Portrait of Dr Madeleine Wyatt

Dr Madeleine Wyatt

Senior Lecturer in Human Resources Management (maternity leave)


Maddy is a senior lecturer in Human Resource Management (HRM) and a Chartered Occupational Psychologist. She is the Director of Studies for the MSc Human Resource Management and MSc International Human Resource Management. Maddy joined Kent Business School in 2011 and prior to this was a research assistant and visiting lecturer at City University London, where she also achieved her MSc in organisational psychology and PhD.
Maddy’s research examines the role of informal and political behaviour in the workplace and its impact on leadership journeys. Maddy also examines the performance of local and national politicians from an organisational psychology perspective. Maddy has worked with a number of organisations from private and public sectors. 

Research interests

Maddy’s research examines how individuals navigate the informal or political nature of organisations to reach senior roles. Her research also investigates the political work of local and national politicians from an organisational psychology perspective. For example, she has recently conducted research which examined how the personality of politicians influences their performance. Her work also examines the intersections of diversity in these contexts.
Maddy uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods and places emphasis on conducting applied research with organisations. Her work is published in journals such as Human Relations and The Leadership Quarterly. 


Maddy is Director of Studies for the CIPD accredited MSc HRM and the MSc International HRM. She convenes and teaches four modules for the masters: CB9044 Developing Business Skills for HRM, CB9048 Research Methods, CB9072 Business Project in HRM and CB8029 The Psychology of Selection and Assessment.
Maddy also convenes the undergraduate module CB751 Psychology of the Contemporary Workplace. She supervises undergraduate and postgraduate research projects where she encourages students to conduct applied HRM and organisational behaviour research with organisations. 


Maddy welcomes PhD proposals in the following areas: organisational politics; socioeconomic status/social class; leadership.

Current Supervisees

  • Joel Montgomery: Political will in political work
  • Fatima Tresh: (second supervisor)
  • Nina Karmales: (second supervisor)
  • Arifa Syed: Unpacking the 'Doctor Bride' Phenomenon and its impact on the Work Experiences of South Asian Muslim Women in Pakistan and the United Kingdom: A Comparative Study (second supervisor) 

Supervision Topics

  • Diversity in the workplace
  • Career success and progression
  • The social-cognitive perspective of politics at work
  • Politicians as political workers 


  • Academic Associate of the CIPD
  • Member of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and Division of Occupational Psychology (DOP)
  • Chartered occupational psychologist (QOccPsych)
  • She has Level A & B certificates in occupational psychometric testing
  • Member of several special interest groups with the Division of Occupational Psychology
  • Member of the DOP International working group, which involves conference and event organisation and aims to build international research links in applied psychology and between professional psychology bodies
  • External Affiliate of the Political Psychology Lab in the Department of Psychology. 



