Zahoor, N., Al-Tabbaa, O., Khan, Z. and Wood, G. (2020). Collaboration and Internationalization of SMEs: Insights and Recommendations from a Systematic Review. International Journal of Management Reviews [Online]. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijmr.12238.
This article performs a systematic literature review of the undeniably diverse – and somewhat fragmented – current state of research on the collaborations and internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We analyze key works and synthesize them into a framework that conceptually maps key antecedents, mediators, and moderators that influence the internationalization of SMEs. In addition, we highlight limitations of the literature, most notably in terms of theoretical fragmentation; extant theories are deployed and illustrated but rarely extended in a manner that significantly informs subsequent work. At an applied (but related) level, we argue the need for supplementary work that explores the distinct stages of internationalization – and the scope and scale of this process – rather than assuming closure around particular events. With this, we highlight the need for more rigorous and empirically informed explorations of contextual effects that take account of the consequences of developments in the global economic ecosystem.
Zahoor, N. and Al-Tabbaa, O. (2020). Inter-organizational collaboration and SMEs’ innovation: A systematic review and future research directions. Scandinavian Journal of Management [Online] 36. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2020.101109.
Inter-organizational collaboration (IOC) has gained increased attention in research and practice given its documented influence on the innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs). Regardless of the growing number of studies, there is still lack of research that scrutinizes and synthesizes this body of knowledge. This paper undertakes a systematic review of 113 studies from 2000 to 2019 to analyse research trends and findings on the nature and dynamics of IOC-innovation relationship in SMEs domain. Based on this analysis, we develop a framework grounded in selected theoretical lenses and empirical findings to advance our understanding of key antecedents, mediators, moderators and outcomes. We highlight that extant theories are deployed and illustrated but rarely extended in a manner that significantly informs subsequent work. Furthermore, we identify that innovation is a complex process that involves different mechanisms. On that basis, we have identified several research gaps and provided a future research agenda that we mapped into four dimensions: theory, phenomenon, methodology and context.
Saadatyar, F., Al-Tabbaa, O., Dagnino, G. and Vazife, Z. (2020). Industrial clusters in the developing economies: insights from the Iranian carpet industry. Strategic Change [Online] 29:227-239. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsc.2324.
Industrial clusters are perceived as potential drivers of SMEs development and efficient policy instruments to lead national and regional innovation and growth. However, these clusters in developing economies are typically placed in complex environments that impose a mix of serious challenges which adversely affect their overall performance. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the nature of these challenges and understand their dynamics using a case study of a carpet industry cluster in Iran. Using multiple sources of evidence, the study reveals two distinct, yet interrelated, levels of challenges: micro and macro. Under each level, a number of key dimensions were identified and theoretically linked which helped to conceptualize the structure of these challenges and model their dynamics.
De Silva, M., Al-Tabbaa, O. and Khan, Z. (2020). Business Model Innovation by International Social Purpose Organizations: the Role of Dynamic Capabilities. Journal of Business Research [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.12.030.
This paper examines the role played by dynamic capabilities and business model innovation in international social purpose organizations (ISPOs)1 operating across developing and developed countries. Utilizing a qualitative multiple case study methodology, we identify a set of dynamic capabilities deployed and leveraged by these organizations for business model innovation in order to achieve their dual mission of social and economic value creation. The findings highlight unique micro-foundational capabilities of the founders that are vitally important to perceive social challenges as opportunities for ISPOs to sense socially and economically intertwined prospects. We discuss the specific organizational-level capabilities—at both the production and selling sites—that are developed and utilized by ISPOs to seize opportunities by combining competing social and economic logics. In relation to transformation, ISPOs develop ecosystem-wide production- and market-related capabilities—in both developing and developed countries—that enable them to scale-up their dual mission business model through co-creation.
Workplace spirituality as a source for competitive advantage: an empirical study (2019). International Journal of Organizational Analysis [Online]. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-10-2019-1915.
Purpose: This paper aims to theorize and empirically examines the role of perceived spirituality in developing organization competitiveness.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a quantitative approach, where the structural equation modeling approached was applied to analyze a unique dataset collected from 550 health-care staff in two international hospitals in Iran.
