Portrait of Dr Patty Baker FSA

Dr Patty Baker FSA

Head of Department of Classical & Archaeological Studies
Senior Lecturer in Classical & Archaeological Studies
Equality, Diversity and Inclusivity Representative


Dr Patty Baker grew up in suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and came to the UK to study the archaeology and history of the Roman provinces and ancient medicine. She received her PhD in Classics at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and wrote her dissertation on Medical Care for the Roman Army on the Rhine, Danube and British Frontiers from the First through Third Centuries AD. 

Patty holds two MA degrees: one in Classics from Florida State University and the other in Roman Frontier Studies from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Her BA was in Anthropology with a minor in History with a strong liberal arts background from Millersville University, Pennsylvania. 

Research interests

Patty's research interests centre on various aspects of Greco-Roman perceptions of health and medicine. She has written on Roman medical material culture, in particular the life course, materiality, colour, and depositional practices of medical tools. Her work on healing structures and spaces is informed by phenomenology. She has also worked on ancient paediatrics, images and perceptions of Greek and Roman physicians, and perceptions of disability in the past. 

Currently, she is researching and writing on Roman gardens as healthy spaces. This work explores the sensory experiences (smell, sight, sound, taste, and touch) the Romans would have had in their gardens and how these experiences were understood to effect the body and mind. The study incorporates Stoic and Epicurean understandings of sensory function in comparison to the remains of Roman gardens in the Bay of Naples from roughly 150 BC to AD 100. Patty is also the founder and series editor for Medicine and the Body in Antiquity, a book series with Routledge Press.  

Patty is a member of the Health, Well-being and Senses and the Artefacts and Society research clusters.


Patty teaches from an interdisciplinary perspective and covers the full-range of subjects offered in the Department of Classical and Archaeological Studies. For example, the topics of her modules include archaeological theory, Greek and Roman History and Archaeology, and Greco-Roman literature. Her research and current themes in classics and archaeology inform how she teaches. 


Patty welcomes enquiries from students interested in doctoral study on topics related to her research interests.    


Showing 50 of 79 total publications in the Kent Academic Repository. View all publications.


