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Undergraduate Courses 2017

European Legal Studies - LLB (Hons)

Canterbury

Overview

The European Legal Studies degree gives you the opportunity to obtain an LLB and spend a year at one of our partner universities in Europe where you are taught entirely in English.

This course gives you valuable added depth and a European dimension to your degree, as well as offering an unforgettable experience in another country, without any requirement to learn another language. 

Students on the European Legal Studies degree spend their first two years at Kent, their third year at one of our European partner universities, and the fourth year back at Kent.

Kent Law School is recognised as one of the leading law schools in the UK. It has an international reputation both for its research and for the high quality, innovative, critical and socio-legal education that it provides. It boasts a carefully designed and wide-ranging curriculum, an institutional commitment to teaching excellence, as well as extensive international links. In addition to offering a highly successful mooting programme and a variety of activities to prepare students for successful future careers, the Law School also houses a multi-award winning Law Clinic that offers students the opportunity to gain unparalleled experience of legal practice, enabling them to advise and represent clients under the supervision of qualified solicitors.

In short, at Kent Law School you develop not only your legal knowledge but your intellectual, analytical and practical skills, ensuring that you have the academic and professional tools required for a successful career in law or in other professional contexts. On this programme you spend your third year (of four) studying law at one of our partner universities in Europe where teaching is conducted in English. You therefore benefit from the experience and knowledge gained from studying in another European country, without the requirement to learn or speak another language.

The Kent electronic law library, Lawlinks, is one of the best in the UK. All modules have their own websites and many of the lectures are recorded when given live and made available as MP3 files.

Exchanges are offered subject to availability and in some cases will be dependent on which degree you are studying at Kent. In most cases, Kent students must also meet the academic and attendance requirements set by their School or Faculty in order to study/work abroad. Please contact us for further information.

Please be aware that the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board are conducting independent reviews of the legal training and education required to qualify as a solicitor or barrister in England and Wales. These reviews cover the ‘Academic Stage’ of training and may impact upon the role of the law degree as part of the training process. Please see the website of each regulator for more information (the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board).
 

 

Independent rankings

Law at Kent was ranked 13th in The Times Good University Guide 2016 and 15th in The Guardian University Guide 2017. In the National Student Survey 2016, 91% of our Law students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.

For graduate prospects, Law at Kent was ranked 5th in The Guardian University Guide 2017. Of Law students who graduated from Kent in 2015, 94% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).

Course structure

The course structure below gives a flavour of the modules that will be available to you and provides details of the content of this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.  Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. Please note that the first year modules listed for this degree are compulsory.

Please contact us for more detail about the exact composition of this programme of study

Stage 1

Possible modules may include:

LW313 - A Critical Introduction to Law (30 credits)

The module will introduce students to critical legal techniques grounded in critical legal and social theory, feminist and queer theory, postcolonial theory and law and the humanities. Throughout the course, concepts are introduced through socio-legal and critical investigation of selected case studies - such as new pieces of legislation, emerging political campaigns and prominent litigation - ensuring that the course maintains a focus on ‘law in action’. Particular attention will be paid to developments in foreign jurisdictions and in the international arena. Accordingly, case studies will alter from year to year, and draw heavily on research projects on-going in the Law School. The course has a heavy focus on primary legal materials and core critical texts, but will also draw on film, museum artefacts, art and literature as appropriate.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW315 - Introduction to Obligations (15 credits)

This module introduces the law of obligations, which comprises the private law of duties and rights to which individuals and organisations are subject. Traditionally, it includes the law of contract and tort (but not property). As well as introducing some of the content (which is covered more extensively in LW597 The Law of Obligations), a key focus is on the institution of the common law through which most of the law of obligations has emerged. This aspect is especially explored through the case classes, which run alongside the lectures and seminars.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW316 - Foundations of Property (15 credits)

