School of Economics


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Dr Alex Klein

Senior Lecturer in Economics

School of Economics, Keynes College, D1.12



Alex Klein received his PhD from CERGE-EI Prague in 2006. He was a post-doctoral research fellow at Jagiellonian University, Krakow in 2006-2007 and the University of Warwick in 2008-2010. He joined the University of Kent in 2011, and is the Deputy Director of the Macroeconomics, Growth and History Centre (MaGHiC).

Alex is the Director of Graduate Studies (PhD Programmes) and a member of the School's Strategic Management Team.

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Alex's publications can also be found on ResearchGate.

Also view these in the Kent Academic Repository

Amirapu, A. et al. (2018). Geographic Concentration in Indian Manufacturing and Service Industries: Evidence from 1998 – 2013. Asian Economic Policy Review [Online]. Available at:
Broadberry, S. et al. (2018). Clark's Malthus delusion: response to 'Farming in England 1200-1800'. The Economic History Review [Online] 71:639-664. Available at:
Klein, A. and Crafts, N. (2018). Agglomeration Externalities and Productivity Growth: U.S. Cities, 1880-1930. The Economic History Review [Online]. Available at:
Klein, A. and Vonyo, T. (2018). Why did socialist economies fail? The role of factor inputs reconsidered. The Economic History Review [Online]. Available at:
Malisauskaite, G. and Klein, A. (2018). Drinking under Communism: Why do Alcohol Consumption Habits in Eastern Europe Differ from the West in the Long-Run? Journal of Comparative Economics [Online] 46:821-837. Available at:
Broadberry, S. et al. (2017). Clark's Malthus delusion: response to 'Farming in England 1200-1800'. The Economic History Review [Online]. Available at:
Klein, A. and Ogilvie, S. (2015). Occupational structure in the Czech lands under the second serfdom. Economic History Review [Online]. Available at:
Crafts, N. and Klein, A. (2015). Geography and Intra-National Home Bias: U.S. Domestic Trade in 1949 and 2007. Journal of Economic Geography [Online] 15:477-497. Available at: doi:10.1093/jeg/lbu008.
Klein, A. (2013). New State-Level Estimates of Personal Income in the United States, 1880–1910. Research in Economic History [Online] 29:191-255. Available at:
Broadberry, S. and Klein, A. (2012). Aggregate and Per Capita GDP in Europe, 1870-2000: Continental, Regional and National Data with Changing Boundaries. Scandinavian Economic history Review [Online] 60:79-107. Available at:
Klein, A. and Crafts, N. (2012). Making Sense of the Manufacturing Belt: Determinants of US Industrial Location, 1880-1920. Journal of Economic Geography [Online] 12:775-807. Available at:
Klein, A. (2011). Did Children's Education Matter? Family Migration as a Mechanism of Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Nineteenth Century Bohemia. Economic History Review [Online] 64:730-764. Available at:
Broadberry, S. and Klein, A. (2011). When and Why Did Eastern European Economies Begin to Fail? Lessons from a Czechoslovak/UK Productivity Comparison, 1921–1991. Explorations in Economic History [Online] 48:37-52. Available at:
Broadberry, S. et al. (2015). The British Economic Growth, 1270-1870. [Online]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Available at:
Book section
Klein, A. (2019). Regional Inequality in the United States: Long-Term Patterns, 1880-2010. in: The Economic Development of Europe's Regions. A Quantitative History since 1900. Routledge. Available at:
Klein, A. (2014). The Institutions of the "Second Serfdom" and Economic Efficiency: Review of the Existing Evidence for Bohemia. in: Cavaciocchi, S. ed. Slavery and Serfdom in the European Economy from the 11th to the 18th Centuries. XLV settimana di studi della Fondazione istituto internazionale di storia economica F. Datini. Firenze University Press.
Broadberry, S., Federico, G. and Klein, A. (2010). Sectoral Developments, 1870-1914. in: Broadberry, S. and O'Rourke, K. eds. The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe Volume 2: 1870-2000. Cambridge University Press.
Klein, A. and Ogilvie, S. (2017). Was Domar Right? Serfdom and Factor Endowments in Bohemia. University of Kent. Available at:
Otsu, K. and Klein, A. (2013). Efficiency, Distortions and Factor Utilization during the Interwar Period. University of Kent School of Economics Discussion Papers. Available at:
Klein, A. and Leunig, T. (2013). Gibrat's Law and the British Industrial Revolution. Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science.
Klein, A. and Ogilvie, S. (2013). Occupational Structure in the Czech Lands under the Second Serfdom. Centre for Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy, University of Warwick.
Broadberry, S. et al. (2012). British Economic Growth, 1270-1870: an output-based approach. School of Economics, University of Kent.
Klein, A. and van Lottum, J. (2019). The Determinants of International Migration in Early Modern Europe: Evidence from the Maritime Sector, c. 1700–1800. Social Science History [Online]. Available at:
Showing 23 of 24 total publications in KAR. [See all in KAR]



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Research interests

  • economic history
  • economic geography
  • agglomeration economics
  • long-run economic growth
  • historical national accounts

Working papers

  • Agglomeration Economies and Productivity Growth: US Cities 1880-1930 (with Nick Crafts).
  • The Rise and Fall of the US Manufacturing Belt: US Economic Geography 1880-2007 (with Nick Crafts).
  • Coagglomeration Patterns of the U.S. Manufacturing 1880-2007 (with Nick Crafts).             
  • Employment Protection and the Location of US Industries 1880-1940 (with Chris Meissner)
  • Labor Productivity and Density: Agglomeration Economies in US Manufacturing Industries 1850-1880 (with Rowena Gray)  
  • Was Domar Rights? The Second Serfdom and Land-Labor Ratio in Eighteenth Century Bohemia (with Sheilagh Ogilvie).
  • Why did Socialism Fail? Revised Growth Accounts for Central Europe, 1950-1989 (with Tamás Vonyó).
  • School, Apprenticeship, or Work? Children and the Family Economy in Nineteenth-Century Bohemia.
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Consultation hours

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PhD supervision

Current students

Past students

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Administrative roles

  • Director of Graduate Studies (PhD Programmes)
  • Member of the School's Strategic Management Team


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School of Economics, Keynes College, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NP

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Last Updated: 29/11/2018