Portrait of Professor Soo Hee Lee

Professor Soo Hee Lee

Professor in Organisation Studies


Professor Soo Hee Lee joined Kent Business School in July 2012. He is a Professor in Organisation Studies and Head of our People, Management and Organisation research group.


Current Supervisees 

  • Ha Thanh Truc Nguyen: Ethical Leadership in Multinational Companies in Vietnam
  • Nasser AlShawaaf: The Interrelationship Between Micro-Level Mechanisms in the Emergence of Hybrid Institutional Logics: A Comparative Analysis of Art Museums in the United Kingdom and France
  • YunLu Yang: (Second Supervisor)

Past Supervisees

  • Hyun Jeon Oh: Institutional Logics, Cultural Identity and Internationalisation of Art Films: A Comparative Analysis of France and Korea
  • Jinwoo Lee: Branding Contemporary Visual Artists
  • Daniel Moekem: Social Capital Theory and Self-Initiated Expatriates’ Intention to Repatriate
  • Chris Cornell: Exploring the synergy and distinct differences between the management of profit and non-profit business in the UK
  • Chrystalla Kapetaniou: Innovation in Small Economies
  • Diana Stemler: Radical Innovation in Coordinated Market Economies
  • Marios Samdanis: Artistic Innovation and Institutional Entrepreneurship: A Comparative Case Study Research into Contemporary Art Institutions in London and Paris
  • Diana Schönenberger: Radical Innovation in a Coordinated Market Economy: Institutional Capabilities within Germany and Beyond




  • Koghut, M., Al-Tabbaa, O., Lee, S. and Meyer, M. (2020). The effects of autonomous contracting on inter-organisational relationships: A process model of trust, social capital and value co-creation. In: BAM 2020 Proceedings. British Academy of Management.
    Engaging in relationships with other organisations through the deployment of autonomous technologies offers a substantial improvement for the efficiency by ensuring that the inter-organisational business processes are better scheduled, coordinated, executed, and monitored. One manifestation of this trend is autonomous contracting, also known as blockchain-based smart contracting, which enables an autonomous execution of pre-defined digital agreements. However, little is known about how such technologies influence firms’ relational resources such as trust and social capital that aid the conduct of social affairs, and subsequently affect performance. This study therefore investigated the social processes and the outcomes of inter-organisational relationships in the autonomous contracting settings through semi-structured interviews (N = 25) with executives of firms that either use the technology or facilitate its implementation. The findings revealed the conducive effect of autonomous contracting for value-co-creation by the firms. The findings also revealed that autonomous contracting facilitates co-creation of value through enabling system trust and enhancing social capital. The study contributes to the inter-organisational relationship literature and our understanding of how interfirm relationships can evolve in the autonomous contracting settings.


