Students preparing for their graduation ceremony at Canterbury Cathedral

Law and Economics - BA (Hons)

UCAS code ML11

2018

Law and Economics offers you the opportunity to study two areas of great significance in contemporary society in a three-year programme which combines the foundations of law alongside compulsory and optional modules in economics (taught by our highly ranked and regarded School of Economics).

2018

Overview

As a student on this programme, you develop an understanding of the law, taught from a critical perspective which allows you to engage in informed debate about legal issues, and an understanding of economic principles relevant both to global developments and everyday life.

Kent Law School is recognised as one of the leading law schools in the UK. It has an international reputation both for its world-leading research and for the high quality, innovative, critical and socio-legal education that it provides.

Please be aware that the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board are conducting independent reviews of the legal training and education required to qualify as a solicitor or barrister in England and Wales. These reviews cover the ‘Academic Stage’ of training and may impact upon the role of the law degree as part of the training process. Please see the website of each regulator for more information (the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board).

Independent rankings

Law at Kent was ranked 14th in The Times Good University Guide 2017 and 15th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. In the National Student Survey 2017, over 93% of final-year Law students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course. Law at Kent was ranked 15th for overall satisfaction.

Law at Kent was ranked in the top 100 in the QS World University Rankings 2017.

Economics at Kent was ranked 16th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. In the National Student Survey 2017, over 88% of final-year Economics students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.

Teaching Excellence Framework

Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.

Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.

TEF Gold logo

Course structure

The course structure below gives a flavour of the modules that will be available to you and provides details of the content of this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. Please note that the first year modules listed for this degree are compulsory.

Please note that students who wish to take a Qualifying Law Degree must undertake an additional 30 credits of study in law. Please contact us for further information.

Stage 1

Modules may include Credits

The main aim of this module is to provide you with a basic understanding of statistics suitable for the Stages 2 and 3 degree programmes in Economics, although it is also suitable for students taking other Social Science degrees. This module is a prerequisite for Stages 2 and 3 Economics modules and is a core input to the second year quantitative modules, EC580 and EC581. So as well as learning basic statistics, the module provides you with the opportunity to apply statistical concepts to economic and business data using calculators and computer software. Work with Excel is an independent study element of the module, and using calculators to undertake basic descriptive statistics is an important focus of the practical problem solving.

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15

The module will introduce students to critical legal techniques grounded in critical legal and social theory, feminist and queer theory, postcolonial theory and law and the humanities. Throughout the course, concepts are introduced through socio-legal and critical investigation of selected case studies - such as new pieces of legislation, emerging political campaigns and prominent litigation - ensuring that the course maintains a focus on ‘law in action’. Particular attention will be paid to developments in foreign jurisdictions and in the international arena. Accordingly, case studies will alter from year to year, and draw heavily on research projects on-going in the Law School. The course has a heavy focus on primary legal materials and core critical texts, but will also draw on film, museum artefacts, art and literature as appropriate.

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This module introduces the law of obligations, which comprises the private law of duties and rights to which individuals and organisations are subject. Traditionally, it includes the law of contract and tort (but not property). As well as introducing some of the content (which is covered more extensively in LW650 and LW651), a key focus is on the institution of the common law through which most of the law of obligations has emerged. This aspect is especially explored through the case classes, which run alongside the lectures and seminars.

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15

‘Property’ is something we tend to presume we know about, and rarely examine as an idea or practice closely. Most often we use it to connote an object or ‘thing’, and presume that it has something to do with ‘ownership’ of that object. It is so simple to say ‘my property’ or ‘this is mine’. This module begins to unpack and examine the ideas and practices of property more closely: How are property claims constructed? What do we mean by ‘ownership’? What happens when a number of competing ‘ownership claims’ in one object exist? When preparing for the module it will be useful to think about (and collect material on) current debates over contested ownership (or use) of property and resources: art collections or cultural artefacts, land or natural resources dispossessed, land squatted, etc. And why, in our jurisdiction in particular, has such a strong link been made between being a ‘property owner’ (in this context a ‘home-owner’) and a ‘good citizen’.