‘Property’ is something we tend to presume we know about, and rarely examine as an idea or practice closely. Most often we use it to connote an object or ‘thing’, and presume that it has something to do with ‘ownership’ of that object. It is so simple to say ‘my property’ or ‘this is mine’. This module begins to unpack and examine the ideas and practices of property more closely: How are property claims constructed? What do we mean by ‘ownership’? What happens when a number of competing ‘ownership claims’ in one object exist? When preparing for the module it will be useful to think about (and collect material on) current debates over contested ownership (or use) of property and resources: art collections or cultural artefacts, land or natural resources dispossessed, land squatted, etc. And why, in our jurisdiction in particular, has such a strong link been made between being a ‘property owner’ (in this context a ‘home-owner’) and a ‘good citizen’.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW327 - The English Legal System and Skills (4 credits)

Part A: English Legal System

This module provides an overview of the English Legal System, including the following indicative topics:

1) An introduction to Parliament and the legislative process

2) The court structure and the doctrine of precedent

3) An introduction to case law, including how to identify and the importance of ratio decidendi and obiter dicta

Part B: Introduction to Legal Skills

The module also gives students an introduction to the basic legal skills that they will develop further in their other modules throughout the degree. The focus here is on specific exercises to support exploration and use of the library resources that are available, both in paper copy and electronically through the legal databases, and on understanding practices of legal citation.

Credits: 4 credits (2 ECTS credits).

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LW508 - Criminal Law (30 credits)

• Introduction to the concept of crime, the structure of criminal justice and the general principles of liability

• Harm and the boundaries of criminal law

• Murder, the problem of causation and omissions and intent to kill

• Defences to murder, self-defence, provocation, insanity and diminished responsibility

• Manslaughter, unlawful act, recklessness and gross negligence

• Non-fatal offences against the person

• Sexual offences

• Theft and the Fraud Act 2006



The module is structured to provide students with the opportunity to explore the major issues in criminal law through class presentation, through consideration of essay style topics and by working through criminal law problem questions. At the commencement of the module students are provided with a Seminar Workbook which outlines the weekly seminar topic and task.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW588 - Public Law 1 (30 credits)

TERM 1

• Constitutionalism: history, theories, principles and contemporary significance

• Models of Government at national, local and supra-national levels



TERM 2

• Human Rights – history and contemporary significance and deployment

• The scope of governmental authority and its limits

• Judicial review and other forms of citizen redress

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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Stage 2

Possible modules may include:

LW592 - Public Law 2 (15 credits)

The module builds on the understanding of constitutional government developed in Public Law 1 to examine the changing nature of the state in new modes of governance and governmentality. The focus is on the shift away from the vertical character of the relationship between state and citizen to a more diffuse mode of governing populations through expertise, techniques of management, and biopolitics.

In recent times there has been a shift away from states governing through legislation as a mode of command and control. Legislation is increasingly understood as enabling administration and governance rather than as the definitive word on a social or political problem. In some respects, this is a continuation of legislation as a mode of authorising the exercise of public power. However, the nature of power deployed and regulated through legislation has changed. Government through officials or agents directly responsible to Ministers or Parliament is increasingly replaced by quasi-government authorities (QUANGOS) whose strength is technical expertise. While the administrative state as it has evolved in the last century views this shift as a new strength in public administration, the key weakness is that accountability in the exercise of public power is lacking. What are the implications of these transformations for public law? How has public law facilitated these developments? What are the socio-legal and critical legal responses to these developments? These are the central concerns of this module. It thus offers a specialised and complementary extension of themes and issues introduced to students in Public Law 1 in Stage 1 of the LLB degree.

The administrative authorities that have emerged in the era of the ‘new administrative law’ – post 1970s - lack the formality of liberal constitutional protections. Consider the relative informality in the administration of ASBOS. Moreover, the traditional public/private divide has broken down - e.g. the privatisation of prisons, private corporations providing public services such as nursing homes or transport. The absence of social consensus, or unitary sovereign power has meant that the governance of gambling, security, the environment, gender and sexuality, science and technology, are not phenomena that can be dealt with through traditional liberal concepts or constitutional mechanisms. This module will examine how public law has been the site of social, political, and legal contestations regarding these issues.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW593 - European Union Law (15 credits)

This 15 credit spring term undergraduate law module is designed to introduce law students to foundational legal principles of the European Union (EU). It will place particular emphasis on studying the role and impact of the judicial institution of the EU, namely the Court of Justice of the EU, in interpreting the scope and effects of Union law.

