Portrait of Professor Jeremy Carrette

Professor Jeremy Carrette

Dean for Europe
Professor of Philosophy, Religion and Culture


Professor Jeremy Carrette examines interdisciplinary aspects of the study of philosophy, religion and culture. His current work builds on his previous studies of the philosophy of William James and seeks to assess James’s contribution to the philosophy of love, building on biographical and philosophical material from his notebooks and main works. This research was supported by a British Academy grant to work at the William James Archive, Houghton Library, Harvard University, in Spring 2016. 

Jeremy's other work is in the area of religion, globalisation and international institutions, with particular focus on the United Nations, which was developed from an AHRC/ESRC project with Professor Hugh Miall in the University of Kent's School of Politics and International Relations. He also works across aspects of psychoanalysis and the philosophy of religion.


Jeremy teaches on a range of subjects including William James and psychoanalysis, ethics and mind.



  • Carrette, J. (2013). Rupture and Transformation: Foucault’s Concept of Spirituality Reconsidered. Foucault and Religion [Online] 15:52. Available at: http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/foucault-studies/article/view/3990.
    Using Foucault’s conceptual frame from The Archaeology of Knowledge to read Foucault’s late deployment of “spirituality,” this article argues that Foucault’s enigmatic gesture in using this concept reveals a refusal of “rupture” from the Christian pre-modern discourse of “spirit.” Despite attempts to alter the “field of use,” Foucault’s genealogical commitment ensures a Christian continuity in modern discourses of transformation. In a detailed examination of the 1982 Collège de France lectures, the article returns Foucault’s use of “spirituality” to the Alexandrian joining of philosophy and theology and the specificity of Christian practice and belief.
  • Carrette, J. (2004). Cyborg Politics and Economic Realities: Reflections on Elaine Graham’s Representations of the Post/Human. Theology and Sexuality [Online] 10:45-55. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135583580401000204.
    This article seeks to examine the political and economic context of cyborg culture and technology in Elaine Graham's Representations of the Post/ Human. It begins by drawing out the relationship between Graham's study and Foucault's genealogical method and seeks to establish the 'silent machine' operating in Graham's analysis. By following three critical strands-know ledge as technology, economic determinism and imaginative agency and the economics of transcendence—the article highlights and extends a crit ique of capitalism and technology in the text. It argues that economics is now shaped by the machine and concludes by opening up a 'politics of refusal'. Graham's work is acknowledged for bringing to light uncomfor table questions surrounding the politics of the machine.
  • Carrette, J. (2004). Religion and Mestrovic’s Post-Emotional Society. Religion 34:271-289.
  • Carrette, J. (2003). Psychology, Spirituality and Capitalism: The Case of Abraham Maslow. International Journal of Critical Psychology:73-95.


  • Carrette, J. (2013). William James’s Hidden Religious Imagination: A Universe of Relations. [Online]. London: Routledge. Available at: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415828635/.
    This book offers a radical new reading of William James’s work on the idea of ‘religion.’ Moving beyond previous psychological and philosophical interpretations, it uncovers a dynamic, imaginative, and critical use of the category of religion. This work argues that we can only fully understand James’s work on religion by returning to the ground of his metaphysics of relations and by incorporating literary and historical themes.
  • Carrette, J. (2007). Religion and Critical Psychology: Religious Experience in the Knowledge Economy. London: Routledge.
    Jeremy Carrette argues that the psychology of religion is no longer sustainable without a social critique, and that as William James predicted, the project of the modernist psychology of religion has failed. Controversially, he champions greater social and philosophical analysis within the field to challenge the political naivety and disciplinary illusions of the traditional approaches to psychology of religion. Carrette discusses the relevance of the social and economic factors surrounding the debates of psychology and religion, through three critical examples: psychoanalysis; humanistic psychology; and, cognitive neuroscience. "A Critical Psychology of Religion" provides a new dimension to the debates surrounding religious experience. It will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of critical psychology, religious experience and the psychology of religion and extends an interdisciplinary challenge to the separation of psychology, sociology, politics, economics and religion.
  • Carrette, J. and King, R. (2005). Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. [Online]. Abingdon: Routledge. Available at: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415302098/.
    This jointly authored book critically examines the use of spirituality in a neo-liberal world. It argues that, after the privatization of religion during the Enlightenment, there has been a second privatization in the post-1980s global marketplace. This second privatization is related to commercial and corporate powers that have taken over the language of spirituality for the market. The book thus offers a new typology for the relationship between religion and capitalism and shows how ‘brand-culture’ has transformed the idea of the spiritual. It provides a new genealogy of spirituality, an exploration of western and eastern traditions and explores the use of spirituality in business. This book has received considerable international interest, went into digital printing within six months after the first print run, and has already been translated into Dutch and has other forthcoming translations. The originality of the book is in providing a critical interpretation of market and business based spirituality, not least in the ‘Body, Mind, Spirit’ publishing industry
  • Carrette, J. (2000). Foucault and Religion: Spiritual Corporality and Spiritual Spirituality. London: Routledge.

