shown, for instance, that inputs from the ‘Other Chemical Products’ sector (identified as phosphoric acid, H3PO4) into the biodiesel production process represented the highest carbon emission path (or hot-spot) with 5.35% of total upstream indirect emissions of the RME biodiesel supply chain.
  • Wiedmann, T., Suh, S., Feng, K., Lenzen, M., Acquaye, A., Scott, K. and Barrett, J. (2011). Application of Hybrid Life Cycle Approaches to Emerging Energy Technologies - The Case of Wind Power in the UK. Environmental Science and Technology [Online] 45:5900-5907. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es2007287.
    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework – Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.
  • Acquaye, A., Duffy, A. and Basu, B. (2011). Stochastic hybrid embodied CO2-eq analysis: An application to the Irish apartment building sector. Energy and Buildings [Online] 43:1295-1303. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.01.006.
    Although embodied CO2-eq analysis has seen recent developments as evident in the establishment of the ISO 14040 and 14044 LCA standards, it is recognized that due to weaknesses in gathering data on product-related emissions, embodied CO2-eq values are probabilistic. This paper presents a stochastic analysis of hybrid embodied CO2-eq in buildings to account for this weakness in traditional methods and, by way of example, applies it to an Irish construction-sector case study. Using seven apartment buildings, 70,000 results are simulated with Monte Carlo analysis and used to derive probabilistic and cumulative embodied CO2-eq intensity distributions for apartment buildings in Ireland. A Wakeby distribution with known statistical parameters and uncertainty was derived for the average embodied CO2-eq intensity of apartment building in Ireland. The mean hybrid embodied CO2-eq (ECO2-eq) intensity was estimated to be 1636 gCO2-eq/€ with an uncertainty of 73 gCO2-eq/€. The stochastic analysis helps to account for variability in input variables into embodied CO2-eq analysis. The application of the stochastic embodied CO2-eq analysis as demonstrated in this study can be extended to other building sectors and countries and can form the basis for the development of evidence-based policy formulation since it provides greater information on embodied CO2-eq intensities of buildings than deterministic approaches.
  • Acquaye, A. and Duffy, A. (2010). Input-output analysis of Irish construction sector greenhouse gas emissions. Building and Environment [Online] 45:784-791. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.08.022.
    Ireland is committed to limiting its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 113% of 1990 levels over the period 2008–12 and to 84% of 2005 levels by 2020 under the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's 2020 target by 2020 respectively. National policies have targeted many industry sectors but have failed to directly tackle GHG emissions associated with construction activity. This paper estimates energy and GHG emissions intensities of the Irish construction sector and subsectors and estimates its contribution to Irish national emissions. This information is used to identify and assess the impacts of policy measures which would result in a reduction in emissions from the sector in a cost-effective manner. Energy and emissions intensities are estimated using input–output analysis techniques applied to Irish construction sector.

    In 2005 the Irish construction sector was responsible for the emission of 13.81 mtCO2eq, comprising 2.37 mt (17%) of direct on-site emissions, 5.69 mt (41%) upstream indirect domestic emissions and 5.75 mt (42%) upstream indirect emissions outside the state. Domestically arising direct and indirect emissions accounted for 3.44% and 8.26% of national emissions respectively. Approximately three-quarters of construction sector emissions were the result of activities relating to NACE 45.2 ‘civil and structural construction works, etc’. Given the potential importance of the construction sector to national emissions, there is scope for the implementation of policies which specifically target it. Two such policies are proposed: direct emissions mitigation through a construction EcoDriving initiative; and the provision of information to allow the design and specification of low-emissions materials.