This module builds on the knowledge that students acquire in Public Law 1 where they are provided with a basic introduction to the history of the EU, the main institutions of the EU and key constitutional issues arising from the supremacy of EU law. It will focus predominantly on certain aspects of EU law not addressed in Public 1, including the free movement rules underpinning the single market.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW597 - The Law of Obligations (30 credits)

This module builds on LW315 An Introducton to Obligations by examining in more depth the grounds of liability in contract and tort. The focus on reading cases is retained with regular case classes, and this is supplemented by a focus on legislation where relevant as well as theoretical material.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW640 - Critical Legal Reasoning (15 credits)

A central question of this module is whether, and to what extent, there is anything distinctive about legal reasoning compared to reasoning in general. That question is posed from the perspective of a legal practitioner, in particular, an advocate. The aim of the module is to equip students – as potential advocates, but also in general – with a range of tools and skills of argument that are easily transferrable across legal and non-legal contexts.

It is a premise of the module that any competent advocate, or indeed lawyer, must demonstrate a proficient grounding in elementary logic. As such, the module will explore, and students will be expected to demonstrate, the role played inferential logic within legal reasoning. The module will also consider logical and other fallacies. For example, and drawing on Schauer, by asking whether authority-based reasoning (ie the doctrine of precedent) is a fallacy; and, drawing on Kahneman, by investigating the role played by psychological heuristics in all forms of decision-making including legal forms.

In addition to the conventional categories of inferential reasoning, the module will consider other forms of reasoning including, but not limited to, practical, statistical, and marginal/economic forms. In the latter context, and drawing on Farnsworth, it will consider the differences between ex post and ex ante forms of reasoning: the first response being about cleaning up after things have gone wrong, and the second about the effects of decisions in the future. The latter perspective leads naturally to a broader consideration of policy-based reasoning in general.

Students will explore the role played by different forms of reasoning in different contexts; for example by considering and demonstrating the use of logical deduction and probable inference in the context of legal proof (evidence) and the role of other forms of reasoning, including rhetoric, in the formulation of legal arguments.

The theoretical background will provide the basis upon which students will learn to construct effective (legal) arguments and to practice the skills learned in a variety of written and oral contexts ranging from skeleton arguments, oral presentations, mock trials and/or applicationsand/or mooting (subject to availability). Students will be expected to reflect critically on their learning practice by producing a self-reflective portfolio.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW636 - Mental Health Law (15 credits)

The module will cover the historical development of mental health law (in brief), the Mental Health Act 1983, civil and criminal admissions to hospital, consent to treatment, capacity, the Mental Capacity Act 2005, discharge (including the role of the Mental Health Review Tribunal) and care in the community; proposals for reform; interaction with the criminal justice system.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW629 - Critical Law and Practice of International Business Transactions (15 credits)

The module focuses on current issues in the law and practice of international business and trade law from critical perspectives. This includes exposing deficiencies in the regulation of international trade finance, international marketing operations, Countertrade, international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms and corruption in international business. The module considers the involvement of emerging business and financial jurisdictions in international trade. It broadly explores the inequities of global integration of international trade law and considers the influences of European Union law and those of leading developed economies and financial jurisdictions on regulation and actual practice of the field of international business transactions. Attention will be given to specialist and emerging areas of law such as international mergers and acquisition as well as philosophical aspects of international trade such as the Lex Mercatoria. It seeks to provide a comparative overview of emerging trends in international business regulation and aims to make students aware of ethical dimensions of international business transactions. Topics to be covered include International Trade within the contexts of public and private international law and international politics; Development and underdevelopment of commercial laws in international trade; mergers and acquisitions; counter trade as an alternative to current system of international business and trade; international franchising and agencies abroad; international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms; international corruption and the bribery of foreign officials; doctrine and practice of the New Lex Mercatoria.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW626 - Appropriate Dispute Resolution: Theory and Practice (15 credits)