Book section

  • Carrette, J. (2017). Religion, the United Nations and Institutional Process. In: Carrette, J. R. and Miall, H. eds. Religion, NGOs and the United Nations: Visible and Invisible Actors in Power. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  • Carrette, J. (2017). Hindu and Buddhist NGOs and the United Nations. In: Carrette, J. R. and Miall, H. eds. Religion, NGOs and the United Nations: Visible and Invisible Actors in Power. Bloomsbury Academic. Available at: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/religion-ngos-and-the-united-nations-9781350020368/.
  • Carrette, J. (2015). A Perverse Kind of Pleasure: James, the Body, and Women’s Mystical Experience. In: Tarver, E. C. and Sullivan, S. eds. Feminist Interpretations of William James. Pennsylvania State University Press. Available at: http://www.psupress.org/books/titles/978-0-271-07090-2.html.
  • Carrette, J. (2014). Growing Up Zigzag: Reassessing the Transatlantic Legacy of William James. In: Halliwell, M. and Rasmussen, J. D. S. eds. William James and the Transatlantic Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 199-218. Available at: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/william-james-and-the-transatlantic-conversation-9780199687510?cc=gb&lang=en&#.
  • Carrette, J. and Trigeaud, S. (2013). The Religion-Secular in International Politics: The Case of ’Religious’ NGOs at the United Nations. In: Day, A., Cotter, C. R. and Vincett, G. eds. Social Identities Between the Sacred and the Secular. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
  • Carrette, J. (2013). Foucault, Religion and Pastoral Power. In: Falzon, C., O’Leary, T. and Sawicki, J. eds. A Companion to Foucault. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 368-383. Available at: http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/A_Companion_to_Foucault/9781444334067.
  • Carrette, J. (2013). The Paradox of Globalization: Quakers, Religious NGOs and the United Nations. In: Hefner, R., Hutchinson, J., Mels, S. and Timmerman, C. eds. Religions in Movement: The Local and the Global in Contemporary Faith Traditions. London: Routledge.
  • Carrette, J. (2007). Foucault, Monks and Masturbation. In: Baldwin, T., Fowler, J. and Weller, S. eds. The Flesh in the Text. Oxford: Peter Lang, pp. 193-204.
  • Carrette, J. (2007). William James and Emotion. In: Corrigan, J. ed. Oxford Handbook on Religion and Emotion. University of Oxford.
  • Carrette, J. (2005). Religion out of Mind: The Ideology of Cognitive science and Religion. In: Bulkeley, K. ed. Soul, Psyche, Brain: New Directions in the Study of Religion and Brain-Mind Science. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 242-261.
  • Carrette, J. (2005). Passionate Belief: William James, Emotion and Religious Experience. In: Carrette, J. R. ed. William James and the Varieties of Religious Experience: A Centenary Celebration. London: Routledge, pp. 79-93.
    This essay appears in the first collection of papers on Foucault and theology. The book was an attempt by Bernauer and Carrette to bring together a variety of engagements with Foucault’s thought since his death in 1984 in order to capture a watershed in the intellectual exchange. It has become a defining text in this genre. The article captures this new frontier of engagements by trying to explore the implications of Foucault’s genealogy of sexuality in terms of how his work inspired writings in gay and lesbian literature known as ‘queer theory’. The article explores the close relation between discourses of sexuality and theology and attempts to show how Foucault’s rejection of sexuality presents a challenge to monotheistic theology. The position is substantiated by excursions into Foucault’s model of the self and examinations of Buddhist traditions, which develop concepts of desire not sexuality. The article shows the importance of Foucault’s work for rethinking theology in terms of contemporary discussions of queer sexuality.
  • King, R. (2004). Asian Religions and Mysticism: The Legacy of William James in the Study of Religions. In: Carrette, J. R. ed. William James and the Varieties of Religious Experience. A Centenary Celebration. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 106-123.
  • Carrette, J. and Bernauer, J. (2004). Beyond Theology and Sexuality: Foucault, the Self and the Que(e)rying of Monotheistic Truth. In: Carrette, J. R. and Bernauer, J. W. eds. Michel Foucault and Theology: The Politics of Religious Experience. London: Ashgate, pp. 217-232.
    This article appears in the first collection of papers on Foucault and theology. The book was an attempt by Bernauer and Carrette to bring together a variety of engagements with Foucault’s thought since his death in 1984 in order to capture a watershed in the intellectual exchange. It has become a defining text in this genre. The article captures this new frontier of engagements by trying to explore the implications of Foucault’s genealogy of sexuality in terms of how his work inspired writings in gay and lesbian literature known as ‘queer theory’. The article explores the close relation between discourses of sexuality and theology and attempts to show how Foucault’s rejection of sexuality presents a challenge to monotheistic theology. The position is substantiated by excursions into Foucault’s model of the self and examinations of Buddhist traditions, which develop concepts of desire not sexuality. The article shows the importance of Foucault’s work for rethinking theology in terms of contemporary discussions of queer sexuality.
  • Carrette, J. (2004). Introduction to Erich Fromm’s ’The Dogma of Christ’ and other Essays on Religion, Psychology and Society (Routledge Classic edition 2004). In: The Dogma of Christ and Other Essays on Religion, Pscyhology and Society by Erich Fromm. London: Routledge.
  • Carrette, J. (2002). The Return to James: Psychology, Religion and the Amnesia of Neuroscience. In: Carrette, J. R. and Taylor, E. eds. The Varieties of Religious Experience (Centenary Edition) by William James. New York: Random House USA Inc.
  • Carrette, J. (2000). Post-Structuralism and the Psychology of Religion: The Challenge of Critical Psychology. In: Jonte-Pace, D. and Parsons, W. eds. Religion and Psychology: Mapping the Terrain. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 110-126.