Findings: The results show that although the workplace spirituality (WS) can indirectly enhance the development of competitive advantages by affecting the level of organizational commitment; however, the direct relationship of WS and competitive advantage has a higher path coefficient than its indirect one. Also, interestingly, it is found that, although WS affects the three dimensions of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative commitment), but only WS by mediating role of affective commitment can affect the competitive advantage at understudied hospitals.
Originality/value: This study makes important theoretical contributions by conceptualizing and validating the effect of WS on the development of organization competitive advantage. As such, the authors explicate the commitment-related paths through which WS can affect organization overall performance.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Leach, D. and Khan, Z. (2019). Examining Alliance Management Capabilities in Cross-sector Collaborative Partnerships. Journal of Business Research [Online] 101:268-284. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.04.001.
While there is a significant amount of research on cross-sector collaboration, we still lack an adequate
understanding of the nature and dynamics of Alliance Management Capabilities (AMC) that
organizations demand when stretching their inter-organizational relationships beyond the boundaries of
their sector. We address this gap by investigating the role of AMC in establishing and maintaining cross-sector
collaborations, focusing on the perspective of nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Using qualitative
data obtained from a diverse group of NPOs that are actively in collaboration with the business sector,
we identified a unique set of AMC that are deployed at the pre- and post-formation stages of
collaboration, and concomitantly at both stages (or cross-cutting AMC). Moreover, we provide an
integrative framework that explains how these capabilities are leveraged and developed within the
context of cross-sector collaboration which takes a circular path that comprises strategic actions and
learning routines. We draw implications for theory and practice.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Leach, D. and Khan, Z. (2019). Examining alliance management capabilities in cross-sector collaborative partnerships. Journal of Business Research [Online] 101:268-284. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.04.001.
While there is a significant amount of research on cross-sector collaboration, we still lack an adequate understanding of the nature and dynamics of Alliance Management Capabilities (AMC) that organizations demand when stretching their inter-organizational relationships beyond the boundaries of their sector. We address this gap by investigating the role of AMC in establishing and maintaining cross-sector collaborations, focusing on the perspective of nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Using qualitative data obtained from a diverse group of NPOs that are actively
in collaboration with the business sector, we identified a unique set of AMC that are deployed at the pre- and post-formation stages of collaboration, and concomitantly at both stages (or cross-cutting AMC). Moreover, we provide an integrative framework that explains how these capabilities are leveraged and developed within the context of cross-sector collaboration which takes a circular path that comprises strategic actions and learning routines. We draw implications for theory and practice.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Ankrah, S. and Zahoor, N. (2019). Systematic literature review in management and business studies: a case study on university-industry collaboration. SAGE Research Methods Cases Business & Management [Online]. Available at: https://methods.sagepub.com/case/systematic-literature-review-in-business-studies-university-industry-collab?fromsearch=true.
Although it first appeared in the medical sciences, the systematic literature review has become an established methodology in reviewing the accumulated knowledge in different fields. It is useful for scrutinizing and synthesizing a large volume of research on a specific topic or phenomenon, seeking to generate new insights from integrating empirical evidence, identifying knowledge gaps and inconsistencies, and setting directions for future research. Accordingly, in this case study, we aim to illustrate the steps for developing a rigorous systematic review in business and management research. Specifically, we reflect on our experience in systematically reviewing the research produced on University-Industry Collaboration phenomenon. We show examples of the different steps, stages, and activities of this approach, and discuss the various decisions we made throughout our research journey. Moreover, we provide learned lessons, highlight caveats, and offer suggestions and guidance for enhancing the rigor of future systematic literature review research.
Al-Tabbaa, O. (2019). Cross-Sector Partnership Research from a Civil Society Perspective: Two Current Trends. Annual Review of Social Partnerships [Online] 2018:24-26. Available at: https://www.crcpress.com/rsc/downloads/ARSP_13.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2_xmPJoQhM0bha8H0-anQ15XxCt3WIr1Va7jDq59Y-AFB9SHkMr5-hLxQ.