  • Alshawaaf, N. and Lee, S. (2020). Business model innovation through digitisation in social purpose organisations: A comparative analysis of Tate Modern and Pompidou Centre. Journal of Business Research [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.02.045.
    Combining heterogeneous organisational forms continues to pose unresolved challenges that foster organisa- tional innovation. This study examines the effect of digitisation on the business model of insufficiently funded art museums in the United Kingdom and France influenced by national cultural policies. Based on two re- presentative case studies of Tate Modern and the Pompidou Centre, we found that digitisation is revitalising social purpose organisations by innovating the business model in two ways. First, digitisation enables creative revenue streams that directly feed into the social mission by creating a synergy between trade and social ac- tivities. Second, digitisation delivers social value to a larger audience with lower costs by engaging with visitors through virtual experience. Creative utilisation of digitisation provides a mechanism for business model in- novation in social purpose organisations with enhanced financial autonomy and greater social value.
  • Lee, J. and Lee, S. (2019). User participation and valuation in digital art platforms: the case of Saatchi Art. European Journal of Marketing [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0788.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of digital platforms on the contemporary visual art market. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the technology acceptance model (TAM), the meaning transfer model (MTM), and the arts marketing literature, we conceptualise the role of user participation in creating the meaning and value of contemporary artworks in the online art market.
    We conduct a qualitative study of Saatchi Art as an instrumental case for theorising. It is an online platform for trading visual artworks created by young and emerging artists. The data for this study were collected through direct observation, and documentary reviews, as well as user comments and buyer reviews from Saatchi Art. We reviewed 319 buyer comments Art and 30 user comments. The collected data are supplemented with various secondary sources such as newspapers, magazines, social media texts, and videos.
    The growth of digital art platforms such as Saatchi Art provides efficiency and accessibility of information to users, while helping them overcome the impediments of physical galleries such as geographical constraints and intimidating psychological environments, thereby attracting novice collectors. However, users’ involvement in the process of valuing artworks is limited and still guided by curatorial direction.
    The first limitation of this research is that the data in this research cannot capture interactions between users, though users’ intention to use Saatchi Art is affected by the social influence of other users. Secondly, this research has not examined artists as users of digital art platforms and their interactions with other types of users. Artists’ intention to use the online platform might be underlined by enhancing their status in the peer group or seeking legitimacy in the field by following other artists and getting recommendations from important referents.
    The outcomes of this research suggest that newcomers in the online art market should acknowledge that users’ intention to use the online art platform is determined by not just technological usefulness of the website but also the symbolic capital of the information provider.
    User participation in the online art market is guided by curatorial direction rather than social influence. This confirms the re-intermediation of marketing relationships, highlighting the role of new intermediaries such as digital platforms in arts marketing.
  • Samdanis, M. and Lee, S. (2018). Uncertainty, strategic sensemaking and organisational failure in the art market: What went wrong with LVMH’s investment in Phillips auctioneers?. Journal of Business Research [Online] 98:475-488. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.08.030.
    Strategic decision-making in volatile and uncertain environments, such as the art market, is not only instigated by rational interpretation of the external environment, but also by expert-based intuition. This paper investigates organisational failure at Phillips auctioneers between 1999 and 2002, a period in which it was owned by the multinational luxury goods conglomerate Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LVMH). We developed a framework for strategic sensemaking in art organisations that includes the processes of scanning, interpreting, strategising, acting and adjusting, which can take place in non-linear and recursive patterns in order to support continuous loops of improvement. Our analysis identifies the merits of intuitive decisionmaking when realising a novel artistic and entrepreneurial vision, such as that which established Phillips as a boutique auction house. However, it also highlights the limitations of emotional and opportunistic decision-making which leads to blinded management if one or more of the processes of strategic sensemaking are ignored.
  • Kapetaniou, C., Samdanis, M. and Lee, S. (2018). Innovation policies of Cyprus during the global economic crisis: Aligning financial institutions with national innovation system. Technological Forecasting & Social Change [Online] 133:29-40. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.02.019.
    Previous research has overlooked the complementarity between National Innovation Systems and financial institutions. This paper extends the literature on National Innovation Systems, arguing that innovation policies should incorporate the particular needs of a nation's innovation system and the current conditions of that nation's financial environment. This development is important because the financial environment is malleable and subject to exogenous events, such as the recent global financial crisis. The relationship between a National Innovation System and the financial environment is presented through an analytical framework, which can be used to assess and instigate national innovation policies. The analytical framework is demonstrated using the case of Cyprus, which was on the frontline of the European debt crisis. By integrating the views of leaders from the Cypriot manufacturing and service sectors with widely available reports and indices concerning innovation performance, we demonstrate that the lack of a developed financial environment impedes national innovation performance. This research introduces policy and managerial implications for innovation, especially within the context of underdeveloped National Innovation Systems, which focus on improving innovation performance by enhancing the availability of financial instruments and the access that entrepreneurs have to them.
  • Kapetaniou, C. and Lee, S. (2018). Geographical proximity and open innovation of SMEs in Cyprus. Small Business Economics: An Entrepreneurship Journal [Online] 52:261-267. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-0023-7.
    Open innovation implies that geographical proximity is irrelevant. However, we posit that any potential innovation outcome depends on the spatial constraints on openness. In this paper, we add a geographical proximity dimension to open innovation by analysing how a domestic and international open innovation approach affects innovation outcomes. In particular, we hypothesise that domestic open innovation has positive effects on new-to-the-firm product innovation, due to easily accessible resources. We further posit that, through international open innovation, SMEs can access new and advanced knowledge which is not available locally, leading to more novel innovations. However, we expect that the relationship between openness, both domestic and international, and innovation is conditional on R&D activities. Our empirical analysis based on the Cyprus Community Innovation Survey supports these hypotheses. Our results underline the critical role of the spatial aspect on open innovation in SMEs, something which has remained surprisingly absent from the literature.