  • Baker, P. (2018). Identifying the connection between Roman Conceptions of ‘Pure Air’ and Physical and Mental Health in Pompeian Gardens (c. 150 BC-AD 79): A Multi-Sensory Approach to Ancient Medicine. World Archaeology [Online]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2018.1487332.
    Different genres of Roman literature commented on the relationship between
    the condition of the environment and physical and mental health. They often
    refer to clear, pure, or good air as a beneficial aspect of the environment. Yet,
    unlike fetid air, they provide few descriptions of what constituted healthy air
    quality. Moreover, aside from pointing out the association between the
    environment and bodily condition, the writers also did not explain precisely how
    the link between the two was made. This paper utilizes a comparative study of
    ancient literature and the archaeological remains of Roman gardens in
    Pompeii: archaeobotanical samples, fresco paintings, location, and surviving
    features. Three questions are addressed in this study: First, how did the
    Romans identify and define pure? Second, how did air connect to the body?
    Third, what were the qualities of pure air and how did they benefit the body?
    Not only was inhalation a means of linking air to the body, but the two were also
    related through sensory perception. I argue that sight, sound, and olfaction
    were used to identify the qualities of pure air. Through the sensory process of
    identification, the beneficial properties of pure air were, in accordance with
    ancient perceptions of sensory function, taken into the body and affected
    health. Thus, sensory perception acted as the bridge between the environment
    and health.
  • Baker, P. (2017). Viewing Health: Asclepia in their Natural Settings. Religion in the Roman Empire [Online] 3:143-163. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1628/219944617X15008820103342.
    In this paper, it is argued that there existed a Greco-Roman perception that the views of the surrounding landscapes from Greek healing sanctuaries contributed towards the heath of the pilgrim who visited the sites. Although much has been written about the religious aspects of the healing event in Asclepia, the physical environment of the sanctuaries has yet to be examined. It is, nonetheless significant, allowing us a further understanding of the pilgrims' experience in these places that extends beyond ritual practice. The Asclepia share similar views, facing the mountains, the sea or both. By comparing the orientation of healing sanctuaries with ancient medical and philosophical literature, it is demonstrated that part of the healing experience in a sanctuary involved the stimulation of the senses. For this study, the focus is on the sense of sight. Pleasant views had a calming effect on the mind, which in turn influenced the health of the viewer. Thus, the healing event was enhanced by the visitor's interactive relationship with the surrounding environment.
  • Bellosi, G., Granata, A., Pisu, N., Christie, N. and Baker, P. (2013). The Late Antique and Early Medieval Habitat and Church on the Monte S. Martino, Riva del Garda District, North Italy. Medieval Settlement Research [Online] 28:9-17. Available at: http://medieval-settlement.com/publications/journal/vol28/.
  • Baker, P. (2011). Re-evaluating the Identification of Roman Military Hospitals. Association of Roman Archaeology Newsletter [Online]:20. Available at: http://www.associationromanarchaeology.org/newnewsletter.htm.
  • Baker, P. (2011). Collyrium Stamps: An Indicator of Regional Medical Practices in Roman Gaul. European Journal of Archaeology [Online] 14:158-189. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1179/146195711798369364.
    Collyrium stamps, objects used to mark eye medicines, are more commonly found in Gaul than any other Roman province. Since they appear after Roman occupation, it is believed they evince a spread of Roman medicine, but this idea is not well-supported. Through a detailed study of the collyrizzm stamps it is apparent that the stamps took on other functions beyond marking remedies. They were used as amulets and votive offerings, signined by the fact that most are made of steatite and schist, almost all are green a colour associated with eye care, and a number are decorated with magical symbols, and also by their context. Ultimately, the manner in which they were used demonstrates an adaptation of Roman material culture to fit the practices and beliefs based on earlier Iron Age traditions in the region.
  • Baker, P., Christie, N., Hyam, A. and Edgeworth, M. (2010). Medieval Britain and Ireland in 2009 - Mapping Wallingford Castle. Medieval Archaeology [Online] 54:416-420. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174581710X12790370816011.
  • Baker, P. (2005). Field Systems on Overton Down South, near Avebury. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 98:340-342.
    Report on the excavation in 2002 of a lynchet previously identified as part of a series of earthwork enclosures and field systems on Overton Down South, Fyfield Down, Avebury, and believed to date originally to the late-second or early-first millennium BC, having been abandoned during the Iron Age and brought back into cultivation in the Romano-British period.
  • Baker, P. (2004). Roman Medical Instruments: Archaeological Interpretations of their Possible ’Non-functional uses’. Social History of Medicine 17:3-21.
    Roman medical tools have traditionally been defined by scholars in accordance with what has been written about them in the classical medical tests. Yet, other possible functions, as well as meanings and feelings related to them that have not been recorded in the literature, have never been explored. It is important to attempt to learn how people understood medical instruments because it can give us a greater insight into feelings about medical care in general. It is possible to learn these other uses and feelings through an examination of the archaeological context in which the instruments were found. Three case studies are examined to demonstrate associated meanings, such as a fear of pollution, and ‘non-functional’ or ‘non-rational’ uses of the instruments as votive offerings, demonstrating the complex and varied nature of Roman understandings of tools related to healing and ultimately illness.


  • Baker, P. (2013). The Archaeology of Medicine in the Greco-Roman World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book teaches students and scholars of Greco-Roman medical history how to use and critically assess archaeological materials. Ancient medicine is a subject dominated by textual sources, yet there is a wealth of archaeological remains that can be used to broaden our understanding of medicine in the past. In order to use the information properly, this book explains how to ask questions of an archaeological nature, how to access different types of archaeological materials, and how to overcome problems the researcher might face. It also acts as an introduction to the archaeology of medicine for archaeologists interested in this aspect of their subject. Although the focus is on the Greco-Roman period, the methods and theories explained within the text can be applied to other periods in history. The areas covered include text as material culture, images, artifacts, spaces of medicine, and science and archaeology.
  • Baker, P. (2004). Medical Care for the Roman Army on the Rhine, Danube and British Frontiers from the First through Third Centuries AD. UK: BAR International Series.
    This book makes an important contribution to our understanding of medical practice in the Roman Army. Before it was written there was a general understanding that medical practice in the army was the same throughout the Roman Empire, but there is no evidence for this. By examining the medical tools, inscriptions and buildings identified as hospitals the author notes that there is little evidence of uniformity. The evidence examined suggests that medical practices differed between units, possibly because of the policy of the governor of the province, the commander of the army, or the cultural practices of medicine in the units. The book has injected new life into a debate, and triggered an invitation to an international conference in Spain in June 2007.