  • Doldor, E., Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2019). Statesmen or cheerleaders? Using topic modeling to examine gendered messages in narrative developmental feedback for leaders. The Leadership Quarterly [Online] 30. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101308.
    This inductive study extends scholarship on gender, feedback and leadership by drawing on a large naturalistic data set of 1057 narrative developmental feedback comments to 146 political leaders in the UK. We used automated topic modeling, a novel methodology, to identify 12 underlying topics within developmental feedback, and complemented this with an in-depth qualitative analyses of feedback content for male and female political leaders across the topics. This resulted in four aggregate theoretical dimensions: 1) strategic focus 2) political influence 3) confidence and 4) agency and communion. Our findings chart novel dimensions of gender bias that go beyond the widely theorized tension posed by agency [male] and communion [female]. These new dimensions are pertinent to developmental, rather than performance feedback processes, and provide male and female leaders with different developmental roadmaps. We outline the value of our novel methodology to leadership scholarship and discuss implications for future research and practice.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2018). Do voters get it right? A test of the ascription-actuality trait theory of leadership with political elites. The Leadership Quarterly [Online] 29:609-621. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2018.02.001.
    Are the traits preferred by voters also associated with success in political office? Drawing on the ascription-actuality trait theory of leadership the present study examines whether traits ascribed to politicians predict leadership outcomes differently to the actual traits they possess. We collected self-ratings of politicians’ personality (N=138) using the NEO-PI-R (actual traits) and observer ratings of politicians’ facial appearance (ascribed traits) to examine their relationship with (a) leadership emergence, measured using share of vote in election, and (b) in-role leadership effectiveness, rated anonymously by political and local authority colleagues. Facial appearance predicted leadership emergence but not effectiveness. Personality had a more nuanced relationship with leadership outcomes. Conscientiousness predicted effectiveness but not emergence, and Agreeableness revealed a trait paradox, positively predicting emergence and negatively predicting effectiveness. These findings suggest a need to understand the contested nature of political leadership and qualities required for different aspects of political roles.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2015). Equality in Whitehall damaged by lack of access to informal networks. The Guardian [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2015/dec/04/whitehall-diversity-bme-informal-networks-career-equality.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2015). Developing strong and diverse political leaders. Psychologist [Online]:368-371. Available at: http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/getfile/4935.
    In 1882 Robert Louis Stevenson
    commented that ‘Politics is perhaps
    the only profession for which no
    preparation is deemed necessary’,
    and today it seems that his
    comments still hold. Despite a
    wealth of understanding in work
    psychology about how to train and
    support people in work roles, very
    few efforts have been made to
    apply this knowledge to political
    Can we explain this lack of
    support and development for new
    and existing politicians? And could
    such provision be potentially
    problematic precisely because it
    challenges many of our taken-forgranted
    assumptions about the
    nature of work and learning?
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2015). Reflections on the labyrinth: Investigating Black and Minority Ethnic leaders’ career experiences. Human Relations [Online] 68:1243-1269. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726714550890.
    Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) employees appear to experience more difficulty reaching senior leadership positions than their white counterparts. Using Eagly and Carli’s (2007) metaphor of the labyrinth our aim was to give voice to black and minority ethnic managers who have successfully achieved senior management roles, and compare their leadership journeys with those of matched white managers. This paper used semi-structured interviews and attribution theory to examine how 20 black and minority ethnic and 20 white senior managers, from a UK government department made sense of significant career incidents in their leadership journeys. Template analysis was used to identify facilitators and barriers of career progression from causal explanations of these incidents. Although BME and white managers identified four common themes (visibility, networks, development, and line manager support), they differed in how they made sense of formal and informal organisational processes to achieve career progression. The findings are used to theorise about the individual and organisational factors that contribute to the leadership journeys of minority ethnic employees.
  • Silvester, J., Wyatt, M. and Randall, R. (2014). Politician personality, Machiavellianism, and political skill as predictors of performance ratings in political roles. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology [Online] 87:258-279. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joop.12038.
    This study conceptualizes politicians as political workers. It describes a multimethod study with two aims: (1) to determine whether politicians share a latent mental model of performance in political roles and (2) to test hypothesized relationships between politician self-rated characteristics (i.e., extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, Machiavellianism, and political skill) and received performance ratings from political colleagues and officers. Two hundred and thirty-one local politicians provided self-ratings on a political performance questionnaire developed following a role analysis, and standardized measures of personality. One hundred and eighty-five also received performance ratings from colleagues (n = 749) and officers (n = 729). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of self- and received performance ratings revealed five latent factors: Resilience (RS), Politicking, Analytical Skills (AS), Representing People, and Relating to Others. Regression analyses found that neuroticism and conscientiousness contribute to received ratings of RS, and neuroticism contributes to received ratings of AS.
  • Wyatt, M., Harrington, S., Cornish, T. and Atewologun, D. (2012). Women at the Top. OP Matters 17:21-24.
  • Wyatt, M., Pathak, S. and Zibarras, L. (2010). Advancing selection in an SME: Is best practice methodology applicable?. International Small Business Journal [Online] 28:258-273. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0266242609350815.
    Effective selection tools are important for identifying high caliber employees in SMEs, yet few SMEs use tools created using ‘best practice’ methodology. Selection literature tends to focus on large organizations and is conceptual rather than empirical; which may make it difficult for SMEs to use a best practice approach. This article addresses this by providing an empirical account of the design and validation of two selection tools in a medium-sized recruitment consultancy using a best practice selection methodology. Two work sample tests were developed using critical incident technique interviews, and validated using a concurrent design with existing recruitment consultants who were ‘high’ or ‘low’ performers according to sales output. Results indicated that the tools significantly differentiated between high and low performers, and there was a significant correlation between test performance and individual sales output. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for research and practice in SMEs and selection.
  • Wyatt, M. and Briner, R. (2010). Ethnic Diversity in the Workforce. Psychologist 23:53.
    The article reports on the establishment of the Working Group on black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) by the Division of Occupational Psychology in Great Britain in 2009. It mentions this was established to serve the increasing ethnic diversity of workforce that continues to present practical and policy challenges and opportunities for employers and government. It also aims to highlight the state of ethnicity research and generate input from academics and practitioners.
  • Wyatt, M. (2009). Making Ethnic Minority Women’s Voices Heard. Stop Gap Magazine [Online] Autumn. Available at: http://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/index.asp?PageID=59.