It is conspicuous that research on cross-sector collaboration is increasingly dedicating attention to assessing the perspective of civil society. Examining this body of literature has indicated two salient research trends: the effect of cross-sector partnership on civil society organizations performance and the impact of civil society organisations on the effectiveness of cross-sector partnerships.
Al-Tabbaa, O. and Ankrah, S. (2018). ‘Engineered’ University-Industry Collaboration: A social capital perspective. European Management Review [Online]. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/emre.12174.
While there is an extensive body of knowledge on University-Industry Collaboration (UIC) for technology transfer, two salient gaps remain. First, studies on UIC have predominately focused on situations when the relationship is established based on perceived complementary needs between collaborators. However, research on ‘engineered’ UIC, or when the collaboration has been triggered and coordinated by a third party, is still scarce. Second, we lack proper understanding into the micro foundation of technology transfer process using the lens of social capital (SC). This is a necessary inquiry given the prevailing conception of technology transfer as a sociotechnical process. We address these two gaps by investigating the idiosyncrasy of SC in five case studies of the Faraday Partnership Initiative, a UK public-sponsored program designed to enhance cross-sector technology transfer. As key contributions, we develop a conceptual framework that explains how social capital facilitates technology transfer in engineered UIC. We also advance the debate on academic engagement and commercialization by elaborating how knowledge produced by academics can be transformed into useable forms of technology by distinguishing between technology translation and transfer. The former emerged as a critical element of the latter.
Social capital to facilitate ‘engineered’ university–industry collaboration for technology transfer: A dynamic perspective (2016). Technological Forecasting & Social Change [Online] 104:1-15. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.11.027.
Over the last decade, social capital concept has received considerable amount of research being regarded as an
important value creation mechanism. However, we still have limited understanding about the nature of interaction
between the dimensions of this capital, and how it can be useful in mitigating the impediments evolving
during government-sponsored (i.e., engineered) university–industry collaboration (UIC). In this paper, we address
the previous gap by analyzing the dynamics of social capital dimensions during the preformation and
postformation stages of UIC. The paper relies on a unique context that comprises five embedded case studies
of UIC for technology transfer: the Faraday Partnership Initiative, a UK government-backed novel scheme for enhancing
innovation. The analysis shows that the impact and interaction of the dimensions were not static but
rather varying over time. Further, we present a new value creation framework for social capital through mapping
its power in reducing the intensity of difficulties emerged during the collaboration lifetime. We also identify two
facilitating factors as critical in creating and maintaining social capital in engineered UIC. The present study thus
contributes to a deeper understanding of the value of inter-organizational social capital.
Ankrah, S. and Al-Tabbaa, O. (2015). Universities–industry collaboration: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Management [Online] 31:387-408. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2015.02.003.
The collaboration between universities and the industry is increasingly perceived as a vehicle to enhance innovation through knowledge exchange. This is evident by a significant increase in studies that investigate the topic from different perspectives. However, this body of knowledge is still described as fragmented and lacks efficient comprehensive view. To address this gap, we employed a systematic procedure to review the literature on universities–industry collaboration (UIC). The review resulted in identifying five key aspects, which underpinned the theory of UIC. We integrate these key aspects into an overarching process framework, which together with the review, provide a substantial contribution by creating an integrated analysis of the state of literature concerning this phenomenon. Several research avenues are reported as distilled from the analysis.
An Investigation into Factors Influencing Students’ Attitude toward using Social Media as a Recruitment Tool (2014). International Journal of Management Academy [Online] 2:9-26. Available at: http://www.ijoma.org/?_action=articleInfo&article=10855.
It is of no doubt that social media sites have become the most dominated subject in today life. However, the effect of those websites has widely disseminated not only into social life but into the business world as well. Recruitment is one of the topics that have influence by social networking sites. Previous studies have shown growing use of social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn as a recruitment tool. As a result studying individuals’ attitudes toward using those websites have grabbed significant attention into the scientific field. In fact, many factors have influence on individuals’ attitudes. This research is an investigation into factors influencing student’s attitude toward using social media as a recruitment tool. A total of 101 respondents were participated in this quantitative research. The collected data were analysed by using various methods like Reliable scale of Cronbach, Pearson correlation, Distributive Statistics, T-Test and Multiple regression. The findings indicate that the respondents were not using social media as a recruitment tool. However, the results also revealed that perceived social media usefulness and self-efficacy, and privacy concern were significantly correlated to the students’ attitude while Year of study has no influence on the dependent variable students’ attitude.