Book section

  • Baker, P. (2017). Tastes and Digestion: archaeology and medicine in Roman Italy. In: Rudolph, K. ed. Taste and the Ancient Senses. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/9781844658695.
  • Baker, P. (2017). Greco-Roman Paediatrics. In: Aasgaard, R. and Horn, C. eds. Childhood in History: Perceptions of Children in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge, pp. 77-93. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/9781472468925.
  • Baker, P. (2016). Medicine. In: Millett, M., Revell, L. and Moore, A. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 555-572. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199697731.001.0001.
  • Baker, P. (2015). Images of Doctors and their Implements: A Visual Dialogue between the Patient and the Doctor. In: Petridou, G. and Kolleg, M.-W. eds. Homo Patiens - Approaches to the Patient in the Ancient World. Leiden: Brill, pp. 365-389. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1163/9789004305564_016.
    Images of physicians, patients, and medical instruments were placed on Graeco-Roman funerary monuments, altars and fresco paintings. These representations are examined here to determine whether there existed a standard convention by which physicians were depicted in order that the lay and possibly illiterate viewers could identify what the scene represented. Greek physicians were frequently shown with cupping vessels, midwives were seen with birthing stools, while Roman physicians were often shown with various surgical implements. It is argued that the correlation between the types of objects depicted with the medical practitioner was deliberately made by the artist to signify the nature of medicine in the individual practiced, to that the viewer could identify the role the practitioner had in their society
  • Baker, P., King, H. and Totelin, L. (2014). Teaching Ancient Medicine: The Issues of Abortion. In: Sorkin Rabinowitz, N. and McHardy, F. eds. From Abortion to Pederasty: Addressing Difficult Topics in the Classics Classroom. Ohio State University Press, pp. 71-91. Available at: https://ohiostatepress.org/books/BookPages/Rabinowitz%20McHardy%20Difficult.html.
  • Baker, P. (2012). ’Hygiene: Greece and Rome’; ’Pregnancy’; and ‘Deafness’. In: Bagnall, R., Brodersen, C., Champion, C., Erskine, A. and Huebner, S. eds. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Ancient History. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
    Three entries in the Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Ancient History
  • Baker, P. (2012). Medieval Islamic Hospitals: Spatial Design and Social Concepts. In: Baker, P. A., Nijdam, H. and van’t Land, K. eds. Medicine and Space: Body, Surroundings and Borders in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill, pp. 245-272. Available at: http://www.brill.nl/medicine-and-space.
  • Baker, P. (2012). Children, Health and Science. In: Laurence, R. and Harlow, M. eds. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in Antiquity. Oxford: Berg, pp. 153-170.
  • Baker, P. and Nijdam, H. (2011). Introduction: Conceptualizing, Body, Space and Borders. In: Baker, P. A., Nijdam, H. and van’t Land, K. eds. Medicine and Space: Body, Surroundings and Borders in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill, pp. 1-22. Available at: http://www.brill.nl/medicine-and-space.
  • Baker, P. (2009). Medicine, Death and Military Virtues. In: Marco SimónF., Pino Polo, F. and Remesal RodríguezJ. eds. Formae Mortis: El Tránsito De La Vida a La Muerte En Las Sociedades Antiguas. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona, pp. 25-37.
  • Baker, P. (2006). ‘Feminism’ and ‘Soap’. In: Shipley, G., Foxhall, L., Vanderspoel, J. and Mattingly, D. eds. The Cambridge Dictionary of Classical Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Two entries in the Cambridge Dictionary of the Classical World
  • Baker, P. (2003). A Brief Comment on the TRAC Session Dedicated to the Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Roman Women. In: Swift, E. V., Carr, G. and Weekes, J. eds. TRAC 2002, Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 140-146.
    This paper explores the importance of taking an interdisciplinary approach to the study of women in the ancient world.
  • Baker, P. (2002). Diagnosing Some Ills: The Archaeology, Literature and History of Roman Medicine. In: Baker, P. A. and Carr, G. eds. Practitioners, Practices and Patients: New Approaches to Medical Archaeology and Anthropology: Conference Proceedings. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 16-29.
    This paper questions two points: the manner in which archaeologists interpret medical tools from the Greco-Roman era and how scholars of ancient medical literature disregard archaeological evidence in their interpretations of past medical practices. In this author argues that archaeology can contribute much to our knowledge of medical treatment in the past, but warns that until very recently the archaeological studies has remained descriptive, avoiding any theoretical interpretation: this may account for the neglect of archaeological evidence hitherto. The paper has already begun to change professional perceptions in this respect.
  • Zeitlyn, D. (2002). A Computer Simulation of Mambila Divination. In: Baker, P. A. and Carr, G. eds. Practitioners, Practices and Patients. New Approaches to Medical Archaeology and Anthropology. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 74-80.
  • Baker, P. (2002). The Roman Military Valetudinaria: Fact or Fiction?. In: Arnott, R. ed. The Archaeology of Medicine Proceedings of the Theoretical Archaeology Group 1998. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports Archaeopress, pp. 69-80.
    This paper questions whether Roman military hospitals have been properly identified in the archaeological evidence. The author is not convinced by the scholarship that adheres to the understanding that we know what Roman hospitals were. The buildings that have been identified as such were so justified at the beginning of the last century on the basis of a single structure with a room that contained medical tools. In comparison with other structures and buildings there is not enough evidence in the archaeological record to support such an argument. Again this has sparked a debate on how we identify buildings used for health and healing.