In recent times, 'alternative' forms of dispute resolution (ADR) have been widely recognised as possessing the potential to limit some of the damage caused by civil disputes. Therefore, a lawyer’s skill-set ideally should include a well-developed ability to analyse, manage and resolve disputes both within and outside the usual setting of the courtroom. Thus, the module’s primary aim is to introduce students to the legal and regulatory issues surrounding methods of dispute resolution aside from litigation. Specifically, the module focuses on the practical factors relevant to selecting appropriate dispute resolution in distinct circumstances, including, for example, the employment and family law arenas.

Students will be provided with the resources to acquire a detailed theoretical and practical understanding of the contextual constraints associated with the use of different forms of dispute resolution and will be encouraged to develop their ability to evaluate the effectiveness of particular interventions, especially when used as an adjunct to court proceedings. The module tracks historic and current developments in relation the use of ADR, highlighting how government policy and courts appear, increasingly, to sanction failure to use ADR. This may well enhance students’ opportunities to hone career-advancing expertise in the field.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW624 - Labour Law (15 credits)

This module is concerned with contemporary labour law. It combines legal analysis and the transmission of practical legal skills with a highly contextual and interdisciplinary understanding of the labour law and regulatory debates around labour regulation. To that end, workshops will feature extended discussion on key aspects of contemporary labour legislation using scholarly texts.. Students will also study key legal aspects of the modern employment relationship including the contract of employment, statutory employment protection provisions (for example unfair dismissal and redundancy protection), anti-discrimination legislation and provisions for reconciling work and family life (e.g. pregnancy protection and parental leave). The module will also explore selected aspects of collective labour law including the role and status of trade unions, the legal regulation of collective bargaining and/or the regulation of industrial conflict. The module seeks to combine a detailed knowledge of fundamental key aspects of labour law with the development of broader conceptual, critical and evaluative perspectives on workplace regulation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW617 - Legal Ethics: Exploring the Ethics of Lawyersand Lawyering (15 credits)

This course will give students the opportunity to explore the ways in which moral reasoning can inform the study and practice of lawyering. Students will be asked to think and argue about the (possible) moral dimension of the practice of law. The course will include a theoretical component during which we will explore ways in which we might justify (or deny) a moral dimension to the practice of law. In the practical component we will use case studies (including that of the US government lawyers who provided legal justifications for the use of torture on ‘War on Terror’ prisoners). This case study and others will be used to discuss and debate issues in legal ethics, broadly conceived. The methodology will combine theoretical discussion of the principles that should inform the notion of legal ethics with analysis and discussion of actual moral and ethical dilemmas faced by lawyers and their resolution.



Block 1: Why Legal Ethics? An exploration of the moral reasoning and arguments behind the idea of ‘legal ethics’. Do lawyers have moral responsibilities as well as legal ones?

Block 2: Case studies and the ethical issues they raise. Answers to moral questions and dilemmas in legal practice.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW616 - Law and International Development (15 credits)

The first half of the module will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the idea of development, the international development project, the main international development institutions and the international context in which they developed, and the field of Law and Development. The second half of the module will examine contemporary topics in law and international development, including (but not limited to) human rights and development; decentralization and local development; sustainability and development; law and the informal sector; rule of law promotion.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW611 - Law Dissertation Autumn Option (15 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 2 and 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW645 - International Law and Global Problems (15 credits)

This course explores selected global problems in their historical, social, political and economic contexts in light of international legal frameworks. The course begins with an examination of key critical perspectives in international law, such as Third World Approaches to International Law, before moving on to specific topics of historical or contemporary concern. Attention will be paid in particular to systemic problems of the global legal order and students are encouraged to analyse the limits and potential of international law to present solutions to global problems as well as the role played by international law in framing and constituting those problems in the first place.