Edited book

  • Carrette, J. and Miall, H. (2017). Religion, NGOs and the United Nations: Visible and Invisible Actors in Power. [Online]. Carrette, J. R. and Miall, H. eds. Bloomsbury Academic. Available at: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/religion-ngos-and-the-united-nations-9781350020368/.
    How do religious groups, operating as NGOs, engage in the most important global institution for world peace? What processes do they adopt? Is there a “spiritual” UN today? This book is the first interdisciplinary study to present extensive fieldwork results from an examination of the activity of religious groups at the United Nations in New York and Geneva. Based on a three and half-year study of activities in the United Nations system, it seeks to show how “religion” operates in both visible and invisible ways.
  • Carrette, J.R. ed. (2005). William James and the Varieties of Religious Experience: A Centenary Celebration. London: Routledge.
    William James's The Varieties of Religious Experience was an intellectual landmark, paving the way for current study of psychology, philosophy and religious studies. In this new companion to the Varieties, key international experts provide contemporary responses to James's book, exploring its seminal historical importance and its modern significance. Locating the Varieties within the context of James's other works and exploring James's views on psychology, mysticism, religious experience, emotion and truth, the sixteen articles offer new analyses of the Varieties from the perspectives of postcolonial theory, history, social theory and philosophy. As the only critical work dedicated to the cross-disciplinary influence of The Varieties of Religious Experience, this book testifies to William James's genius and ongoing legacy. Inlcuding essays by Jeremy Carrette, Eugene Taylor, Sonu Shamdasani, David Wulff, Jacob A. Belzen, Grace M. Jantzen, Richard King, Robert Segal, G. William Barnard, Ruth Anna Putnam, Richard Gale, Hilary Putnam, and Graham Bird.
  • Bernauer, J.W. and Carrette, J.R. eds. (2004). Michel Foucault and Theology: The Politics of Religious Experience. London: Ashgate Publishing Group.
    Whilst Foucault's work has become a major strand of postmodern theology, the wider relevance of his work for theology still remains largely unexamined. Foucault both engages the Christian tradition and critically challenges its disciplinary regime. This text brings together a selection of essays by leading Foucault scholars on a variety of themes within the history, thought and practice of theology. Revealing the diverse ways that the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984) has been employed to rethink theology in terms of power, discourse, sexuality and the politics of knowledge, the authors examine power and sexuality in the church in late antiquity, (Castelli, Clark, Schuld), raise questions about the relationship between theology and politics (Bernauer, Leezenberg, Caputo), consider new challenges to the nature of theological knowledge in terms of Foucault's critical project (Flynn, Cutrofello, Beadoin, Pinto) and rethink theology in terms of Foucault's work on the history of sexuality (Carrette, Jordan, Mahon). This book demonstrates, for the first time, the influence and growing importance of Foucault's work for contemporary theology.
  • James, W. (2002). The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature (Centenary Edition). Carrette, J. R. and Taylor, E. eds. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    In this classic work William James explores the psychology of religion, applying scientific method to a field that had previously been treated as theoretical, abstract philosophy. This 2002 centenary edition celebrates the 100th anniversary of this landmark text. It includes new introductions by Jeremy Carrette and Eugene Taylor, as well as a fully revised index. James believed that individual religious experiences, rather than the precepts of organized religions, were the backbone of the world's religious life. His discussions of conversion, repentance, mysticism and saintliness and personal religious observations and experiences all support his thesis. James' pluralistic view of religion led to his remarkable tolerance for extreme forms of religious behaviour, a willingness to take risks in formulating his own theories, and a welcome lack of pretentiousness in his observations on how an individual stands in relation to the divine.