Edited book

  • Baker, P. (2011). Medicine and Space: Body, Surroundings and Borders in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. [Online]. Vol. 4. Baker, P. A., Nijdam, H. and van’t Land, K. eds. Leiden: Brill. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/9789004226500.
    The papers in this volume question how perceptions of space influenced understandings of the body and its functions, illness and treatment, and the surrounding natural and built environments in relation to health in the classical and medieval periods.
  • Baker, P.A. and Carr, G. eds. (2002). Practitioners, Practices and Patients: New Approaches to Medical Archaeology and Anthropology: Conference Proceedings. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
    This book is a collection of papers that consider the impotance of material culture in the use of medical history and archaeology.

Internet publication

  • Baker, P. (2010). Medical Practices in Roman Spain: Report on a Pilot Study of the Archaeological Remains of Medical Tools [Web-based discussion group]. Available at: http://traumwerk.stanford.edu/archaeolog/2010/08/medical_practices_in_roman_spa.html.
    In his Natural History, Pliny the Elder (25. 85) stated that the Cantabri, an indigenous group of people who lived in the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, devised an elixir consisting of one-hundred herbs that they drank to maintain their health. Pliny’s story is one of a rare few comments in ancient literature that refers to localised traditions of medical practices in the Roman provinces. His statement was the initiating factor in undertaking a pilot study that asked how the native populations of the three provinces of Roman Spain responded to the introduction of Graeco-Roman medical philosophies and practices in contrast to their own healing traditions after the incorporation of Hispania into the empire (1st century BC). This paper gives a short overview of my preliminary findings and explains why it is necessary to consider provincial medical practices in historical examinations of Roman medicine from an archaeological perspective.
  • Baker, P. (2009). Archaeological Remains As a Source of Evidence for Roman Medicine [Internet: Medicina Antiqua]. Available at: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/mm_essays.html.