Book

  • Onyekuru, A., Eboh, E. and Acquaye, A. (2012). Global Energy Crisis and Household-Level Energy Substitution in Nigeria. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
    Energy economics and politics have historically shaped international relations across the globe. Questions about energy pricing, supply and demand, particularly with respect to oil have proven fundamentally critical for economic development and human welfare. Against this backdrop, this book focuses on global energy crisis and the implications for household-level substitution in developing countries, with particular reference to Nigeria. Given that households in developing economies like Nigeria spend as much as ten percent of their income on cooking energy, the impact of energy pricing could be very significant. Using robust analytical tools with primary data, this book shows the empirical impact of energy crisis among households in Nigeria. Moreover, the book gives insight into the future of global energy and the opportunities for Nigeria and other developing economies to invest in sustainable energy alternatives. It is a rich articulation of literature and empirical data, which commends it as a useful reference for academics, policy makers, energy analysts, international development planers and the general public.

Book section

  • Acquaye, A. (2018). Ethical Management Consultancy. In: Phillips, P. A., Newman, V. and Subramanian, P. eds. Management Consultancy Through an Academic and Practitioner Perspective. Chennai: Notion Press.
    The Book Chapter addresses the following:
    Chapter Objectives
    1. To highlight the role and importance of ethics in upholding responsible management in the management consultancy industry
    2. To introduce business ethics and its foundational constituents
    3. To understand the complexities that management consultants face when making ethical decisions
    4. To present a topology to understand key ethical dilemmas faced by management consultants
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2013). A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Environmentally and Economically Optimal Retrofit of Non-domestic Buildings. In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB’09). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 209-227. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36645-1_20.
    v
  • Acquaye, A., Duffy, A. and Basu, B. (2009). Assessing the energy and CO2-eq emissions embodied in buildings towards a sustainable building design and construction. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Whole Life Urban Sustainability and Its Assessment. SUE-MoT.

Conference or workshop item

  • Morris, J., Genovese, A., Koh, S. and Acquaye, A. (2014). Benchmarking the Supply Chain in Public Procurement: A Case Study of Energy Efficiency Retrofitting. In: 2014 British Academy of Management Conference.
  • Acquaye, A., Genovese, A. and Koh, S. (2012). The demand and supply synergy: best practice procurement policies and design of supply chains configurations for regional energy efficiency projects. In: 2012 British Academy of Management,. Available at: https://www.bam.ac.uk/sites/bam.ac.uk/files/BAM_2012_Programme_0.pdf.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2012). Foundation for a Decision Support Framework for Optimal Sequencing of Emissions Savings Refurbishment Options in Non-Domestic Buildings. In: West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER) Conference.
  • Acquaye, A., Genovese, A. and Koh, S. (2012). The demand and supply synergy: best practice procurement policies and design of supply chains configurations for regional energy efficiency projects. In: British Academy of Management.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2012). Foundation for a Decision Support Framework for Optimal Sequencing of Emissions Savings Refurbishment Options in Non-Domestic Buildings. In: WABER Conference.
  • Ibn-Mohammed, T., Greenough, R., Taylor, S., Ozawa-Meida, L. and Acquaye, A. (2012). Optimal Ranking of Retrofit Options for Emissions Reduction in Non-Domestic Buildings-A Review. In: CIBSE ASHRAE Technical Symposium. Available at: http://www.cibse.org/knowledge/cibse-technical-symposium-2012/optimal-ranking-of-retrofit-options-for-emissions.
    Measures for reducing emissions in buildings, including renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency measures and inducements to change behaviour are widely available today. In practice, due to financial costs, project timelines and other constraints, their implementation is unlikely to be achieved in a single operation. There is therefore the need for a robust decision-making methodology with which optimal choices can be made regarding the prioritisation of the measures. Such a methodology will take into account multiple and sometimes competitive objectives such as energy consumption, financial costs, environmental impacts and the interactions of measures. This paper, written to support a poster, gives an overview of relevant literature in this field, a proposed research methodology and some thoughts on how measures of financial costs and both embodied and operational emissions can be combined into a robust way. This will allow ranking and sequencing of retrofit options to reduce emissions in non-domestic buildings in a cost-effective manner.
  • Acquaye, A., Duffy, A. and Basu, B. (2009). Embodied Energy Analysis: A Sustainable Construction Design Assessment Tool. In: Engineering Sustainability Conference: Innovations That Spans Boundaries. Available at: http://engineering.cmu.edu/about/events/2009/04_19_engineering_sustainability.html.
    Embodied energy analysis can be used as a construction design assessment tool in a sustainable matrix for a building. Its implementation however remains challenging mainly because of data measurement errors. A comparison between the deterministic embodied energy (EE) of a building and the stochastic EE of the same building undertaken using Monte Carlo simulation showed a wide variation in results. It is recommended that the specification of EE intensity of building materials in the construction industry can assist in producing accurate and more credible EE values of building.