Huatuco Huaccho, L., Moxham, C. and Al-Tabbaa, O. (2014). Third Sector and performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management [Online] 63. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-05-2014-0081.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Leach, D. and March, J. (2014). Collaboration Between Nonprofit and Business Sectors: A Framework to Guide Strategy Development for Nonprofit Organizations. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations [Online] 25:657-678. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-013-9357-6.
Collaboration between nonprofit and business sectors is widely regarded as a value creation process that benefits society, business, and nonprofit organizations (NPOs). This process, however, has rarely been considered from a nonprofit perspective. In this paper, we discuss a new framework to assist NPOs in developing strategic collaborations with businesses. We argue that, by being strategically proactive rather than reactive to what businesses might offer, NPOs can increase the scale of their cross-sector collaborations and thus enhance their sustainability. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Gadd, K. and Ankrah, S. (2013). Excellence models in the non-profit context: strategies for continuous improvement. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management [Online] 30:590-612. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/02656711311315521.
Purpose – This paper provides insights into the applicability of excellence models (in particular the
European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model), for use in the nonprofit
context as a strategy for performance improvement aiming to enhance sustainability.
Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an exploratory, qualitative in-depth case
study approach, which includes three UK-based nonprofit organizations (NPOs) as research case
Findings – In general, we found the quality models to be relevant to the NPO context, and potentially
effective and useful as a performance improvement strategy for NPOs. However, we also propose some
modifications to the EFQM model to address the specific characteristics of this sector. Additionally, we
compare two of the most widely used quality models (EFQM and MBNQA), and suggest that although
both are relevant for NPOs, the EFQM model has some superior advantages.
Originality/value – This paper contributes to the debate about the sustainability of organizations
and the underpinning mechanisms behind their efficiency. Many researchers and practitioners are
continually debating how an organization can optimize its available resources, as this is considered to be
one of the primary foundations for organization sustainability. The added contribution of this paper
advances this debate a step further by providing insights into how concepts and tools which have been
initially designed for the for-profit sector can be deployed by nonprofit organizations (NPOs).
In addition, the paper provides further views about the approaches NPOs might use in response to the
current political and financial challenges.
Al-Tabbaa, O., Gadd, K. and Ankrah, S. (2013). Excellence models in the non-profit context: Strategies for continuous improvement. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management [Online] 30:590-612. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02656711311315521.
Purpose: This paper provides insights into the applicability of excellence models (in particular the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model), for use in the nonprofit context as a strategy for performance improvement aiming to enhance sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on an exploratory, qualitative in-depth case study approach, which includes three UK-based nonprofit organizations (NPOs) as research case studies. Findings: In general, we found the quality models to be relevant to the NPO context, and potentially effective and useful as a performance improvement strategy for NPOs. However, we also propose some modifications to the EFQM model to address the specific characteristics of this sector. Additionally, we compare two of the most widely used quality models (EFQM and MBNQA), and suggest that although both are relevant for NPOs, the EFQM model has some superior advantages. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the debate about the sustainability of organizations and the underpinning mechanisms behind their efficiency. Many researchers and practitioners are continually debating how an organization can optimize its available resources, as this is considered to be one of the primary foundations for organization sustainability. The added contribution of this paper advances this debate a step further by providing insights into how concepts and tools which have been initially designed for the for-profit sector can be deployed by nonprofit organizations (NPOs). In addition, the paper provides further views about the approaches NPOs might use in response to the current political and financial challenges. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Al-Tabbaa, O. and Rustom, R. (2011). General framework for designing multi-use simulation modules for estimating project durations. Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management [Online] 11:321-337. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/14714171111149034.
Purpose: This paper seeks to propose a general framework to be used in developing multi?use simulation modules for estimating project durations at the planning phase.
Design/methodology/approach: The research method incorporates two main stages. First, conceptualisation of the general framework, and second, implementing the framework in modelling and experimenting simulation modules, which involves data collection, statistical analysis, templates building through the ARENA software, and modules verification and validation.