Book section

  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2018). Political Effectiveness at Work. In: Ones, D. and Anderson, N. eds. Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology. Sage.
  • Wyatt, M. (2017). Informal and Political Processes. In: Cornish, T. and Calvard, T. eds. The Psychology of Ethnicity in Organisations. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 126-146. Available at: https://www.macmillanihe.com/page/detail/The-Psychology-of-Ethnicity-in-Organisations/?K=9781137330130.
    The Psychology of Ethnicity in Organisations presents the practical implications of psychological research evidence to explain issues relating to ethnicity in the workplace, and it also seeks to set out solutions for the challenges that are identified.
  • Wyatt, M. (2017). Ethnicity and organisational politics: Making sense of the game and learning its rules. In: Niven, K., Lewis, S. and Kagan, C. eds. Making a Difference With Psychology. Richard Benjamin Trust, pp. 217-224. Available at: http://www.richardbenjamintrust.co.uk/uploads/images/Making%20a%20difference%20with%20psychology%20PDF.pdf.
    Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) employees are underrepresented in senior roles. One possible reason for this is that the informal or political side of organisations might be difficult to navigate for these individuals because they are ‘left out of the loop’ when it comes to learning about workplace politics. In this research, I examined how BAME employees learn about and make sense of workplace politics.

Conference or workshop item

  • Doldor, E., Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2019). Statesmen or cheerleaders? Gendered leadership identity granting through developmental feedback. In: 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress.
  • Doldor, E., Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2019). Statesmen or cheerleaders? Gendered leadership identity granting through developmental feedback. In: 4th Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2017). Do voters get it right? Trait paradox and politician performance in office and during political campaigns. In: International Society for Political Psychology.
  • Evans, S. (2016). Exploring social class differences at work. In: British Universities Industrial Relations Annual Conference Hosted in University of Leeds 2016.
    This paper is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality by examining the relative impact of objective and subjective indicators of social class on explicit (e.g. salary, promotions) and implicit (e.g. career satisfaction, quality of working life, stress and well-being) career and work outcomes.
    There is increasing recognition that social class differences play a crucial role in social inequality, presenting economic, educational and occupational barriers for lower class individuals in the labour market (Ashley et al, 2015; Milburn, 2012; Nunn et al, 2007). Such differences have been inextricably linked to careers, occupational status, income differentials, employment conditions and the quality of working life (Ashley et al, 2015; Gray and Kish-Gephart, 2013; Côté 2011; Atkinson 2010; Crompton, 2010; Hughes, 2004. Yet there exists relatively little research within organisational studies or human resource management that seeks to understand and tackle the issue of social class inequalities in organisations, who themselves rarely consider social class as part of any diversity management strategy. One particular challenge for understanding the dynamic nature of social class in the workplace has been a lack of interdisciplinary enquiry. Social class has been studied predominantly by sociologists at group and societal level. While this has provided considerable knowledge around the definitions of class, the relevance of class and values and social interactions associated with social class, far less is known about its relationship with individual attitudes and behaviour in specific organisational and workplace settings (Crompton, 2010). Therefore, in our project we combine sociological and psychological perspectives to provide a more holistic view of social class inequality in the workplace.