  • Samdanis, M. and Lee, S. (2017). Access Inequalities in the Artistic Labour Market in the UK: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Precariousness, Entrepreneurialism and Voluntarism. European Management Review [Online]:Special Issue. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/emre.12154.
    This paper investigates the roles played by social enterprise and social activism in mitigating access inequalities in the artistic labour market in the UK. Our analysis focuses on underpaid internships as a primary form of access inequalities. By employing critical discourse analysis, this study contrasts the discourses of entrepreneurialism and voluntarism advocated by the government and social enterprises, with the counter-discourse of precarity advanced by social activists. The central argument is that precarity is not simply an innate characteristic of artistic labour, but is also a social construct and discourse which is directly linked to social class and the experience of less privileged creative workers.
  • Cacciolatti, L., Lee, S. and Molinero, C. (2017). Clashing institutional interests in skills between government and industry: An analysis of demand for technical and soft skills of graduates in the UK. Technological Forecasting and Social Change [Online] 119:139-153. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.024.
    Technological knowledge and skills provide a basis for developing national competitiveness. However, there is an emerging clash of interests in the UK labour market between employers and policy makers. The former requests highly skilled workers who often jealously train in house for their specific operations while the latter aims to reduce unemployment through the expansion of vocational training to lower skilled workers. Universities need to find their strategic position in the knowledge economy characterised by radical technological change and shifting occupational structure by meeting the future skills demand while balancing between the clashing institutional interests. This study analyses 510 job advertisements in the supply chain management area, using a combination of OMDS and HCA techniques. The advertisements are categorised by means of six dimensions according to the skills, duties and job type. This study analyses not only employers' needs in skill types according to job roles but also emerging institutional clashes in the job market and their implications for skills training policy and curriculum development.
  • Samdanis, M. and Lee, S. (2017). White space and digital remediation of design practice in architecture: A case study of Frank O. Gehry. Information and Organization [Online] 27:73-86. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2017.02.001.
    The digitalisation of architecture has intensified the entanglement of digital materiality and design practice due to the process of remediation, which comprises both conceptual and organisational processes. The analysis of remediation demonstrates the ways in which advanced technology enables architects to explore white spaces, defined as the open-ended, unmapped, in-between, and not yet realised territories of conceptual, organisational and physical spaces. Consequently, the process of remediation changes both design practices and the experience of physical spaces. This paper investigates the case of a leading architect, Frank O. Gehry, who has pioneered the digital remediation of architecture. The premise of this paper is that sociomaterial entanglement is an experience idiosyncratic to individual architects, who can escape the determinism of digital materiality by developing their unique digital tools. This paper also stresses the importance of power relations for the construction of digital materiality, which, in turn, influences design practices and innovation in architecture.
  • Lee, J. and Lee, S. (2017). Marketing from the Art World: A Critical Review of American Research in Arts Marketing. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society [Online] 47:17-33. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10632921.2016.1274698.
    The purpose of this article is to provide an integrative review and future directions for research in arts marketing by highlighting the social and cultural mechanisms by which marketing research can be inspired, especially in the context of contemporary arts. We categorize previous research in arts marketing into three perspectives: Marketing of Arts Organizations; Marketing with Artworks/Artists; and Marketing from the Art World. With these three categories, this article also examines recent developments in the contemporary art market to discover emerging trends and issues. The primary contribution of the article lies in identifying Marketing from the Art World as a new perspective from which to explore central issues of marketing associated with the uncertainty and fluidity of the contemporary art market.
  • Wang (Avery. W), Y., Wang, Y. and Lee, S. (2017). The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis. Sustainability [Online] 9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112028.
    Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-commerce on trade distance and consumer welfare. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of cross-border e-commerce on international trade in the context of China, mainly from the perspective of transaction cost economics in conjunction with the traditional comparative advantage model by analyzing information cost, negotiation cost, transportation cost, tariffs and middlemen cost separately. Firstly, the new theoretical model suggests that cross-border e-commerce may have a positive role in promoting international trade only when the negative impact caused by tariff cost and transportation cost is offset. Secondly, our result shows that cross-border e-commerce has a positive effect on the growth of China’s international trade in each year. However, the positive effect does not show incremental growth over time, possibly as a result of the weak implementation of favorable policies in trade, in addition to global trade shrinking.
  • Lee, S. and Lee, J. (2016). Art Fairs as a Medium for Branding Young and Emerging Artists: The Case of Frieze London. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society [Online] 46:95-106. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10632921.2016.1187232.
    While previous researchers have attempted to explain the uncertain quality of visual arts with reference to branding theory, they have overlooked the role of art fairs. Socio-cultural approaches to branding allow us to explore the function of intermediaries in valuing contemporary arts. This article aims to analyze the role of art fairs in the process of branding young and emerging artists. In particular, a prestigious art fair, Frieze London, serves as an instrumental case study for developing a systematic understanding of art fairs in terms of valuing and branding contemporary art.
  • Cacciolatti, L. and Lee, S. (2016). Revisiting the relationship between marketing capabilities and firm performance: The moderating role of market orientation, marketing strategy and organisational power. Journal of Business Research [Online] 69:5597-5610. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.067.