  • Baker, P. (2018). Book Review. Journal of Roman Studies [Online] 108:235-236. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0075435818000539.
  • Baker, P. (2013). Review of K. Krötzl and K. Mustakallio, ’On Old Age: Approaching Death in Antiquity and the Middle Ages’. Medieval Archaeology [Online] 57:378-379. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/0076609713Z.00000000028.
  • Baker, P. (2013). Review of Don Walker, ’Disease in London, 1st-19th Centuries. An Illustrated Guide to Diagnosis’. Medieval Archaeology [Online] 57:379-379. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/0076609713Z.00000000028.
    xix+287 pp, 446 colour and b&w figs, 2 tables. London: Museum of London Archaeology, 2012. isbn 978-1-907586-10-1. Price: £28·00 hb.
  • Baker, P. (2013). Review of J. Casas and J.M. Nolla, ’Instrumental de hierro de época de la Antigüedad Tardía en el N.E. de la Península Ibérica’. Medieval Archaeology [Online] 56:369-360. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/0076609714Z.00000000045.
  • Baker, P. (2012). Review of Barbara Zipser (ed), ’John the Physician’s Therapeutics. A Medical Handbook in Vernacular Greek’. The Classical Review [Online] 62:138-139. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0009840X11003246.
  • Baker, P. (2011). Review of ’Housesteads Roman Fort - The Grandest Station’. ’Excavation and Survey at Housesteads, 1954-95’, by Charles Daniels, John Gillam, James Crow and Others; and ’Finds from the Frontier. Material Culture in the 4th-5th Centuries’, by Rob Collins and Linday Allason-Jones. Medieval Archaeology [Online] 55:335-336. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174581711X13103897378726.
  • Baker, P. (2011). Review of Joshua Eyler, ’Disability in the Middle Ages: Reconsiderations and Reverberations’. Medieval Archaeology 55:423.
  • Baker, P. (2011). Review of Eva-Maria Lackner, ’Republikanische Fora’. Journal of Roman Studies [Online] 101:321-322. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0075435811000785.
  • Baker, P. (2009). Review of Leonhard Burckhardt, ’Militärgeschichte der Antike’. Bryn Mawr Classical Review:1-2.
  • Baker, P. (2007). Review of Helen King (ed), ’Health in Antiquity’. Journal of Hellenic Studies [Online] 127:197-198. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0075426900002123.
  • Baker, P. (2006). Review of Martha L. Rose, ’The Staff of Oedipus: Transforming Disability in Ancient Greece’. Medical History [Online] 1:120-121. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1369020/.
  • Baker, P. (2006). Review of B. Croxford (ed) et al, ’TRAC 2003: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Leicester 2003’. Britannia XXXVII:501-502.
  • Baker, P. (2004). Review of Medicina Antiqua: Medical History Web Page. Bryn Mawr Classical Review [Online]:1-2. Available at: http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2004/2004-09-05.html.
  • Baker, P. (2004). Review of T. Minamikawa (ed), ’Material Culture, Mentality and Historical Identity in the Ancient World: Understanding the Celts, Greeks, Romans and Modern Europeans. Proceedings of the First International Conference for the Study of European Identity from a Historical Perspective in September 2003’. Bryn Mawr Classical Review:1-2.
  • Baker, P. (2003). Review of Andrew Pearson, ’The Roman Shore Forts: Coastal Defences in Southern Britain’. Archaeologia Cantiana 123:413-415.
  • Baker, P. (2002). The Roman Medical Woman: Review of ’Medicine and the Making of Roman Women’. The Classical Review [Online] 52:127-127. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cr/52.1.127.