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Part A: English Legal System

This module provides an overview of the English Legal System, including the following indicative topics:

1) An introduction to Parliament and the legislative process

2) The court structure and the doctrine of precedent

3) An introduction to case law, including how to identify and the importance of ratio decidendi and obiter dicta

Part B: Introduction to Legal Skills

The module also gives students an introduction to the basic legal skills that they will develop further in their other modules throughout the degree. The focus here is on specific exercises to support exploration and use of the library resources that are available, both in paper copy and electronically through the legal databases, and on understanding practices of legal citation.

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4

Economics is about how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they and others have made. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints. Studying economics entails both gaining an understanding of the economies in which we all live, and developing skills to think logically about economic situations. The emphasis in this module is on how economics can help us to understand the society we live in.

The module aims to provide a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study you may undertake in economics. It is designed to teach you how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows you how be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.

The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. Throughout the module and in the seminars in particular, we demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.

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This Stage 1 module is designed for students who have an A -Level in mathematics, AS mathematics or equivalent qualification. A first-year mathematics module (either Mode A or B) is a compulsory part of all economics degree programmes and these modules take place in the Autumn term with a statistics module following on in the Spring term. If you are unsure whether your mathematical background is equivalent to an A level pass, please consult the module convenors.

The aim of the module is to provide you with a good understanding of the mathematics necessary for your Stages 1, 2 and 3 Economics modules.The teaching of each topic starts from first principles, but the speed of the module assumes that you have studied mathematics before (but not economics). By the end of the module, you will have covered the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and be able to use many mathematical techniques commonly used to analyse economic problems. In the long term, the analytical and quantitative skills you acquire from this module are relevant to many different occupations.

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15

The main aim of this module is to provide you with a basic understanding of mathematics suitable for the Stages 2 and 3 degree programmes in Economics, Business, and Accounting. The mathematics material is developed in a clear, contextual framework, and is linked to a Stage 1 module in Economics. You develop your understanding with suitable problem sets combining mathematical concepts and economic methods.

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Stage 2

Modules may include Credits

This module will offer a one-week overview of Contract law doctrine by reviewing the essentials of contract law gained by students in Introduction to Obligations and provide an overview of the lectures to follow.

Thereafter, students will spend the majority of the time on contract doctrine and problem-solving in contract law, comprised of doctrinal topics not covered in LW315 Introduction to Obligations e.g. breach of contract and remedies, contractual terms, misrepresentation, termination and frustration of contracts and policing bargaining behaviour.

The remainder of the module will focus on contract theory (e.g. freedom of contract, relational contract theory, contract and the vulnerable, contract and consumption). This section of the module will overlay the doctrine covered in the previous section with a basic theoretical framework, and ground students' understanding of critical essay writing in contract law. It will also build on discussion of the purposes of contract law in Introduction to Obligations.

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15

The bulk of this module will concentrate on the Tort of Negligence in contrast to students' knowledge of the law of trespass to the person (gained in Introduction to Obligations). Students will focus on the conceptual structure of the tort of negligence, its rise and dominance over other torts, its role in accident compensation, the funding of accident compensation and the role of insurance, and the system’s contribution to an alleged "compensation culture". This is primarily doctrinal but informed by various theoretical perspectives examining differing notions of justice.

A smaller part of this module will contrast the predominantly case-based Tort of Negligence with various statutory torts. Students will also consider the Land Torts, drawing further attention to the diverse range of harms protected by tort law and to the diverse conceptual structures of different torts.

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15

TERM 1

• Constitutionalism: history, theories, principles and contemporary significance

• Models of Government at national, local and supra-national levels

TERM 2

• Human Rights – history and contemporary significance and deployment

• The scope of governmental authority and its limits

• Judicial review and other forms of citizen redress

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30

This is the core microeconomics module taken by all students following Economics degrees. It builds on the material covered in the Stage 1 Economics modules. The titles of many of the topics covered will be familiar, but the topics are dealt with in greater depth and with more theoretical rigour than in first year.

Microeconomics is concerned with the behaviour of individual economic agents such as consumers, firms and governments. As such, it provides the foundations for understanding all types of economics, including macroeconomics. An understanding of microeconomics ranges from essential to helpful for all other Economics modules you take.