By necessity these topics will vary, but an indicative list follows:



• International legal methods, critical histories and theoretical perspectives

• History and historiography of international law

• Reconciliation, transition and conceptions of justice

• International criminal law

• Territorial disputes

• Inequality, poverty and international law

• Natural resource use and extraction

• International law and the global political economy

• International trade and biosecurity

• International law and international relations

• Key cases in international law

• International Law and Violence

• International Law and Migration

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW644 - International Human Rights Law in Context (15 credits)

The module will examine the evolution, principles, institutions and functions of international human rights law in their political, social and economic contexts. It will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of human rights law through critical study and analysis of key theoretical perspectives and debates. The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international human rights law to historical and/or contemporary challenges and to critically assess its limitations and effects.



An indicative list of topics is as follows:



• The History of Human Rights Law and Contemporary Approaches to Human Rights Law.

• United Nations Treaty Bodies and Special Procedures.

• Regional Human Rights Systems and Approaches.

• The International Bill of Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

• The Prohibition of Torture.

• Human Rights in Times of Crisis.

• Rights of Women.

• Rights of the Child.

• Minority Rights.

• Indigenous People's Rights.

• Forced Migration and Displacement.

• Right to Development.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW643 - International Law and the Use of Force (15 credits)

The module will examine the role and function of international law in the use of force between states as well as non-state actors. It will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of international law on the use of force and of its concepts, principles and rules governing the use of force (jus ad bellum) and the conduct of armed conflict (jus in bello). The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international law on the use of force to contemporary international disputes and to critically assess its limitations and effects. This will be achieved through a range of topics and case studies.



The topics covered may include:



• The prohibition of the threat or use of force and the right to self-defence in international law

• Principles of International Humanitarian Law

• UN Peacekeeping and UN-authorised Peace Enforcement

• Humanitarian intervention and the 'Responsibility to Protect'

• Other doctrines of unilateral intervention

• Combatants and civilians

• Weapons and Methods of Warfare

• War Crimes

• The role of international humanitarian law in international criminal trials

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW642 - International Law: Principles and Sources (15 credits)

The module will examine the role and function of international law in regulating relations between States and resolving international disputes. It will introduce students to a number of theoretical frameworks through which to understand and critically evaluate international law historically and in context. It will provide students with knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of international law and of its key concepts, principles and rules. The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international law to contemporary international problems and to critically assess its limitations and effects. This will be achieved through a range of topics and case studies.



An indicative list of topics studies follows:

• The history of international law

• Sources of international law

• The relationship between international law and domestic law

• Jurisdiction and Immunities

• Statehood

• Self-determination

• State responsibility

• International dispute settlement

• The International Court of Justice and International Organisations

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW646 - Homelessness Law and Policy (15 credits)

• Social understandings of home and homelessness.

• The history of contemporary homelessness law and policy.

• England's current legal framework of homelessness law.

• Comparative legal and policy perspectives.

• Street homelessness and its regulation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW571 - Law and Society: Regulating Communities (15 credits)

This module focuses on governance, regulation, norm-maintenance and rule non-compliance within communities and institutions. It provides a distinct perspective to general questions of law, socio-legal theory, and jurisprudence. Key questions include: when do norms count as law? How do communities govern themselves, and what role do law and social norms play in this process? What authority do intentional communities possess when it comes to rule-breaking? What is the relationship between community rules and state law? Can communities function without rules? And is institutional law-breaking (or non-compliance) analogous to individual disobedience? Topics include: legal pluralism and legal consciousness, Foucault and governmentality, norm-following among strangers, etiquette within public sex communities, virtual worlds, governing through local currencies, nudism, self-regulation in a free school, and Speakers Corner.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW570 - Law and Social Change (15 credits)

This module aims to investigate the relationship between law, morality, and social change, and how this relationship has changed and may change over time. In other words, it seeks responses to questions such as the following: How does law produce morality and morality produce law? What is the role of moral norms and obligation in legal practice? How does the character of law shift in response to social struggle? Why, if some modern social theories allow for the recognition of a vastly reduced number of valid norms, is moral discourse still the default mechanism for resolving conflicts in society? Has moral discourse been supplanted by other means of conflict resolution and social integration? How might we envision an ideal moral-legal framework?