  • Hammett, A. (2017). The Use of Clay Balls In Ancient Egypt: A Ritual of Fertility, Rite of Passage and a Contractual Agreement?.
    The function of the clay balls of ancient Egypt has not been conclusively established, despite the fact that they are a versatile object found in homes, tombs and near temple complexes and are dated to a period which spans 3000 years. Previously scholarship has focused primarily on the clay balls which contain hair, but these only make up a small percentage of the total balls found. The majority of the clay balls currently have unknown contents and a few balls contain different materials such as linen, string, papyrus or reed. This thesis has determined that a typology of the artefacts was necessary due to patterns which emerged when looking at the characteristics of the balls, such as the contents and decoration.
    This research discusses theories posed by previous scholarship and determines whether these are plausible explanations to the function of the clay balls, as well as providing new theories. Firstly, it explores whether the artefacts may have served as part of an execration ritual, based on the existence of rituals depicted on monumental art. The 'striking of the ball' ritual involves the smashing of clay balls with a club or bat to destroy the eye of the evil entity Apophis, whereas in another ritual balls are thrown towards the cardinal points to protect the sun god from evil forces. There are also a number of spells which follow a similar theme which will be discussed.
    Secondly, the research has investigated the possibility that the clay balls served as a rite of passage, due to the inclusion of hair and the existence of a similar artefact in modern Egypt which is given in offering to thank for the life of a child. It has also explored the concept of balls within cosmic rites of passage, such as the birth and rebirth of the sun god in the form Khepri. Thirdly, the study will assess whether the proposal that the clay balls served as a contractual agreement with a priest based upon the inscription xtm, found on a number of balls. This chapter explores different forms of contract that may have existed in ancient Egypt, as well as comparing the clay balls to the bullae from Mesopotamia which have similar characteristics to the clay balls.
    This thesis has shown that the clay balls have been worth further study, contrary to Peet's statement that to research them futher was "foolish". Although they have a general multi-functional apotropaic and amuletic purpose, their specific function can be determined depending on type. This study has it has highlighted the importance of the clay balls and has provided a base for future studies, in addition it has contributed to the understanding of ancient Egyptian symbolism, religion, fertility, rites of passage, and our understanding of ancient Egyptian belief in cyclical time.
  • Barfoed, S. (2016). Cult in Context - The Ritual Significance of Miniature Pottery in Ancient Greek Sanctuaries from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period.
    Several previously overlooked questions related to ancient Greek dedicatory practices are investigated in this thesis. The main questions addressed are: how do the contexts of Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic votive miniature vessels inform us about the Greek cults in which they are used, and the transmission of such cults? What role did miniaturisation play in the sanctuaries and the rituals in ancient Greek society, and why miniaturisation? A number of supplementary questions accompany the main questions, for example, what did miniaturisation mean in the context of votive dedications in sanctuaries? This thesis aims to demonstrate that earlier explanations arguing that miniatures are simply and profoundly cheap substitutes for more expensive objects do not work well, since many of these small objects are carefully made and some are elaborately decorated, and would thus not have been cheaper, or less time consuming to produce compared to full sized objects.
    The chronological time frame of the thesis is limited to the Archaic to the Hellenistic period, and its core is three case studies with different themes and different geographical locations in focus (Kalydon, Olympia, Kombothekra, various sites in South Italy, and other sites for comparison). The thesis addresses also issues relating to, for instance, miniaturisation, imitation and models, the functionality, and non- functionality of small votive objects, agency, trade, and colonization.
    The study of ancient Greek dedicatory practices within the scholarship of Classical Studies tends to concentrate on votive statues, religious architecture, inscribed metal dedications, and stelai. Little attention has been paid to less extravagant dedications even though these groups of material have been found in abundant amounts in sanctuaries throughout Greece. Moreover, in those cases where this material has been published interpretation and thoroughly analyses are often lacking. As a result, this study makes important contributions to two large questions within Classical studies: how did the Greeks view their gods and how did the Greeks interact with the gods. Miniature pottery contributes to our understanding of ancient Greek ritual practice as well of specific rituals. The work presented in this thesis accentuates that miniature pottery’s material meaning and symbolic importance can no longer be dismissed.
  • NifosìA. (2016). Women’s Body, Society and Domestic Space in Graeco-Roman Egypt.
    The present doctoral thesis is a study on women in Graeco-Roman Egypt and, in particular, it is aimed at investigating the social and legal status of women through the lens of women's reproduction.


  • Baker, P. (2019). Objects. In: Totelin, L. ed. Culture History of Medicine in Antiquity. Bloomsbury.
  • Baker, P. (2017). Review of A Cabinet of Ancient Medical Curiosities: Strange Tales and Surprising Facts from the Healing Arts of Greece and Rome. Social History of Medicine [Online]:1-2. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hkx087.
Last updated