    This study extends original insights of resource-advantage theory (Hunt & Morgan, 1995) to a specific analysis of the moderators of the capabilities–performance relationship such as market orientation, marketing strategy and organisational power. Using established measures and a representative sample of UK firms drawn from Verhoef and Leeflang's data (2009), our study tests new hypotheses to explain how different types of marketing capabilities contribute to firm performance. The application of resource-advantage theory advances theorising on both marketing and organisational antecedents of firm performance and the causal mechanisms by which competitive advantage is generated.
  • Kapetaniou, C. and Lee, S. (2016). A framework for assessing the performance of universities: The case of Cyprus. Technological Forecasting and Social Change [Online] 123:169-180. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.03.015.
    The teaching and research missions of universities have been broadened to include third-mission activities. While the traditional missions of teaching and research have been thoroughly examined, third-mission activities are yet to be fully understood. A one-size-fits-all model of university assessment cannot be applied to all countries. Each university operates within a national and institutional context, which defines its role and performance. This paper adopts a refined version of the triple helix model to support the argument that business, government and university contexts determine the performance of the third role of universities. Evaluation of the performance of universities should be based on the overall experience and expectations of a variety of agents operating within academia, business and government. The results of this research indicate that the government should play a constructive role in creating operating conditions and institutional structures to improve the performance of universities in small economies.
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2014). Knowledge flows in the emerging market MNC: The role of subsidiary HRM practices in Korean MNCs. International Business Review [Online] 25:233-243. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.08.011.
    We develop and test a new model of knowledge flows in the emerging market multinational corporation (MNC) based on the way people are managed in its foreign subsidiaries. Extant literature argues that, to facilitate effective intra-MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiaries need to (a) possess human capital, (b) encourage inter-unit socialization of human capital. However, the impact that a subsidiary's human resource management (HRM) practices have on these relationships remains under-researched, especially for MNCs from emerging markets. Using questionnaire survey data from senior managers of 86 Korean MNC subsidiaries in the UK, France and Germany, we find that different aspects of subsidiary HRM practices exhibit different direct and indirect effects. HRM practices based on formalized procedures weaken the effect of socialization, but strengthen that of human capital, while empowering practices within the subsidiary weaken the effect of human capital, but strengthen the effect of socialization. Overall, establishing a participative climate within the subsidiary enhances both knowledge in- and outflows at the level of the subsidiary in the emerging market MNC.
  • Zhao, S., Cacciolatti, L., Lee, S. and Song, W. (2014). Regional collaborations and indigenous innovation capabilities in China: A multivariate method for the analysis of regional innovation systems. Technological Forecasting and Social Change [Online] 94:202-220. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2014.09.014.
    In this study we analyse the emerging patterns of regional collaboration for innovation projects in China, using official government statistics of 30 Chinese regions. We propose the use of Ordinal Multidimensional Scaling and Cluster analysis as a robust method to study regional innovation systems. Our results show that regional collaborations amongst organisations can be categorised by means of eight dimensions: public versus private organisational mindset; public versus private resources; innovation capacity versus available infrastructures; innovation input (allocated resources) versus innovation output; knowledge production versus knowledge dissemination; and collaborative capacity versus collaboration output. Collaborations which are aimed to generate innovation fell into 4 categories, those related to highly specialised public research institutions, public universities, private firms and governmental intervention. By comparing the representative cases of regions in terms of these four innovation actors, we propose policy measures for improving regional innovation collaboration within China.
  • Lee, S., Samdanis, M. and Gkiousou, S. (2014). Hybridizing food cultures in computer-mediated environments: Creativity and improvisation in Greek food blogs. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies [Online] 72:224-238. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2013.08.007.
    This paper focuses on the ways in which food blogs influence the evolution of food cultures in computer-mediated environments. Food blogs provide a unique setting in which to study individual creativity and improvisation, as they make everyday food practices visible, pubic and transmittable. This paper proposes a cultural framework of human–computer interaction (HCI) and applies it to the context of food blogging. It stresses the effects of remediation on hybridisation of disciplines, roles and practices, which in turn lead to individual creative practices in the form of bricolage. Three case studies of Greek food blogs abroad are analysed to illustrate the proposed framework and to develop research implications for human–food interaction (HFI).
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2011). Political Heterarchy and Dispersed Entrepreneurship in the MNC. Journal of Management Studies [Online] 48:1243-1268. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00996.x.
    We develop and test a new perspective on dispersed entrepreneurship within the multinational corporation (MNC). Various literatures suggest that corporate, subsidiary, and individual level factors can lead to entrepreneurial initiatives diffusing outward from a subsidiary to other MNC units. We extend this to include political heterarchy (mechanisms by which subsidiary managers enhance their power base through heterarchy) as both direct and moderating factor. Using a survey of 135 managers in a wide range of MNC subsidiaries, we find that a tolerance for local initiative (subsidiary level), subsidiary manager proactivity (individual level), and political heterarchy directly influence initiative diffusion. In terms of moderating effects, political heterarchy is seen to activate corporate level entrepreneurial strategy. We show how political heterarchy is central to dispersed entrepreneurship within the MNC and highlight the positive function of networked organizational politics in rejuvenating the international firm. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Management Studies © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Society for the Advancement of Management Studies.
  • Choi, S., Lee, S. and Williams, C. (2011). Ownership and Firm Innovation in a Transition Economy: Evidence from China. Research Policy [Online] 40:441-452. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.01.004.