  • Berger, J. (2018). Divine Polity: The Baha’i International Community and the United Nations.
    This thesis argues that in order to understand more fully the engagement of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with the United Nations-specifically NGOs that express a religious or faith-based commitment-we must consider both their actions and the rationale behind them, the what as well as the why. To study the underlying rationale, the thesis introduces the concept of the organizational substrate, which offers a new analytical tool to draw out this undertheorized dimension of religious NGOs (Chapter 2). The substrate complements the analytical tools currently deployed by social scientists and goes beyond descriptions of organizational behavior to examine the internal rationale underpinning the behavior. The internal rationale is explored through a focused analysis of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office (BIC). This organization is selected because of its reputation as a valued and effective contributor in UN fora; its seventy-year history of engagement (1945-2015); and its scriptural engagement with questions of politics and world order. The thesis also contributes to the nascent scholarship about UN-accredited religious NGOs outside of the Christian tradition. Having identified the constitutive elements of the BIC's organizational substrate, using a hermeneutic and historical approach, the thesis develops a distinct periodization of the BIC's engagement from 1945-2015. The periodization provides a historical framework (though not a historical analysis) for examining the manner in which the substrate shapes action across different historical circumstances. Each of the four historical periods offers evidence of the salience of the organizational substrate for understanding the operation of the NGO. The first period, 1945-1970 (Chapter 3) enables us to see the manner in which the substrate frames the BIC's rationale for engagement with the UN and its understanding of the UN in the context of the broader processes of civilizational, social and political evolution. In the second period, 1970-1986 (Chapter 4), the thesis demonstrates the pivotal role of Bahá'í authoritative structures in articulating, elucidating, and socializing the substrate of the organization. Between 1986 and 2008 (Chapter 5), the substrate-based analysis reveals a distinct epistemology and methodology-associated with the conception and pursuit of peace. During the final period, 2008-2015 (Chapter 6), the substrate undergirds the shift to an explicitly discursive, organic approach to engagement in UN processes, and a reconceptualization of the terms of engagement with the UN. This thesis goes beyond social scientific approaches to the study of religious actors at the UN, to demonstrate that knowledge and action require understanding of the distinct rationality of each NGO. It is by identifying and observing the operation of the organizational substrate that this pivotal and foundational element of NGO engagement at the UN comes to light.
  • Moseley, A. (2015). A Theology of Interconnectivity: Buber, Dialogue and Cyberspace.
    Relationships are a fundamental part of being human; they enable communication, a shared sense of belonging, and a means of building identity and social capital. However, the hallmarks of late modernity can be encapsulated by the themes of detraditionalisation, individualisation and globalisation, which have essentially challenged the mode and means of engaging in relationships. This thesis uses the theology of Martin Buber to demonstrate how his dialogical claims about relationships, namely the “I-It” and “I-Thou” model, can provide a new ethical dimension to communication in the technological era. This thesis argues that through co-creation in cyberspace there is a realisation of the need for a new theological understanding of interconnection. Theology can utilise the platform of technology to facilitate a re-connection in all spheres of relationality and, ultimately, to the Divine.
    This thesis will first outline the predicament for theology in late modernity. It will discuss how detraditionalisation has led to an emphasis on individual spirituality, as opposed to collective doctrinal beliefs. The global nature of cyberspace has facilitated the means to experiment with these alternative forms of spirituality, which has allowed theology to be commodified and has introduced a challenge to the dimension of relationships. Cyberspace presents a paradox for relationship: the medium transforms modes of relating because the self is re-configured through its contact with technology. This facilitates communication as the individual merges with the machine, resulting in models such as the cyborg. However, this can also be seen to erode the essence of humanity, as humans find themselves on the fringes of relationships. Their hybrid status means that they are no longer fully human or fully machine but become dominated by the latter. They exist on the boundary of both domains and cannot cultivate genuine relationships of the “Thou” variety. This leads to alienation from surroundings, community and the Divine.