The module is carefully designed to tell you what topics will be covered in lectures, give (alternative and/or complementary) readings, and provide a set of different types of questions and problems for seminars to test and extend your understanding of the material as well as to improve your key skills such as communication, problem solving, team work, and learning how to study efficiently.

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30

Macroeconomics today is a different subject than it was just a few decades ago. Old controversies have been resolved and new ones have arisen. This module builds on the first year teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.

Autumn Term begins by looking at the basic methodology of macroeconomic models. We then examine, in greater detail than at Stage 1, how the macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. This involves studying the markets on which these theories are based. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply. In the autumn term we use the IS-LM model, with which you should be familiar from Stage 1, to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. We also examine the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. We then study microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. We then use these and the ideas developed in the autumn term to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. We finally study the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises with special focus on the 2008/09 global financial crisis.

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Stage 3

Modules may include Credits

The module builds on the understanding of constitutional government developed in Public Law 1 to examine the changing nature of the state in new modes of governance and governmentality. The focus is on the shift away from the vertical character of the relationship between state and citizen to a more diffuse mode of governing populations through expertise, techniques of management, and biopolitics.

In recent times there has been a shift away from states governing through legislation as a mode of command and control. Legislation is increasingly understood as enabling administration and governance rather than as the definitive word on a social or political problem. In some respects, this is a continuation of legislation as a mode of authorising the exercise of public power. However, the nature of power deployed and regulated through legislation has changed. Government through officials or agents directly responsible to Ministers or Parliament is increasingly replaced by quasi-government authorities (QUANGOS) whose strength is technical expertise. While the administrative state as it has evolved in the last century views this shift as a new strength in public administration, the key weakness is that accountability in the exercise of public power is lacking. What are the implications of these transformations for public law? How has public law facilitated these developments? What are the socio-legal and critical legal responses to these developments? These are the central concerns of this module. It thus offers a specialised and complementary extension of themes and issues introduced to students in Public Law 1 in Stage 1 of the LLB degree.

The administrative authorities that have emerged in the era of the ‘new administrative law’ – post 1970s - lack the formality of liberal constitutional protections. Consider the relative informality in the administration of ASBOS. Moreover, the traditional public/private divide has broken down - e.g. the privatisation of prisons, private corporations providing public services such as nursing homes or transport. The absence of social consensus, or unitary sovereign power has meant that the governance of gambling, security, the environment, gender and sexuality, science and technology, are not phenomena that can be dealt with through traditional liberal concepts or constitutional mechanisms. This module will examine how public law has been the site of social, political, and legal contestations regarding these issues.

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15

This 15 credit undergraduate law module is designed to introduce law students to foundational legal principles of the European Union (EU). It will place particular emphasis on studying the role and impact of the judicial institution of the EU, namely the Court of Justice of the EU, in interpreting the scope and effects of Union law.

This module builds on the knowledge that students acquire in Public Law 1 where they are provided with a basic introduction to the history of the EU, the main institutions of the EU and key constitutional issues arising from the supremacy of EU law. It will focus predominantly on certain aspects of EU law not addressed in Public 1, including the free movement rules underpinning the single market.

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15

This module, normally taken in Stage 2, introduces the student to the main principles and doctrines of equity and trusts. It is designed to challenge the somewhat dull image of this area of law and to encourage a critical and imaginative understanding of the subject. The law of equity and trusts is contextualized within a historical, social and jurisprudential inquiry thereby providing a much wider range of possible interpretations of its development and application. What then becomes central to the module’s approach is the complex interrelation of law with ethical, political, economic and jurisprudential considerations, and that between legal outcomes, pragmatic concerns and policy objectives.

Drawing upon the student’s experience of the study of law, in particular that gained from Foundations of Property Law and Property Law, this module examines the trust both as a private legal institution (the trust in family and commercial settings) and a public one (the charitable trust), placing special emphasis on the management of the trust and the powers, duties and obligations of the trustee. Yet in departing from conventional approaches this module does not study equity merely in regards to its role as the original creator of the trust. Equity is instead acknowledged to be what it really is - a vital and fruitful component of the English legal system; a distinct form of legal interpretation possessing its own principles and method of legal reasoning, and comprising an original and continuing source of legal development in the sphere of remedies.