    We examine innovation performance of firms in a transition economy from an ownership perspective. We focus specifically on the relationship between ownership structures and firm innovation performance. Drawing on data from 548 Chinese firms we find volume of patent registration to be most strongly influenced by foreign ownership in the firm along with firm affiliation within a business group. The influence of state and institutional ownership on innovation performance is positive but lagged. Contrary to expectations, insider ownership leads to lower innovation performance and concentrated ownership has no significant impact. Our study has two principal contributions. Firstly, we utilize a comprehensive treatment of ownership characteristics, overcoming weakness in previous studies that have used a more narrow focus on ownership type. Secondly, we contribute to understanding of how firms in transition economies build 'indigenous' capabilities for innovation by drawing attention to the interplay of foreign and domestic control of agents' innovation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2011). Entrepreneurial Contexts and Knowledge Coordination within the Multinational Corporation. Journal of World Business [Online] 46:253-264. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2010.11.001Document.
    We present a new perspective on entrepreneurship within multinational corporations (MNCs) based on entrepreneurial contexts and knowledge coordination. First, we develop a framework of four contexts for analyzing different mechanisms by which MNCs pursue opportunities across borders. Second, we develop propositions for predicting how entrepreneurial knowledge is coordinated (transferred and internalized) between these contexts. The coordination problem lies at the heart of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship within modern MNCs although its inter-contextual nature has been neglected in the literature. In our view, MNC entrepreneurship comprises (1) a superset of entrepreneurial activity from four distinct contexts; and (2) the inter-contextual coordination of knowledge of opportunity, knowledge of solution, and learning from outcomes of initiatives. Drawing primarily on the knowledge-based view of the MNC, we argue that knowledge coordination between multiple entrepreneurial contexts constitutes a socially complex capability and potential source of competitive advantage for the MNC. This holistic view of MNC entrepreneurship raises fresh questions for researchers and strategic leaders of MNCs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
  • Lee, S. (2010). Creative city: A vision for Collective Creativity. Space [Online] 510:8-11. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84860115944&partnerID=40&md5=cb87ad0b85bd808b49f936c65bf82997.
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2009). International Management, Political Arena and Dispersed Entrepreneurship in the MNC. Journal of World Business [Online] 44:287-299. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2008.11.008.
    This paper presents a model of MNC dispersed entrepreneurship based on the concept of political arena. The model extends previous conceptualizations of MNC dispersed entrepreneurship by explaining how remote employees become stimulated to act as entrepreneurs through resolution of internal political arena within the international management context. We identify variables within this context at corporate, subsidiary, and individual levels as antecedents to political arena in the MNC. These are the corporate immune system, inappropriate control, subsidiary requirements differences and cognitive barriers to knowledge sharing. Different types of internal entrepreneurs (Austrian-like and Schumpeterian-like) emerge as a consequence of the different ways in which political arena is resolved. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications of the resultant multi-level model. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2009). Exploring the Internal and External Venturing of Large R&D-intensive Firms. R&D Management [Online] 39:231-246. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2009.00553.x.
    We explore the realized strategies of large R&D-intensive firms through a venturing lens, focusing on two industries: pharmaceuticals and high-technology equipment manufacturing. Specifically, we examine changes in strategy over time along two critical dimensions: (1) focus of venturing, i.e., internally vs externally oriented, and (2) learning orientation i.e., explorative vs exploitative. Our empirical analysis is based on news stories relating to six large, R&D-intensive firms over a 6-year period. The findings suggest the following: (1) exploration is more prevalent than exploitation in both pharmaceuticals and high-technology equipment manufacturing, but pharmaceuticals have a greater preference for internal venturing than high-technology equipment manufacturing; (2) three firm-level venturing strategy types can be discerned, which are independent of the specific industry; and (3) change in realized strategy is a dynamic capability facilitated by firm-level factors. These results, albeit explorative, emphasize venturing in R&D industries as a dynamic capability that is influenced by firm-level characteristics rather than industry membership. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • Yoo, T. and Lee, S. (2009). In search of Social Capital in State-activist Capitalism: Elite Networks in France and Korea. Organization Studies [Online] 30:529-547. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840609104397.
    This paper argues that the absence of high trust social capital has not prevented firms from performing well in economies with the dirigiste tradition. Despite low general trust, France and Korea have recorded sound growth rates and innovation performance, thus contradicting the central argument of social capital theory. Drawing on the dirigiste tradition, we suggest that elite networks of France and Korea are an idiosyncratic form of social capital, nurtured through their institutional arrangements such as low trust, concentrated power relations and state-run elite education. The elite networks enhance the coordination efficiency of economic relations through state activism, constituting an alternative to high trust social capital.
  • Williams, C. and Lee, S. (2009). Resource allocations, knowledge network characteristics and entrepreneurial orientation of multinational corporations. Research Policy [Online] 38:1376-1387. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2009.05.007.
    This paper analyses entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in multinational corporations (MNCs) and develops a new typology of MNC EO based on combining R&D and asset growth investment intensities as orthogonal resource allocations. A cluster analysis of US MNCs on these two dimensions reveals three types of entrepreneurial stance: conservative, aggressive-asset growth and balanced. Internal knowledge network characteristics are shown to vary by stance, with more aggressive stances linked to knowledge governance supportive of the entrepreneurship process. In linking entrepreneurial orientation to the knowledge network of the MNC, this paper identifies factors important to the strategic management and on-going renewal of MNCs. In addition, the vector of R&D investment vs. asset growth investment is an indicator of entrepreneurial aggression and presents a new method of understanding the international strategies of MNCs.
  • Lee, S. and Yoo, T. (2008). Competing Rationales for Corporate Governance in France: Institutional Complementarities between Financial Markets and Innovation Systems. Corporate Governance: An International Review [Online] 16:63-76. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8683.2008.00669.x.
    Manuscript Type: Conceptual