    In particular, this paper investigates the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions, which Gray and Kish-Gephart (2013: 692) define as those who work in roles that are above or below their initial social class standing. When individuals engage in cross-class interaction they are argued to experience heightened anxiety (Crocker, Major, & Steele, 1998) and although there has been theoretical development about the contribution of class-discrepant roles to workplace inequality (Gray and Kish-Gephart, 2013), research has yet to empirically explore these theoretical propositions. In addition, individuals who traverse class boundaries within organisations are known to engage in passing and shaping, performativity and class based impression management to facilitate their ‘class travel’ and progress in their careers (Hughes, 2004; Moodley, 1999; Skeggs, 1997). Gray and Kish-Gephart (2013) introduce the concept of ‘class work’ to describe some of these behaviours and theorise that class work perpetuates class differences and inequalities at work. Despite their compelling theory of class work and how it may interact with class-discrepancy to reduce anxiety and perpetuate class norms in the workplace there has been no empirical investigation into the types of class work that individuals may engage in, the type of organisational conditions that effect the likelihood of individuals engaging in class work, or how it might serve to maintain class inequality in the workplace.
    In this paper we report on preliminary findings from a pilot study exploring the impact of social class and class work on class inequality in the workplace. Using mixed methods the study consists of a two-stage methodology to 1) quantitatively investigate the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions and the impact on their workplace anxiety and 2) to qualitatively explore their experiences of social class inequalities in the workplace and their engagement with ‘class work’. The final paper submission will include data and findings collected from the pilot study.
    Stage 1: Survey
    To capture the range of different perspectives on social class from different disciplines we used a variety of objective and subjective measures. From these two forms of class-discrepancy were calculated. We adopted affective wellbeing as an indicator of anxiety in the workplace, following existing research (e.g. Mawritz, Folger and Latham 2014). Participants were sent an online questionnaire, which took approximately 15 minutes to complete. Participation in this study was voluntary, and all participants were asked for permission to use their anonymised data for research. Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations and intercorrelations between study variables. Age was negatively related to objective social class, but positively related to objective occupational class and discrepancy, suggesting that older participants may have experienced greater ‘class travel’. Objective social class was positively related to subjective social and occupational class, but not subjective discrepancy. However objective occupational class was positively related to subjective discrepancy suggesting that individuals are more accurate in their subjective evaluations of occupational class then their subjective evaluations of general social class. Subjective class discrepancy was negatively related with negative affect, although no other significant correlations with the affective scales were found.


    To test our propositions hypothesis 1 hierarchical regressions were conducted using SPSS 22, controlling for age and gender. Findings are presented in Table 2 and show that objective class discrepancy had no significant relationship with either affective outcome. Therefore hypotheses 1 is rejected.

    This analyses was repeated for subjective class discrepancy (Table 3). There was no relationship between subjective class discrepancy and positive affect. However, findings show that subjective class discrepancy is negatively related to negative affect. This suggests that those who perceive themselves as higher social class in comparison to their colleagues experience higher levels of negative affect.

    Stage 2: Method
    This stage involves a qualitative study exploring and clarifying the measurement of social class used within the survey as well as focusing on the notion of ‘class work’. Therefore our second study uses a qualitative methodology to explore the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant roles of class work and their experiences of class work using a combination of open-ended interview questions and the critical incident technique. To date, fifteen one to one interviews lasting on average 45 minutes have been conducted. The final paper submission will include data collected from further interviews and findings.