Findings: The framework was found to be effective in providing an approach for building multi?use simulation modules. The validation and verification processes of the developed simulation module reflect the soundness of the proposed framework.
Practical implications: Useful insights have been presented in this research regarding building multi?use simulation modules in infrastructure construction projects. In addition, the paper demonstrates examples about how simulation interaction interface can contribute to the efficiency of using the simulation technique.
Originality/value: Given the lack of general approaches for building multi?use simulation modules, this research suggests a simplified approach for developing multi?use modules. Both academics and practitioners can benefit from this new approach by understanding the mechanism behind the multi?use model concept as explained in this paper.
Pitsis, P., Schweitzer, J., Mount, M. and Al-Tabbaa, O. (2018). Positive Design: Using Design Thinking as a Creative Process for Enhancing Project Outcomes. In: Academy of Management Meeting.
This PDW brings together scholars and practitioners working on creativity, design thinking
and strategy to explore, debate, and illustrate the ways in which design thinking is being used
as a creative process to positively impact people as the beneficiaries and stakeholders of
projects. The PDW is the first of a series of PDWs to be proposed at AOM over the next
three years seeking to bring the design thinking and positive organizational scholarship
communities together to advance knowledge, theorizing and research on how design thinking
can impact projects to improve society and have a positive and sustainable impact on people,
planet and profit. The workshop will be an interactive, design thinking led session and will
produce micro-projects to advance the ‘positive design’ cause within the academy. This
session will also be supported by the Project Management Institute (PMI) and will seek to
broaden and build networks across AOM, SMS and PMI to advance creative approaches to
project design with a focus on beneficiaries and stakeholders.
Zahoor, N. and Al-Tabbaa, O. (2017). Linking inter-organizational collaboration, innovation, and internationalization in SMEs: a systematic review. In: Academy of International Business UK & Ireland Chapter (AIB-UKI) Conference.
Inter-organizational collaboration (IOC) has been widely claimed as influential in enhancing SMEs innovation and internationalization performance. However, the literature on this topic is fragmented, consistent views on the relationships between the three constructs (IOC, innovation and internationalization) is largely missed. To address this gap, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review (with narrative synthesis technique) of 117 empirical studies published between 2000 and 2016 that address relationships between these three constructs (IOC-innovation, IOC-internationalization, and IOC-innovating-internationalization) in SMEs setting. Our study reveals that there is an upward trend (yet varies across the three relationships) in publishing articles on this subject overtime. In addition, we show the building blocks underpinning the dominating variables in these studies including enablers, moderators, mediators, and outcomes. Overall, the analysis suggests that while IOC, innovation and internationalization research has made significant progress over the years, there are still substantial gaps in the literature, which leave important areas for further investigation.
Al-Tabbaa, O. and Leach, D. (2017). Alliance Management Capabilities in Non-Market Setting: The Case of Cross-Sector Collaboration. In: Academy of Management Proceedings. Academy of Management, p. 16347. Available at: https://journals.aom.org/doi/10.5465/AMBPP.2016.16347abstract.
Alliance management capabilities (AMCs) are typically perceived as higher-order resources that can affect an organization’s ability to derive value from inter-organizational collaboration. Extant research has predominantly focused on business-to-business relationships. In this paper, we examine AMCs in a nontraditional (non-market) context: nongovernment-business collaboration (NBC). Furthermore, we assess AMCs from the perspective of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Using qualitative data obtained from interviews with 38 employees (who represented 26 UK- based NGOs), along with evidence from organizational documents, we identified three distinct groups of NGO-specific AMCs: pre- collaboration, post-collaboration, and hybrid capabilities. These capabilities embody the way in which NGOs attract, establish, and manage collaborative linkages with businesses. In particular, the hybrid capabilities, which are utilized before and during the collaboration, emphasize the importance of learning processes and stakeholder management throughout the collaboration process. More general, the findings show that NGOs leverage their AMCs through two strategic actions, namely exploring and exploiting, which contributes to the Resource-Based View theory by explaining the pathway between capabilities and realized value.