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15

The focus of the module is private property in English land: title by registration; squatting; owner-occupation; leases; covenants and land development. It builds on the Foundations of Property module to develop an in-depth understanding of English land law, its conception of property and its politics and effects. And it gives experience in how to advise clients on land law problems – and on how to avoid problems for clients.

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15

While the curriculum for LW508 Criminal Law Level I and LW601 Advanced Criminal Law Level H is by and large the same in that the same topics are considered, students following the course at level H will consider each discrete topic to a much greater depth making use of, and improving, skills developed in earlier years of their degree programme.

The module is structured to provide students with the opportunity to explore the major issues in criminal law through class presentation, through consideration of essay style topics and to engage in critical analysis of topics by considering criminal law problem questions. Students will be expected to discuss particular issues of criminal law and their implications for a wider social context. At the commencement of the module students are provided with a Seminar Workbook which outlines the weekly seminar topic and task.

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30

Average income in the richest country in the world is more than 100 times greater than average income in the poorest country. The existence of such stark differences in living standards is one of the most striking features of the world we live in.

How did this come to be?

What are the proximate and fundamental causes of such differences?

What, if anything, can be done about it?

These are some of the most important questions for human society, and they form the basis for the field of Development Economics. More specifically, Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that tries to understand the unique problems of poor countries in order to answer the questions posed above. This course will serve as an introduction to this fascinating and challenging subject. In the course we will use economic analysis to better understand the structure of poor economies and the difficulties faced by individuals and policy makers within them. The course will primarily focus on studying problems at a more aggregate level, so it integrates particularly well with EC 570 (Microeconomics of Development – taught in the Spring term), which focuses on understanding the behaviour of individual agents in developing countries. The course assumes that students possess a strong background in basic macroeconomic and microeconomic theory as well as basic calculus and statistics.

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15

This dissertation is a 30-credit module based on self-directed study, which allows you to develop a complete piece of work within the general field of economics, from the initial idea through to a final written report. It is unique amongst the modules you are taking towards your degree in Economics, both in the ways that you learn and in the ways that you are assessed. Your learning will be largely independent, but is supported by structured supervision from your dissertations supervisor and weekly computing sessions to help in accessing, coding analysing and interpreting your data.

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30

This is a 15-credit module in applied econometrics using Stata (the most popular general-purpose statistical software package used by empirical economists), for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken the Stage 2 module in econometrics (EC580 and EC581) or equivalent. What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.

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15

Empirical research in macroeconomics as well as in financial economics is largely based on time series, ie chronological sequences of observations, showing the development of quantities, goods and asset prices, and interest rates. The module offers an introduction to contemporary time-series econometrics, linking the theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy. Topics include: stationary and non-stationary stochastic processes; linear autoregressive and moving average models; linear difference equations; autoregressive distributed lag models; cointegration and equilibrium correction; vector autoregressive models. These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which are discussed in seminars and computer classes.

The module introduces you to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps you to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a masters programme in economics.

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15

The European Union features strongly in all discussions of economic policy and political decision making, in particular in view of Brexit. The UK referendum has exemplified the strongly polarised and politicised opinions on the EU, its policies and regulations. Frequently economists are unable to provide a consistent analytical framework for the analysis of the various issues posed, but at the same time the demand for economists trained on the issues related to the EU – e.g. customs Union and Single Market - is growing. In this module we shall explore the meaning and analysis of regional economic integration in the context of the EU. This will provide a general introduction to the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of the developments to date. Since this module involves issues of importance concerning the debate about Brexit and its consequences for the UK and the EU, we will cover studies about the potential consequences of various post-Brexit policies and will discuss options for post-Brexit trade and migration.

At the end of this module you will be expected to have knowledge of the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at EU level.

This is a module in Applied Economics and the emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. It is not concerned with the detailed discussion of the Treaties or the implementation of policy measures. Decision-making in the EU is introduced in order to understand the question of the exercise of economic power and one of the main arguments used by the Leave campaign in the UK. The nature of the economic integration is such that this module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and applied analysis going beyond that covered in the main theory courses.

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15

This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.

The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:

1. The relationship between unemployment and wages

2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled

3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women

4. Government policy towards skills and education

5. Executive pay

Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.