Typically its content will include:

The meanings of law and social change

Classical Social Theory, law and Social Change

Contemporary social theory, law and social change

The Hart/Devlin Debate: Law, Disgust, and Social Change

Positive approaches to the promotion of Social Change

Feminism and Legal Reform

The Legal Profession and Social Change

Rights and citizenship

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW566 - Law Dissertation (1 unit option) (15 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 2 and 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW563 - Law - Dissertation (30 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Public Law II is a compulsory prerequisite module. Entry to this module will be based on gaining a Merit in stage 1, however, if they achieve a 2:1 in the Public Law 2 special study they may be admitted subsequently. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW556 - Intellectual Property Law (30 credits)

This module will focus on the leading topic areas of intellectual property law (including practical aspects), namely:

• Copyright

• Patents

• The uses of IP, remedies for infringement and enforcement

• International intellectual property

• Trade marks

• Passing off

• Breach of confidence

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW543 - Clinical Option (30 credits)

Students on this module must become members of the Kent Law Clinic, and work under Supervisors on ‘live’ cases for clients of the Clinic under the supervision of solicitors, or other experienced legal practitioners working alongside them. All Supervisors are members of the academic staff at Kent Law School. Students will develop their knowledge and understanding of specific areas of English law and procedure, and some specific skills. Students are encouraged to view their clinical work as a means to an end – not just the acquisition of important legal skills but primarily a better understanding and critical analysis of law and of legal practice. The excellent opportunity which clinical work provides for active learning, and for studying the interface between theory and practice, is placed firmly in this context.



Students are expected to undertake from the second week of Autumn term onwards until the end of the Spring term, under supervision, the conduct of at least two substantial cases (or the equivalent), involving proceedings in courts or tribunals or other legal forums, or projects on an area of law of relevance to the objects of the Clinic. Students will normally work on cases rather than projects. A Supervisor will decide whether a student has undertaken two substantial cases (or the equivalent) for the purposes of this module.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW542 - Policing (15 credits)

The police represent the clearest boundary between the citizen and the state - this module examines their origins and development and their current organisation as well as the evolution of the strategies of policing. It looks at their powers in relation to investigative and deployment techniques as well as issues of their accountability for their decisions and their actions. Underlying the module is an exploration of the role of policing within liberal democratic society.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW540 - The Philosophy of Law (30 credits)

The Philosophy of Law is a module designed for those who are interested in all kinds of reflective speculation about law. What is law for? Should we value it? Should we obey it? What is its relation to justice, to morality and to politics? The module is divided into two parts; the first to takes the form of an examination of the major schools in legal philosophy that continue to have influence today, the second is a close, critical reading of a single work in the subject.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW539 - Droit civil (30 credits)

The module comprises an introduction to French Civil Law followed by a detailed analysis of the French law of obligations. It also includes practice in French legal methodology, particularly the essay (dissertation), the case commentary (commentaire d'arrêt) and the French legal plan.

The module consists of three parts. Following a brief introduction to French Civil Law the first part of the module examines the French law of contracts and quasi-contracts .This is intended to introduce students to key terms which will be used during the year and to provide a thorough grounding in the key aspects of contract law. The second section is devoted to the study of French tort law looking at the different regimes organised by the Civil Code and corresponding case law. The third section covers the general principles applicable to all obligations examining in particular the methods of circulation and extinction of civil obligations.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW522 - Comparative Law (30 credits)

Over the academic year, a wide range of topics will be covered, these may include the following:



- The History of Comparative Law

- The Strengths and Weaknesses of Comparative Law

- The Politics of Comparative Law

- Method: Comparative Law's Quandary

- The Relationship Between the (Legal) Self and the Other

- Reading Foreign Law: The Possibilities and Limits of Legal Translation

- Common Law and Civil Law: Not so Different?