Edited book

  • Acquaye, A. (2013). Feedstocks: Production Practices, Technologies and Environmental Impacts. Acquaye, A. ed. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Monograph

  • Koh, S., Jones, C., Genovese, A., Acquaye, A., Marchand, R. and Scott, F. (2013). Promoting Green Deal in Low Income Communities. Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, University of Sheffield.
  • Koh, S., Genovese, A. and Acquaye, A. (2012). BIG Energy Upgrade: Procurement and Supply Chain Report – Green Deal and Energy Efficiency Retrofitting Supply Chains Delivery. Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, University of Sheffield.
  • Koh, S., Acquaye, A., Rana, N., Genovese, A., Barrett, P., Gibbs, D. and Kuylenstierna, J. (2011). Supply Chain Environmental Analysis (SCEnAT)-a New System for Delivering a Low Carbon Supply Chain. Centre for Low Carbon Futures.
  • Koh, S., Genovese, A., Barrett, P., Acquaye, A., Rana, N., Gibbs, D. and Kuylenstierna, J. (2011). Making the Change. Centre for Low Carbon Futures.

Research report (external)

  • Fischedick, M., Roy, J., Acquaye, A., Allwood, J., Ceron, J., Geng, Y., Kheshgi, H., Lanza, A., Perczyk, D., Price, L., Santalla, E., Sheinbaum, C. and Tanaka, K. (2014). Industry In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Technical Report. [Online]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/.

Thesis

  • Cronk, B. (2017). The Relationship Between Political Ideology and Ethical Consumption.
    Problem definition and research questions

    The determinants of ethical consumption behaviour are largely unknown. This research explores the effectiveness of political ideology as a predictor of ethical consumption. Increasing the understanding of ethical consumption will create opportunities for organisations to supply consumer segments with products that address the ethical consumption issues that are most important to them. The issues that form overall ethical consumption include: (1) animal rights in product testing; (2) use of animal byproducts; (3) product biodegradability; (4) products made from recyclables; (5) product safety information provided; (6) human rights; (7) packaging recyclability; (8) product disposability; (9) payment of minimum wages; (10) unions allowed; (11) minimum living conditions met; (12) sexual orientation rights; (13) safe working conditions guaranteed; (14) use of child labour in production; (15) genetically modified (GM) material usage; and (16) gender, religious and racial rights (Auger, Devinney & Louviere 2007).

    Knowledge of the determinants of ethical consumption would have implications for how different product categories, for example, 'environmentally friendly' or 'Fairtrade' are positioned in the market and how consumers are targeted in marketing communications campaigns. This research can help practicing marketers to understand which ethical features are important to which consumers. With an understanding that consumers' political ideology impacts how they prioritise ethical consumption issues, marketers can politically charge their messages, and segment and target consumers based on their ideological perspective. The research therefore reinforces the widely-accepted marketing maxim that values are more effective than demographics in profiling consumers and segmenting markets (Doran 2009). In fact, the effectiveness of values as a segmentation criterion has a profound impact on the practical implications for this research. Furthermore, Cotte & Trudel's (2009) systematic review of the literature suggests that personality variables, including political orientations, can explain ethical consumption attitudes better than demographic factors. Previous research has only ever studied political ideology in a limited way with a simple measure of liberalism (Roberts 1996). This research goes further by using more comprehensive measures of the Left/Right distinction in politics and addressing the various ethical consumption issues as well as overall ethical consumption.