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15

The growing use of game theory by economists suggests that a professional economic education is incomplete without a firm understanding of this new tool. The module aims to introduce you to a topical and important research area of microeconomic analysis, to develop your skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics, and to enable you to apply game theory to different areas of economics and business.

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15

Industrial Economics studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. This is probably one of the most important and interesting areas in economics. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.

During the module, we deal with issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare and the incentives for product innovation, and private and public effects of mergers. You have the opportunity to discuss and understand many of these topics in a deeper and more economically informed way.

This module has been designed for students who have already taken intermediate microeconomics. You are encouraged to apply economic analysis and techniques to understand the behaviour of firms and industries.

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15

When we open a newspaper or an economics and business magazine, we often read topics related to monetary and financial relations between countries. A good deal of political debate is also focused on the various aspects that constitute international finance. However, these debates do not allow us to understand their theoretical underpinnings. This is what we are going to study in this module from a rigorous perspective. The first part of the module deals with some basic concepts of international macro such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. We then go on to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. In that part we also analyse the main factors that determine the exchange rates between currencies, and the power of the different models proposed. The third part of the module deals with ‘hot topics’ in international finance. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, how to understand current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.

The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to insert the available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.

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15

The study of international trade has always been an especially lively and controversial area in economics. Yet there was never a time when the study of international trade was as important as today. The economies of different countries are more dependent on each other than they have ever been before, meaning that, among other things, regional crises can spread throughout the world. Keeping up to date with this changing international environment and being able to understand the dynamics behind it is of key importance to firms and governments.

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15

This final year optional module covers a variety of monetary issues from both a theoretical and a policy perspective. The module starts with an introduction to the role of money in the economy, and theories of money supply and demand. A discussion of the Aggregate Supply and Demand model gives a basic foundation for analysing how monetary policy affects the economy, and a first theoretical perspective on the neutrality of money – that is, whether monetary policy has real effects on the macroeconomy, in either the short or long run. The remainder of the module discusses current issues in monetary policy – the goals of monetary policy and how these are expressed in modern simple models of monetary policy, central bank independence and inflation targeting.

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15

To understand and be able to evaluate the role played by government in the economy it is important to understand key elements of microeconomic analysis and then be able to apply this understanding to the practical evaluation of policy issues. Economic theory is typically a positive science with right and wrong answers but evaluating policy issues is a much more normative science where there are often no correct answers (just opinions). The module reflects these two sides of studying public economics.

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15

This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.

First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.

While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.

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The module develops your skills in asset pricing and your understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module stresses practical training in asset pricing.

There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.

Although the module requires some mathematical techniques, its main aim is to offer training to obtain some practical skills. Hence, the module puts stress on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions. In addition, you are expected not only to understand theories but are also to master how to use them. Indeed, you are expected make frequent use of a calculator in the final exam and the term-time assessment in order to obtain actual numbers from historical stock price data.

There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 2).

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The module aims to provide an alternative to the EC541 dissertation option for students. In this module, rather than conducting an original piece of research, you are given a set of questions with readings. You can also construct your own question so long as it is approved. You choose a question and (with help from your supervisor) write a 5,000 word essay on this question. The material covered in these essays is typically broader than that explored in the dissertation option and there is no requirement to make any 'contribution to knowledge'. However, the essay still demand more independent work than required for coursework in other modules. You are expected to read round the question AND to assimilate concepts and ideas not covered in lectures.

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15

This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.

The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:

- what are the determinants of growth?

- how can we improve productivity?

- what kind of role does the government play on growth?

- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?

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15

In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals – their opportunities, constraints, and choices – to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.

The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies – such the World Bank and DfID – as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.

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15

This module introduces you to agriculture, food and natural resource economics and economics generally. A key objective is to help you develop an ability to apply economic thinking to problems in this area. The module considers various aspects of agricultural, food and resource economics including food production, economic theory related to agricultural policy, food supply chains and food prices, food economics specifically food labels and various economic aspects of natural resource management such as forestry and fisheries.

The module is divided into three parts. In Part A we examine the relationship between the economy and the agriculture. In Part B we consider aspects of food economics. In Part C we examine various issues relating to natural resource. The emphasis in all parts of the module is to understand the links between theory and practice.