- How Legal Concepts Travel (or Not) Across Legal Cultures

- Can Western Comparative Law Work in Asia?

- The Use of Foreign Law in Constitutional Interpretation

- The Debate Over Harmonization and Uniformization of Laws

- Towards a Global Legal Order? Comparative Law’s Contribution

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW520 - Company Law and Capitalism (30 credits)

This module seeks not only to familiarise students with the basic concepts and structure of modern British company law, but also to provide them with a critical understanding of the nature and dynamics of modern capitalism and of the historical development of industrial organisation and the emergence of company law within it. In addition to a selection on modern company law, therefore, the module also traces the rise of the joint stock company in the nineteenth century and the emergence of company law in its wake. It moves on to trace the twentieth century rise of the modern multidivisional, multinational company and its impact on company law. In this context, it also considers the nature of the share and of shareholding, and the role of the Stock Market, and explores contemporary debates about corporate governance. Key aspects will include exploring the contractual relations between, on the one hand, the company and its agents and on the other hand, third parties who deal with the company, tracing the evolutionary changes from the Common Law to the modern predominantly statutory framework. It will also deal with aspects of corporate management and control, including directors’ duties, shareholders’ rights and the increasingly important issues pertaining to market abuse and how the law seeks to deal with such practices. Students are encouraged to familiarise themselves with current issues in the commercial world by reading the financial pages of the newspapers, as reference will frequently be made to current events to facilitate the learning process. The module will address a range of inter-related questions: How well suited is modern company law to the regulation of the large modern corporation? What do shareholders do? What does the Stock Market do? In whose interests are modern corporations run? In whose interest should they be run? How do companies contract and what are the relationships between the organs of the company?

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW509 - Human Rights and English Law (30 credits)

This module seeks to provide a sound knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles underlying the

law relating to human rights, including a grounding in the historical development and political philosophy of human

rights law; to provide a detailed grasp of the current protection of human rights in English law, with particular

reference to the Human Rights Act 1998 and European Convention on Human Rights; and to promote a critical

discussion about the nature, function and effects of human rights as they are, or might be, expressed in English law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW585 - Environmental Law I (15 credits)

Environmental law involves the study of those areas of law which concern the threats to environmental quality and ecosystems brought about by a variety of human impacts, especially those involving pollution and the unsustainable use of natural resources. The subject represents both a pressing area of public concern and an increasingly important area of legal practice. Environmental Law I is focused upon those parts of environmental law which are most relevant to avoiding pollution of the environmental media of water, air and land. The module commences with a discussion of the foundational concepts of the subject, including the meaning of ‘the environment’, ‘pollution’ and ‘sustainable development’ in law. These ideas are then related to environmental quality legislation, concerned with public health and pollution controls in respect of different environmental media. After examining sectoral approaches to pollution control, the module then considers cross cutting issues, such as access to environmental information and alternative approaches to environmental regulation which utilise market mechanisms. In each case the object is to place discussion of national and European Community environmental laws in context, by considering how effectively they function as mechanisms for achieving sustainable development. These themes are pursued further in Environmental Law II, which is primarily concerned with the regulation of land use for environmental purposes and the legal protection afforded to biodiversity.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW584 - Forensic Science in Criminal Trials (15 credits)

Please note: You do not need to have studied maths, science or probabilities to perform well on this module!



Forensic evidence is a rapidly developing area in criminal trials – new techniques are continually being developed and forensic evidence such as DNA profiling is increasingly presented as evidence. This rapid expansion has resulted in forensic evidence becoming increasingly debated in the media and by the criminal justice process – from articles hailing DNA profiling as preventing or undoing miscarriages of justice to those questioning a lay jury’s ability to make a judgement in case involving highly complex scientific or medical evidence. This module considers how the criminal justice system makes use of forensic science. Initially, analysis of the relevant rules of evidence will be made alongside a broad overview of forensic science in the courtroom. This is then built upon through an exploration of case law and consideration of topical questions such as who should decide whether a new scientific technique should be admissible evidence, who are the experts who present the evidence to juries and the extent to which the admission of forensic evidence assists juries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW583 - Art and Cultural Heritage Law (30 credits)