    Using political ideology to understand ethical consumption is novel since political ideology is usually understood for its influence on the government and the public sector through democratic means. However, this research aims to explain how political ideology affects consumer responses to business behaviour in the private sector as well. In this regard, we understand consumption choices to represent market politics, and acknowledge that ethical consumption treats the marketplace as a quasidemocracy. This view of ethical consumption as purchase voting is well documented in the literature and adds pertinence to the use of political ideology as the predictor variable for this research.

    Hypothesis and approach to the research

    This paper hypothesises that (1) there is a relationship between ethical consumption and political ideology, such that individuals with a more Leftist political ideology will display stronger intentions to engage in ethical consumption and those with a more Rightist political ideology will display weaker intentions to engage in ethical consumption. Critically, an individual's intentions to engage in ethical consumption will decline from Left to Right on the spectrum of political ideology (RH-1). However, (2) both the strength and the direction of this relationship will vary across the different ethical consumption issues (this hypothesis is elaborated on in Appendix 1 to cover animal, environmental and human/social welfare issues (RH-2)). For instance, political ideology may have no predictive power for certain ethical consumption issues, while other dimensions may correlate closely with an increasingly Rightist ideology. The rationales for these hypotheses are that the consumer's values in consumption will
    differ in line with their political ideology. A relationship has been found between an individual's personal values and ethical consumption (Doran 2009), but evidence for the relationship with political values is yet to be established.

    Political ideology is hypothesised to be a predictor of ethical consumption behaviour because it provides the lens for promoting beliefs and attitudes on social and economic issues (Feldman, Johnston 2014). The issues addressed within ethical consumption (e.g. the environment, animal welfare, human rights and sustainability) are often more closely associated with the political Left than with the political Right. The Left-wing is proven to support social equality and social justice, and oppose the social hierarchy generally accepted on the Right-wing. With strong ties to labour unions we can predict that workers' rights are a concern of those with a Left-wing orientation. Products that support workers' rights, such as Fairtrade items are therefore predicted to be important to Leftist consumers. Similarly, the Left-wing has been heavily associated with movements such as civil rights and the environmental movement. It is therefore feasible to suggest that products which support human rights (e.g. Ethical Trading
    Initiative (ETI) endorsed products) and the environment (products endorsed by Rainforest Alliance and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)) will appeal more to Leftists. There are particularly strong links between Leftism and support for environmental issues in Britain and around the world where a number of political parties representing the 'green-left' have emerged. In Britain these are the Green Party of England and Wales and the Scottish Greens. However, there are also ethical consumption issues that are hypothesised to correlate more closely with Rightist political beliefs. See Appendix 1 for more detail on the hypothesised strength and direction of the relationship between animal welfare (RH-2.1), human/social welfare (RH-2.2), environmental welfare (RH-2.3), and other ethical consumption issues (RH-2.4), and political ideology.

    Methods

    Following three rounds of survey pretesting, data was collected in March 2016 on a general population sample, from a Qualtrics panel of UK consumers aged 18 and above. 220 UK consumers were surveyed, using established scales for measuring both ethical consumption and political ideology. Data was collected on two scales of ethical consumption, two scales of political ideology and a group of control variables
    identified through a review of the existing literature (age, education, gender, marital status, income, country of birth and religiosity). Data analysis was then conducted through the statistical program SPSS. The results include descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate regression.