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15

The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 through 1997 Asian financial crisis to the financial crisis of 2008. It will combine theoretical approaches, empirical facts, and case studies to fully understand their causes and consequences.

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Teaching and assessment

Law

Kent Law School emphasises research-led teaching which means that the modules taught are at the leading edge of new legal and policy developments. Kent Law School is renowned nationally for research quality, being ‘world-leading’ or ‘internationally excellent’. All of our research-active staff teach so you are taught by influential thinkers who are at the forefront of their field. We also have one of the best student-staff ratios in the country, which allows small, weekly seminar-group teaching in all of our core modules, where you are actively encouraged to take part.

Most modules are assessed by end-of-year examinations and continuous assessment, the ratio varying from module to module, with Kent encouraging and supporting the development of research and written skills. Some modules include an optional research-based dissertation that counts for 45% or, in some cases, 100% of the final mark. Assessment can also incorporate assessment through oral presentation and argument, often in the style of legal practice (such as mooting), and client-based work and reflection through our Law Clinic.

Economics

All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.

The School of Economics is committed to making sure that you leave Kent with much more than just a degree in Economics. We put great emphasis on the development of transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem-solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.

The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.

Programme aims

For programme aims and learning outcomes please see the programmes specification for each subject below. Please note that outcomes will depend on your specific module selection:

Careers

Law

Kent has an excellent employment record, with law school graduates commanding some of the highest starting salaries in the UK. Law graduates can go into a variety of careers, including working as: solicitors or barristers in private practice; lawyers in companies, local authorities, central government and its agencies, or in the institutions of the European Union; non-legal careers, such as banking, finance and management.

Kent Law School has an active careers programme that sees a number of leading law firms and prominent members of the legal profession (including Kent alumni) visit the University to meet and speak with students. The Law School also gives students the opportunity to develop legal skills while at Kent, through modules in mooting and negotiation, and through involvement in the Law Clinic. We also actively work with employers to create work placement opportunities for our students.

Economics

Kent graduates have a high success rate in the graduate employment market, with past students going on to careers in accountancy, banking, finance, journalism, management consultancy and business. The range of modules available on the programme gives you the opportunity to tailor your degree to support your particular career choice, giving you a competitive edge in the employment market. In addition, several modules concentrate on preparing you for life as a professional economist.

Employers who have recruited our graduates in recent years include the Government Economic Service, Bank of England, the Financial Services Authority and PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers) and several other financial institutions including the ‘Big Five’ banks.

Independent rankings

For graduate prospects, Law at Kent was ranked 7th in The Complete University Guide 2018, 11th in The Times Good University Guide 2017 and 15th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. Of Law students who graduated from Kent in 2016, over 97% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

For graduate prospects, Economics at Kent was ranked 6th in The Complete University Guide 2018, 7th in The Guardian University Guide 2018 and 7th in The Times Good University Guide 2017. Of Economics students who graduated from Kent in 2016, 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Professional recognition

This programme leads to a Qualifying Law Degree (QLD). A QLD is currently recognised by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board as satisfying the first stage of training required to qualify as a solicitor or barrister in England and Wales.

Please note: The Solicitors Regulation Authority has announced its intention to introduce the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE) for prospective solicitors, doing so by 2020 at the earliest. 

Transitional arrangements will enable students who start a Qualifying Law Degree before the introduction of the SQE to finish and qualify under the current or new system. Please see our Admissions FAQs for more information.

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice. 

It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

New GCSE grades

If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

AAA-ABB

 

GCSE

Mathematics grade B

Access to HE Diploma

The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. 

If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case-by-case basis. Please contact us for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall including Mathematics 4 at HL or SL (or 5 in Mathematical Studies) or 17 points at HL including Mathematics 4 at HL or SL (or 5 in Mathematical Studies)

International students

The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.

If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.

Meet our staff in your country

For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.

English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme. 

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Fees

The 2018/19 annual tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £15200
Part-time £4625 £7600

For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* 

Your fee status

The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.

General additional costs

Find out more about accommodation and living costs, plus general additional costs that you may pay when studying at Kent.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details. 

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. 

For 2018/19 entry, the scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

Full-time

Part-time

The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. 

Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.