    Research Question/Issue: This paper identifies the causes and consequences of corporate governance reform with reference to the French case. By disaggregating institutional complementarities into global and domestic dimensions, we analyze the path of institutional change compelled by financial efficiency and cooperative innovation.

    Research Findings/Results: Our analysis of the French case shows that both converging and diverging forces of institutional change coexist, shaping selective responses to globalization. While the adoption of the shareholder model is necessary for resource acquirement from the global capital markets, resource allocation in the cooperative innovation systems reinforces the stakeholder model. The French case confirms the sustainability of distinctive institutional complementarities, albeit with selective adaptation based on a sense-making social compromise.

    Theoretical Implications: The French case reminds us of the importance of distinctive institutional traditions and dominant social rationalities to understand the underlying logic of governance reform. The comparative research on corporate governance needs to address not just the cross-country variations in institutional arrangements and practices, but also the clash of competing rationales for reform explicitly in comparative terms within a single country context.

    Practical Implications: For foreign investors, it is vital to understand the unique institutional environment of state-centred stakeholder economies if they are to negotiate the best terms of return and to avoid unnecessary conflicts. French managers are expected to devise strategic choices responding to the competing rationales of governance. Managerial sense-making is essential for achieving sound long-term performance, upon which the legitimacy and sustainability of the constellation of selective governance rests.
  • Lee, S. and Williams, C. (2007). Dispersed Entrepreneurship within Multinational Corporations: A Community Perspective. Journal of World Business [Online] 42:505-519. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.08.001.
    The paper develops a new theoretical perspective on the phenomenon of dispersed entrepreneurship in large multinational corporations (MNCs). We argue that the creation and sharing of knowledge in entrepreneurial initiatives involving MNCs is underpinned by a behavioural theory of entrepreneurial communities and that these communities drive the evolution of the MNC organization. While we do not refute related theories of the organization as a social community or communities of practice providing a basis for learning and innovation, we suggest that a different kind of community facilitates dispersed entrepreneurial behaviours within the MNC. This community links participants by a shared desire to create new knowledge for international competition. To succeed in discovering, evaluating and exploiting new opportunities, managers need to allow and nurture situations of high-boundary porosity. The main characteristics, antecedents and consequences of these communities are identified and presented as a conceptual model.
  • Lee, S. and Yoo, T. (2007). Government Policy and Trajectories of Radical Innovation in Dirigiste States: A Comparative Analysis of National Innovation Systems in France and Korea. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management [Online] 19:451-470. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537320701403383.
    Contrary to the argument that radical innovation is only compatible with institutional arrangements characteristic of liberal market economies, this paper shows how state-led economies successfully organize their innovation systems to promote radical innovation with a comparative analysis of two dirigiste states, France and Korea. The authors further analyse how government policies under similar institutional arrangements drive different trajectories of radical innovation, as illustrated by their relative competitiveness in the ICT sector. The two dirigiste economies have undergone substantial institutional changes adapting to globalization but sustained state initiatives in coordinating their relationship-based innovation systems, reinforcing the cooperation among the state, academia and industry.
  • Mollering, G., Bachmann, R. and Lee, S. (2004). Introduction: Understanding Organizational Trust - Foundations, Constellations, and Issues of Operationalisation. Journal of Managerial Psychology [Online] 19:556-570. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940410551480.
    This paper gives an overview of major issues in trust research, identifying common foundations and multiple constellations of organizational trust. In doing so, the paper also addresses important implications of theory development and empirical research. First, it provides a historical sketch of different approaches to understanding the phenomenon of trust, drawing upon various social science disciplines. Second, it discusses different levels of analysing trust in organizational settings. Third, it deals with important issues of operationalisation and measurement of organizational trust. Finally, it briefly summarises the contents of the five papers that follow this introductory paper in the special issue of JMP on "The micro-foundations of organizational trust". © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Book section

  • Lee, S. and Byrne, T. (2010). Politicizing Dance: Cultural Policy Discourses in the UK and Germany. In: Kolb, A. ed. Dance and Politics. Oxford: Peter Lang.