    Second, the thesis will discuss how Buber’s theology can be used to re-position relationships by providing a means to reflect on different aspects of dialogue and communication. By applying Buber’s dialectic to cyberspace it will be demonstrated how interconnectivity causes individuals to re-think the notion of self-in-relation. The three spheres of relationship which Buber identified: “man with nature, man with man, man with forms of the spirit” will be re-contextualised in cyberspace to show how the medium manifests both aspects of the dialectic but allows for a greater awareness of interconnection. Buber’s insistence on the centrality of creative dialogue provides a solution to overcome this dilemma by bringing awareness of the interconnectivity of the self to all aspects of creation. It is through informed use of the medium of cyberspace that humans can re-envisage relationships characterised by a more genuine ethical dimension. These “Thou” moments begin the process of redemption; each one is part of the relationship with the “eternal Thou” and has the potential to draw the Divine down into the encounter, to re-connect with creation. This thesis is arguing for a new theology of interconnectivity that is able to redeem the potentiality of cyberspace as a medium for genuine “Thou” relationality.
  • Christof, C. (2015). “Heart of the Flame" Rethinking Religion and the Theatre Work of Jerzy Grotowski. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Rethinking-Religion-Grotowski-Catharine-Christof/dp/1138292265/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1496307202&sr=1-1-fkmr0&keywords=Re-Thinking+Religion+in+the+Theatre+of+Grotowski.
    This thesis opens a new interdisciplinary frontier between religion and theatre studies to illuminate what has been seen as the religious or spiritual nature of Jerzy Grotowski’s theatrical work. The thesis corrects the lacunae in both theatre studies and New Age studies by examining the interaction between the two in Grotowski’s work. It argues that through an embodied, materialist approach to religion, developed in the work of Foucault and Vasquez, and a critical reading of the concepts of the New Age, a new understanding of Grotowski and religion can be developed. The central thesis argument is that by following discussions of the embodied and materialist understanding of religion and the New Age it is possible to show how Grotowski’s work articulated spiritual experience within the body; achieving a removal of spirituality from ecclesial authorities and relocating spiritual experience within the body of the performer. The thesis maps the specific dynamics of the relation between the body and the spiritual in ways which previous research on Grotowski has failed to do. It also shows how Grotowski became, in part, a spiritual teacher through his directing work, and contributed to an embodied spirituality of the New Age.
    The thesis begins with a brief historical mapping of religion and the theatre, not least to contextualize the interdisciplinary discrepancy in studies of Grotowski. It then unfolds a two-pronged analysis of Grotowski’s theatre work from the perspective of studies of religion, embodiment and the New Age. In Part One, I apply the critical thinking of French poststructuralism, linked in particular to the work of Michel Foucault, to Grotowski’s work. This shows how body and spirit are united in Grotowski’s thinking, and facilitates a new opening to the embodied spirituality of the New Age. Part Two then seeks to achieve a repositioning of theatre studies in a new dialogue with religious studies by looking at the later phases of Grotowski’s work through the lens of the New Age movement; detailing specific dynamics of the New Age that are at present not coherently appreciated in Grotowski’s theatre work. This section begins by critically assessing the concept of New Age and maps the active interface between the final four phases of Grotowski’s theatre work and the New Age through four frames: initially through the work of religious studies historian Steven Sutcliffe; then through the combined work of religious studies sociologists Paul Heelas and Linda Woodhead; through the work of religious studies esotericist Wouter Hanegraaff; and finally through a lens that explores the embodied spiritual work of G.I. Gurdjieff and the numerous similarities between his work and Grotowski’s. The thesis establishes six key facets of the New Age as they have appeared in Grotowski’s work: a primacy of focus on the self, interests in yoga, ritual, shamanism, channeling and the presence of the ancestors. Such a correlation between the New Age and Grotowski occurs because of the redefinitions of the body and spirit, and the importance of the body as it has been renegotiated in religious scholarship on poststructuralism and the body; through a renegotiation that occurs through the New Age movement; and through the work of religious studies sociologist Manuel Vasquez’s reconstruction of a holistic form of embodied materiality in religion. This inclusion of the body in the context of spiritual experience provides the location through which Grotowski’s theatre work can be framed as spiritual.
    This thesis provides a new perspective on Grotowski’s work for theatre scholarship, exploring one of its heroes in the light of religious movements of the late twentieth century, and corrects a key lacuna within the field of modern scholarship on religious studies. Grotowski and his work have never been effectively recognized as playing a major part within the New Age movement or new explorations of spirituality. This omission is evident both in terms of the effect that the burgeoning New Age movement has had on his work, as well as in the legacy his work has left on the New Age itself. This study provides a fresh perspective for modern religious studies scholars, identifying a new forum within which to explore the effect of the New Age movement, as well as by expanding the remit of its pioneering New Age leaders. The thesis overall demonstrates how thinking about Grotowski’s work and legacy can be enriched through a new dialogue between religion and theatre studies, and how the centrality of the body becomes the key for understanding this relationship.