    The findings of these studies will inform how social class operates within organisations and its contribution to employee wellbeing and workplace inequality. It will also provide a foundation for our wider project investigating the impact of social class on organisations and their employees.
  • Evans, S. and Wyatt, M. (2015). Class-discrepancy: Exploring social class differences at work. In: British Academy of Management Annual Conference.
    With increasing recognition that social class plays an important role in individuals’ workplace experiences we would benefit from a better understanding of its impact on organisations and their employees. Yet, very little research has examined social class in an organisational context. Using mixed methods we propose a two-stage methodology to 1) quantitatively investigate the experiences of individuals in class-discrepant positions and the impact on their workplace anxiety and 2) to qualitatively explore their engagement with ‘class work’ to mitigate this anxiety. It is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality. The research is in a developmental stage with a pilot study of the first stage of the project currently being undertaken. The final paper submission will include data collected from the pilot study and preliminary findings from the interviews.
  • Silvester, J., Wyatt, M., Ellen, B. and Ferris, G. (2015). Political skill and campaign effectiveness: A longitudinal study of Parliamentary candidates in the 2010 General Election. In: Political Studies Association Conference.
  • Silvester, J., Wyatt, M. and Doldor, E. (2015). Developing Leaders: Exploring Performance Feedback Through a Political Lens. In: Women, Gender and Political Leadership.
  • Atewologun, D., Doldor, E., Wyatt, M. and Maharaj, A. (2014). Navigating careers intelligently in Professional Services Firms: What’s diversity got to do with it?. In: Academy of Management.
  • Wyatt, M. (2014). How Diverse is Diversity in a Changing and Turbulent Occupational World?. In: International Congress for Applied Psychology.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2014). Political skill, proactive personality and political efficacy as predictors of candidate performance in the 2010 U.K. general election. In: International Congress for Applied Psychology.
  • Wyatt, M. and Ashley, L. (2014). Social Mobility: Developing Vocational Identity in Young Adults of Low Socioeconomic Status. In: Institute of Work Psychology Conference.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2014). Candidate self-rated political skill, proactive personality and political efficacy as predictors of performance in the 2010 U.K. general election. In: American Political Science Association Annual Meeting.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2012). Using 360-Degree Review to Determine Stakeholder Perceptions of Political Leadership. In: The 27thAnnual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
    This paper describes a study that aimed to determine whether different stakeholder groups share a latent mental model of behaviors associated performance in political roles. A 360-review questionnaire based on a role analysis to identify competencies and behavioral indicators for Parliamentary candidates was developed from for a major U.K. political party. Candidates selected to fight seats in the 2010 general election completed an on-line self-review questionnaire derived three months pre-election (n = 225) and three months post-election (n = 510). 360-degree ratings were also provided post-election by Local Party Chairs, political agents and nominated campaign members (n = 1047). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of data from these groups found good evidence for a shared model of political leadership with five factors: ‘leadership’, ‘representing others’, ‘building support’, ‘resilience’, and ‘analytical skills’.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2012). Selecting Political Candidates. In: European Network of Selection Researchers Conference.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2012). Ethnicity and organizational politics: Implications for political skill. In: Institute of Work Psychology Conference.
    Organisations have long been defined as ‘political arenas’, where individuals and groups engage in political activity to compete for power, influence and resources (Mintzberg, 1985; Pfeffer, 1981). Engaging in organisational politics is therefore regarded as essential to achieve career success (Judge & Bretz, 1994). However, minority-ethnic employees typically experience differential career success, finding upwards advancement more difficult than their majority-ethnic colleagues. Research has also demonstrated that they are more likely to perceive organisational politics as illegitimate and divisive, as opposed to legitimate or beneficial (e.g. Ferris, Frink, Bhawuk et al, 1996). Therefore, the first aim of this research was to determine whether perceiving organisational politics mediated the relationship between ethnicity and three measures of career success: grade, number of promotions and career satisfaction.

    Importantly, existing research on perceptions of organisational politics (POPs), has made little acknowledgement that individuals who perceive politics, may themselves be political actors and may vary in their ability to navigate such environments (Silvester, 2008). Political skill is an interpersonal style which purportedly enables individuals to form useful networks and coalitions at work (networking ability), understand social situations and others’ motives and behaviours (social astuteness), hide ulterior motives, be perceived as genuine and sincere (apparent sincerity) and therefore successfully influence others (interpersonal influence). Existing research suggests that political skill acts as a buffer against the effects of other stressors (e.g. Perrewe et al, 2004, 2005). Therefore, this research aims to determine whether political skill can also buffer, or moderate the relationship between POPs and career success.