Conference or workshop item

  • Choi, S. and Lee, S. (2008). Innovation and Financial Performance in Emerging Countries: An Empirical Analysis of Korean and Chinese Firms. In: Academy of Management 2008 Annual Meeting: The Questions We Ask, AOM 2008. Available at: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84863389818&partnerID=40&md5=3fb109a2d28f17dc586d4049ea48565b.
    This paper suggests a new way of operationalising innovation capabilities of firms by incorporating intensity, scope and spillover effects of innovation. Based on panel data estimation of Korean and Chinese listed firms in high technology industries over four years, this study shows that innovation output (i.e. patent intensity) rather than innovation input (i.e. R&D intensity) contributed to firm financial performance. It also indicates that the innovation strategy developing the depth of innovation capability in a few specific technological fields may be the source of better performance in Korea, while diversified innovation capabilities over different technology fields might be having positive effects on firm performance in China. The empirical result on the moderating role of the scope of innovation capabilities shows that the effects of R&D investment on firm performance depend on appropriate innovation strategy determining the scope of innovation. This outcome suggests that, when R&D investment does not match the depth and diversity of innovation capabilities of firms and related strategies, this hampers the financial performance of firms. Finally, my empirical evidence documents that technologically related innovation efforts of other firms is a significant predictor of financial performance with the firms¡Ì? own innovation efforts (e.g. in-house R&D).
  • Lee, J., Kim, Y. and Lee, S. Digital Museum and User Experience: The Case of Google Art & Culture. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Electronic Art. Gwangju South Korea: International Symposium on Electronic Art. Available at: http://www.isea-archives.org/proceedings-catalogue/.
    Museum websites have evolved from offering information on the collections of institutions over the virtual space to providing the richer user experience. However, previous re-search in museology has mainly focused on the causal rela-tionship between online users and actual visitors of physical museums, neglecting users’ behaviour within the digital platform or human-computer interaction (HCI). This study aims to explore the way in which online users are affected by the interface tools of digital museums with a case study of the Google Art & Culture. Drawing on the concept of re-mediation [1], our analysis reinforces the interactivity based on its interface tools such as “Zoom-in” and “Museum View” for delivering information (transparency) and “User Gal-lery”, “Share”, and “Details” for compelling experience (re-flectivity). The outcome of this research suggests ways in which museum professionals can develop and manage user interface of their institutions.
  • Samdanis, M., Kapetaniou, C., Kim, Y. and Lee, S. Reflective Remediation as Critical Design Strategy: Lessons from László Moholy-Nagy and Olafur Eliasson. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Electronic Art. Korea, Gwangju: International Symposium on Electronic Art. Available at: http://www.isea-archives.org/proceedings-catalogue/.
    Reflective remediation is an important component of contemporary media theory, which emphasises the creative efforts of avant-garde artists and designers to shape the evolution of media in a critical way. However, the critical capacity of reflective remediations may be compromised by commercial dynamics or conventions, such as the celebration of ‘reflectivity for reflectivity’s sake’ that aims to construct an auratic experience for viewers. Because reflectivity is a critical media practice, it is vital to investigate reflective remediations in tandem with the critical intensions and creative visions of artists and designers. We investigate the critical media practices of the Bauhaus master, László Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946) who explored the concept of ‘productive creativity’, according to which creative experimentation should lead to design knowledge, redefining the relationship between what is known and unknown. We then scrutinise the artistic practice of the Icelandic-Danish contemporary artist Olafur Eliasson (b.1967), who contextualises reflectivity as an embodied experience, in terms of what he calls ‘frictional encounters’. When applied together, the two concepts enhance our understanding of reflective remediation as a critical design strategy.