    Results and conclusions

    A significant relationship was found between political ideology and ethical consumption in both cases where a traditional Left/Right measure was used. In fact, Left/Right political ideology was found to predict around 4 or 5% of the variance in ethical consumption intentions. However, no significant relationship was found between an individual's level of Libertarianism or Authoritarianism and ethical consumption. Critically, ethical consumption intentions reduce with a more Right wing political ideology. A correlation was found between ethical consumption (measured through the Socially Responsible Purchasing and Disposal (SRDP) scale) and Rightist political ideology. A -0.214 correlation was found with a 0.001 significance level when measured using the British Social Attitudes (BSA) Left/Right scale on political ideology, and -0.224 with a significance of 0.002 when measured with the Buckle (2013) Left/Right policy preferences scale. However, the relationship was obscured by the confounding/moderating variables. The regression analysis controlled for all known confounding variables identified within the literature. When these items were held constant, the relationship between political ideology and ethical consumption increased in magnitude. These coefficients increased from -0.214 (BSA) and -0.224 (Buckle 2013), to -0.261 and -0.240 respectively. However, it is important to acknowledge that the relationship found between these variables was still weak in nature. These negative relationships proved that ethical consumption intentions decrease from Left to Right on the spectrum of political ideology.

    From the findings, this article underscores political ideology as a partial predictor of ethical consumption, and maps how important or unimportant the different ethical consumption issues are to consumers. The results explain how the importance of specific ethical consumption issues will decline or increase from Left to Right on the spectrum of political ideology.

    The results show that recycling intentions (4.54/5) were generally higher than intentions to avoid environmental impact in consumption (3.50/5). Similarly, consumers had stronger intentions to avoid environmental impact in consumption than to purchase based on firms' CSR performance (3.13/5). The analysis provided later in this report shows that recycling intentions, intentions to avoid environmental impact and intentions to purchase based on firms' CSR performance all decline from Left to Right on the spectrum of political ideology.

    Human rights, child labour, safe working conditions, minimum living conditions for workers and paying minimum wages were the five most important ethical consumption issues identified in this study. At the other end of the scale, the right to unionise, product disposability, the use of GM material and product biodegradability were the four least important ethical consumption issues overall.

    Political ideology has a significant correlation (positive or negative) with 9 of the 16 ethical consumption issues covered in this survey. When controlling for confounding factors, and using the BSA scale of political ideology, the only variables with a significant correlation were. A stepwise multiple regression was used to only include statistically significant predictor variables. Seven of the ethical consumption issues had a significant relationship when potential confounding factors were controlled for. Four issues had a negative relationship (animal byproducts used, right to unionise, human rights and gender, religious and racial rights) and three had a positive relationship (product safety information provided, avoiding the use of GM in products and product disposability) with a more Rightist ideology. Overall ethical consumption intentions reduced with a move from Left to Right on the spectrum of political ideology. Religiosity was found to be the best predictor of ethical consumption intentions in this model. The stepwise models (each with 3 variables) explained 12.6% and 12.9% of the variability in ethical consumption intentions. In both cases, none of the demographic variables had a statistically significant relationship with any individual ethical consumption issues, reinforcing the idea that political ideology can be a better predictor of ethical consumption that simple demographics.

Forthcoming

  • Yamoah, F., Kaba, J., Amankwah-Amoah, J. and Acquaye, A. (2020). Stakeholder Collaboration in Climate-Smart Agricultural Production Innovations: Insights from the Cocoa Industry in Ghana. Environmental Management.
    Although collaboration is vital in addressing global environmental sustainability challenges, research understanding on stakeholder engagement in climate-smart production innovation adoption and implementation, remains limited. In this paper, we advance knowledge about stakeholder collaboration by examining the roles played by stakeholders in scaling up ecological sustainability innovations. Using the illustrative context and case of green cocoa industry in Ghana, the analysis identified three distinctive phases of stakeholder engagement in ecological sustainability innovations implemented from 1960-2017. We highlight defining periods of ecological challenges encompassing the production recovery sustainability initiative phase solely driven by the Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD)–a governmental body responsible for production, processing and marketing of cocoa, coffee and sheanut. During the period, major initiatives were driven by non-governmental organisations in collaboration with COCOBOD to implement the Climate-Smart agriculture scheme in the cocoa sector. The findings have implications for cocoa production research and stakeholder collaboration in environmental innovations adoption.
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