  • Bunzl, J. (2019). The Religious Naturalism of William James: A New Interpretation Through the Lens of Liberal Naturalism.
    This thesis argues that recent developments in philosophical naturalism mandate a new naturalistic reading of James. To that end, it presents the first comprehensive reading of James through the lens of liberal rather than scientific naturalism. Chapter 1 offers an extensive survey of the varieties of philosophical naturalism that provides the conceptual tools required for the rest the thesis, and allows us to provisionally locate James within the field. Crucially, it establishes the coherence and validity of a radical form of liberal naturalism that rejects 'the causal closure of the physical', and endorses doctrines of strong emergentism and macro-causation. The thesis will argue that it was to this form of naturalism that James was ultimately committed.

    Chapter 2 provides a detailed chronological treatment of James's key published works, seeking to understand the development of certain core naturalistic themes over the course of his career. It unearths a nascent doctrine of emergentism in The Principles, a critique of scientificism in The Will to Believe, a psycho-biological account of religious experience in The Varieties, a doctrine of panpsychist identism in Essays in Radical Empiricism, an evolutionary theory of cognition in Pragmatism, and a doctrine of finite theism in A Pluralistic Universe. The underlying aim of chapter 2 is to demonstrate the superficiality of James's endorsement of piecemeal supernaturalism in The Varieties. It shows that he had originally planned to defend a doctrine of 'theistic naturalism' in his second course of Gifford Lectures, and that he only defined himself as a supernaturalist in contradistinction to a particularly austere doctrine of 'mechanical naturalism' that endorses 'the causal closure of the physical'. James, whilst he rejected 'the causal closure of the physical', continued to endorse 'the causal closure of nature'. Through the schema developed in chapter 1, the thesis demonstrates how James can be classified as a radical religious naturalist.

    Finally, in chapter 3, the thesis enters a more consciously constructive phase. Building on James's suggestion that his philosophy was "too much like an arch built only on one side", it embarks upon a detailed reconstruction of 'the arch of James's naturalism'. It argues that reconstructed versions of James's doctrines of panpsychism and emergentism, in addition to being coherent and fertile in their own right, serve as the basis for a restoration of his theistic naturalism; the missing keystone of his mature philosophy.
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