Zahoor, N., Al-Tabbaa, O. and Anchor, J. (2016). Alliance Management Capabilities and Internationalization: The Mediating Role of Innovation. In: The 36th SMS (Strategic Management Society) Annual International Conference. Available at: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/30115/.
Despite the abundance of research on the internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) sector, we know little about the relationship between alliance management capabilities (AMC) and internationalization in this sector. Based on the resource-based view and capabilities perspective, we attempt to address this gap by offering a conceptual understanding of how AMC can impact on internationalization activity in terms of capabilities and performance. Specifically, we contend that radical and incremental co-innovations are necessary strategic actions to leverage the AMC when SMEs pursue internationalization. Furthermore, we suggest that partners’ diversity can moderate the link between AMC and co-innovation
Al-Tabbaa, O., Kolk, A. and Leach, D. (2016). On Meaningfulness Beyond Corporate Form: Exploring Cross-Sector Collaboration from NGOs Perspective. In: 2016 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2016.10496abstract.
While interest in collaboration between business and non- governmental organizations (NGOs) has grown rapidly in the past decades, literature has underexposed the peculiarities of the NGO partner, compared to the ample attention for the perspective of the firm and the implications for society. In the context of growing uncertainty of government funding and budgetary constraints, NGOs have taken a more proactive approach of embracing partnerships with business to foster their organizational viability and strategic economic interests, in addition to their traditional focus on social value and meaningfulness. Using two complementary studies, one qualitative, the other more quantitative, we explore activities adopted by NGOs to generate resources and further their objectives in collaborating with firms, considering their strategy context, content and process, and how these reflected in their external communication and presentation, especially via organizational websites. Findings show the most prominent dimensions of NGOs’ strategy for partnerships, including the deployment of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes, the provision of specific options for collaboration, and evidence of past achievement to increase trustworthiness. Our findings also shed light on the factors relevant for firms seeking to partner with an NGO as a means to further their meaningfulness.
Al-Tabbaa, O. (2015). Did the nonprofit sector become strategic regarding working with businesses?. In: The Strategic Management Society 35th Annual International Conference,. Available at: http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/24259/.
Nonprofit-business collaboration (NBC) has become an important value creation mechanism for both society and businesses. This value creation process, however, has been rarely considered from the nonprofit perspective, in particular how they plan to attract prospective business partners. We address this gap by investigating the website content of NPOs that actively engage with the business sector. The results show that active-in-collaboration NPOs do have a strategic orientation towards the collaboration with the business sector. Importantly, the analysis reveals four common attributes across the sample, which provide insights into the features of the NBC strategy from the NPOs standpoint.
Strategizing Organizational Emergency Management: Strategies-as-Practice Perspective (2014). In: 34th Strategic Management Society Conference.
Emergency management (EM) in the oil and gas industry is of strategic importance to organizations as it can have impact on people’s lives and organizational reputation. This developmental paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding organizational EM strategies by considering the micro-level activity of emergency response and responders in shaping strategy at the macro-level. The practices of key organizational responders during emergencies are strategic because they draw on strategic plans and are crucial to strategic outcomes. However, these key participants may not have formal strategy roles. It is argued that an understanding of whether and how their practices are incorporated into practices that shape strategy may situate them closer to the centre of strategizing activities; from outsiders to insiders.
Al-Tabbaa, O. and Leach, D. (2013). From beggar to partner: nonprofit-business collaboration as a strategic choice for the nonprofits. In: Academy of Management Conference. Academy of Management. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5465/AMBPP.2013.13686abstract.
Nonprofit-Business collaboration (NBC) has been widely investigated, being regarded as a value creation mechanism for society (by providing better solutions to address complex social issues) and business (by delivering economic gains as part of social responsibility programs). NBC from the perspective of nonprofit organizations (NPOs), however, has been overlooked, in particular how they plan strategically to attract prospective business partners. In this paper, we propose a framework to facilitate NPOs’ strategy development and assess its relevance with data obtained from 15 NPOs. In general, findings indicate that the framework captures the foundations of effective strategy in terms of the number and quality of collaborations. The paper provides recommendations for practice and new research directions.