  • Lee, J. (2018). Cultural Branding of Young and Emerging Contemporary Artists: The Role of Art Fairs and Online Platforms.
    This thesis aims to analyse the process of branding young and emerging artists in the contemporary art market, focusing on the valuation of works of art. The ambiguous borderline of being a work of art in terms of appearance poses a challenge for the market, which requires an explanation of its symbolic value and meaning. A thick, multifarious group of intermediaries in the art world contributes to the construction of legitimacy for artists and their artworks, engendering the understanding of such value. Through the legitimation process, artworks by young and emerging artists are rendered accepted and validated, thereby branding them.
    Some researchers on arts marketing have explored the valuation process by applying socio-cultural perspective on branding. However, such application has empirically overlooked two important mediums: art fairs and online platforms. Theoretically, the complex and fluid valuation structure in the art market, driven by the uncertain value of contemporary art and the repositioning of inner members of the art world, is a compelling research issue to be explored at the societal level. To do so, this thesis begins with investigating Andy Warhol's Brillo Box. This research also explores Frieze London and the Other Art Fair by collecting data from direct observation and secondary sources. The research additionally conducts an instrumental case study of Saatchi Art, using data from interviews, observation, and document reviews.
    The key finding of the historical case is that the legitimacy of Warhol and his artworks was shaped by various elements such as the intermediaries, a myth in society, an artistic movement, the artists' persona and social networks. Moreover, the empirical cases of art fairs and an online platform enact the functions of discovering, introducing, instructing, and including young and emerging artists. This indicates that these institutions play the role of intermediaries and contribute to framing the legitimacy of the artists and artworks, thereby branding new artists. Although art fairs and an online platform hold varying positions in the hierarchical order of valuing artworks in the art world (depending on the extent of their accumulated symbolic value), it is noteworthy that such mediums, which did not exist in the hierarchical structure before the twentieth century, have become important insiders in the structure. However, this research concludes that this change does not substantially reconstitute the stratified structure of the art world that has existed prior to their emergence.
    The theoretical contribution of this thesis lies in extending the application of Holt's (2004) theory of cultural branding to the context of arts. Building on the recent literature on cultural branding of artists (Kerrigan et al. 2011; Hewer, Brownlie and Kerrigan 2013; Muñiz, Norris and Fine 2014; Preece and Kerrigan 2015; Rodner and Preece 2015), this thesis conceptualises the process of legitimising young and emerging artists and their artworks as normative and cultural-cognitive legitimacy shaped by intermediaries through the stages of discovery, introduction, instruction, and selection. Moreover, by drawing on sociological arguments by Becker (1984) and Bourdieu (1996), the conceptual framework of the present study acknowledges the hierarchical structure of the art market and intricate interactions among intermediaries in the art world.
  • Schönenberger, D. (2017). Radical Innovation in a Coordinated Market Economy: Institutional Capabilities Within Germany and Beyond.
    This doctoral dissertation illustrates how the typically coordinated market economy of Germany fosters the creation of radical innovation. The findings of this thesis are in sharp contrast with theoretical expectations for the crucial case of Germany. The changes in the German institutional framework, including the labour market, corporate governance, financial institutions and skill creation since re-unification are illustrated. The influence of government policy on institutional change is analysed. Propositions of different approaches to the political and economic theory are discussed in the light of the findings. An enhanced theoretical framework for the support of new and emerging technologies in the coordinated institutional framework of Germany is established.
  • Moemken, D. (2017). Social Capital Theory and Self-Initiated Expatriates’ Intention to Repatriate: German Expatriate Academics in the United Kingdom.
    As the number of global expatriates continues to rise, the need to understand factors that influence their decisions to remain in their host countries or to return home increases. Self-Initiated Expatriates (SIEs) are defined as individuals who relocate across a national border, for an extended period of time, of their own volition, for work purposes. SIEs are the most prevalent expatriates globally (Finaccord, 2014) but are also some of the least understood. Expatriate academics (EAs) form a subgroup of this wider SIE group, and whilst being fairly representative, face their own unique challenges. Interpersonal links and social networks are influential in EA decisions to stay in or leave their host country, yet little is known about the exact function of networks, and how access to resources through networks influences SIE or EA decisions to remain in their host country or return to their home country.
    Drawing on social capital theory, this thesis develops a theoretical model that links various characteristics of EAs' ego-networks to EAs' intention to repatriate. Specifically, the model suggests that homophily, density, and hierarchy affect EAs' intention to repatriate and that EAs' national identity and career embeddedness moderate these effects.
    The developed hypotheses are tested using data collected from surveys among German academic expatriates in the UK Higher Education sector. In total, 213 responses were analysed using multiple regression analyses. The empirical results underline the importance of similarity of nationality between an EA and their network partners as an influencing factor on their intention to repatriate. The similarity in location of the EA and their network connections did not have any significant impact. The network density, and the EAs hierarchical position within their network also had a direct influence on intention to repatriate.
    The thesis contributes to current research on EAs and SIEs by providing a theory-based explanation of the effect of ego-network characteristics on EAs' intention to repatriate. It also contributes to the development of social capital theory by applying social capital logic in a novel context, clarifying the mechanisms underlying this logic and identifying boundary conditions of this logic in the context of SIE academics. The findings of this research are also relevant for HR practitioners in the UK Higher Education sector, by highlighting factors that may help or hinder the retention of key foreign academics.
  • Samdanis, M. (2015). Institutional Logics of Artistic Innovation in Contemporary Art: The Symbolic Construction of Young British Artists.
    The principal objective of this research is to investigate the institutional logics of artistic innovation in the context of contemporary visual arts. Contemporary art is a challenging field because there are no universal rules that determine artistic innovation, which inevitably relies on subjective justifications. Contemporary art institutions increasingly compete to display artistic innovation through their curatorial work, which derives from and shapes their institutional logics. The analysis in this study seeks to demystify the production of artistic innovation within contemporary art institutions, shedding light on the complex institutional dynamics that stem from interactions between artists, curators, patrons and art institutions.

    This thesis contributes to the existing theory a framework, based on the sociological thought of Becker and Bourdieu, which shows artistic innovation to be an organisational phenomenon. This conceptual framework is used to investigate the institutionalisation of art, in which artistic innovation is discursively constructed as a claim for authenticity. Such a claim expands knowledge structures concerning contemporary art and creates new identities for artists, creative agents and art institutions. The thesis makes a further contribution in that it seeks to advance organisational theory, and to provide insights into a field in which logics shift as a result of constantly changing power dynamics in order to fuel artistic innovations.

    The empirical focus of this study is the Young British Artists (YBAs), an art movement that emerged from London in the early 1990s, receiving support from powerful patrons, such as Charles Saatchi and art institutions including the Tate. This analysis contributes insights into the symbolic construction of artistic innovation, as the discourse of the YBAs facilitated their establishment as an art movement within the artistic field, and reinforced the position of the agents that appropriated this discourse. The case of the YBAs also demonstrates the importance of context for contemporary art production, as London provided the appropriate conditions for artistic innovation to flourish. Through its presentation of the social organisation of artistic innovation, this thesis demystifies contemporary art as the product of power relations and a stimulus of shifting logics in art institutions. Methodologically, this thesis contributes to the practice of critical discourse analysis, inserting a chronological dimension into Fairclough’s (2010) multilevel framework, in order to show how artistic discourses evolve while transforming the institution of art.
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