    To test this, a questionnaire was distributed to 311 participants; 114 minority-ethnic and 197 majority-ethnic employees, within a large public sector organisation. The questionnaire contained a subjective measure of career success, career satisfaction, as well as objective measures; grade and number of promotions. POPs was measured using the scale developed by Kacmar & Ferris (1989). Political skill was measured using Ferris et al (2005) 18-item political skill inventory, which comprises four subscales: networking ability, interpersonal influence, social astuteness and apparent sincerity.
    Mediation analyses revealed that POPs mediated the relationship between ethnicity and career satisfaction, but not between ethnicity and grade or number of promotions. Moderated mediation analyses found that only networking ability buffered the effect of perceiving politics on career satisfaction. However, minority-ethnic participants were more likely to have lower networking ability and perceive higher levels of politics and therefore experience lower levels of career satisfaction. There was no moderating effect of interpersonal influence, or social astuteness. Contrary to predictions, apparent sincerity exacerbated the effect of perceiving politics.

    These findings suggest a number of implications for differential career success and organisational politics. In particular, they raise important questions about the construct validity of the political skill inventory.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2011). Perceptions of politics, political skill and career success. In: BPS, Division of Occupational Psychology, Ethnic Diversity at Work Conference.
  • Silvester, J. and Wyatt, M. (2011). Politician characteristics and performance in the 2010 General Election. In: European Association of Work and Organisational Psychology Conference.
  • Wyatt, M. and Silvester, J. (2010). Attributional style and the perceptions of career barriers amongst minority ethnic managers. In: European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Small Group Meeting on Managing Diversity.
  • Dipper, M. and Silvester, J. (2009). Barriers and Facilitators to Minority Ethnic Career Progression. In: European Association of Work and Organisational Psychology Conference.
  • Silvester, J., Dipper, M. and Stoker, H. (2008). A CASE for Impact: CASE studentships and their impact on industry. In: Postgraduate Occupational Psychology Conference.
  • Dipper, M. and Zibarras, L. (2007). Advancing selection in small business: is best practice applicable?. In: Postgraduate Occupational Psychology Conference.


  • Wyatt, M. (2017). Ethnicity and Politics at Work - Employer Toolkit. University of Kent.


  • Wyatt, M. (2012). Ethnicity and Differential Career Success.
    Despite evidence that the representation of minority-ethnic employees in the workforce is improving, many are concentrated at lower organisational levels and experience more difficulties reaching senior positions than their majority-ethnic (i.e. white) colleagues (ONS, 2011). The percentage of minority-ethnic individuals entering the workplace is continually rising (ONS, 2011) meaning differential career success is a topic of increasing importance. However, thus far, very little research in organisational psychology has focused on ethnicity (Cox, Nkomo & Welch, 2001; Kenny & Briner, 2007). Therefore this thesis presents three studies designed to enhance our knowledge of minority-ethnic career experiences and the processes that contribute towards differential career success. All studies took place in a large U.K. public sector organisation. The first study compared the causal attributions that minority-ethnic (n=20) and majority-ethnic (n=20) managers made when recalling significant positive and negative career experiences during semi-structured interviews. In the second study, template analysis was used to examine the interview transcripts for career experiences identified as important for career success by minority- and majority-ethnic managers. An important difference between the groups was their perceptions of informal organisational processes. Researchers have argued that political skill may enhance individuals' power and control over informal processes (e.g. Ferris, Davidson & Perrewe, 2005) and have also suggested, but not yet tested, that minority groups may be disadvantaged in developing these skills (Ferris, Frink & Galang, 1993). Therefore, study three built on the findings of study two, and tested the 'political skill deficiency' hypothesis, by determining whether minority-ethnic employees (n=114) rated themselves lower on political skill than majority-ethnic employees (n=197), and whether this was associated with differential career success. Overall findings suggested that there were important differences in the way minority- and majority-ethnic managers made sense of their career experiences. Minority-ethnic employees' lower ratings of political skill were also associated with differential career success. Implications of these findings and practical initiatives to address differential career success are discussed in the final chapter, as well as directions for future research. - See more at: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.551234#sthash.LSnWbMgz.dpuf
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