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy considerations relating to the art market and cultural heritage. This module aims to define art and cultural heritage/cultural property; to identify the need for national and international regulation of the art trade (theft, illegal export, trafficking) both in time of peace and in time of war as well as the issue of restitution of wrongfully displaced objects. It will also explore areas of the art trade that need regulation such as consumer protection (fakes and forgeries); the role of experts (opinion and liability), artists (his rights, his freedom and his life), dealers (auction houses and private dealers), and museums (role and collection management) in the trade. Finally, the module addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage and it aims to give coherence to a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW582 - Banking Law (15 credits)

This module will focus primarily on the domestic law of banking. The module is designed to provide students with a solid grounding in banking law as well as an understanding of the broader social, economic and political issues underlying the rapid evolution that is presently taking place in the banking industry. In addition, the module aims to provide students with an understanding of the relationship between banking practice and law and the practical application of banking law.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW581 - Law and Literature (15 credits)

So much of law is about text and the manipulation of language: Becoming sensitive to the construction of narratives in judgements, learning to read argument in its many forms, recognising the ways in which words, and patterns of words, can be used to create effect, playing with ambiguities or seeking to express an idea with clarity, all these are fundamental skills for a lawyer. Law is also about performance, the roles which are assigned to us and the drama of the court room. And law, as text and performance, carries fundamental cultural messages about the society we live in and the values we aspire to. During this module, we will examine some of the many ways in which reading, viewing and listening to, 'the arts' helps us to think more concisely as well as more imaginatively about law. We welcome on to the module anyone who shares, with us, an enjoyment of reading, viewing and listening – this is a chance to be introduced to material you may not be familiar with as well as a chance to pursue an interest you may already have. Although the module is designed primarily for law students, it is also open to undergraduates from other degree programmes.



The module focuses on a small number of key texts through which to explore the themes and develop student skills. These vary from year to year.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW580 - Consumer Law (30 credits)

Consumer law and policy is a significant area of current UK and European Union market regulation. This module initially discusses the rationales for consumer law and the different forms of regulating consumer markets. We then look at topics such as deceptive and unfair advertising, standard form consumer contracts, consumer credit law, quality standards in the supply of goods and services, product safety, consumer redress and access to justice. Consumer law cuts across traditional doctrinal boundaries of private and public law and provides an opportunity for analysing a variety of forms of regulation such as private law, public regulation and enforcement, co-regulation, soft law, shaping market values, and harnessing market incentives.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW578 - Law and Political Theory (30 credits)

This module is designed to provide an understanding of the interrelationship between political theory and law in modernity. Drawing upon political theory it explores ideas of law, power, resistance, community, sovereignty and the subject. The objective is to build a solid understanding of political theory in relation to these key concepts, and then use this understanding to examine contemporary political and juridical questions such as those of democracy and citizenship; multiculturalism, bio-politics, secularism, terrorism, post-colonialism and contemporary formations of Empire. In so doing, the module seeks to equip students with the necessary intellectual tools for deploying insights from political theory and philosophy to the study of law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW572 - Immigration, Asylum and Refugee Law (30 credits)

The following key themes will be covered in the module:



I. Legal Sources of Immigration, asylum and refugee law: British, EU, Council of Europe, international, comparative.

II. Historical Evolution of the government and regulation of immigration, asylum and refugee subjects.

III Asylum and Refugee law: (1) International, ECHR and EU standards on asylum and refugee protection (2) Key aspects of British law and practice on asylum.

IV. Select aspects of Immigration law (British, EU and ECHR standards will be integrated)

V. Key contemporary problems in each of the fields of immigration, asylum and refugee law (as case studies).

VI. Key interdisciplinary contemporary debates and contributions to the study of immigration, asylum and refugee law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW586 - Environmental Law II (15 credits)

Environmental Law II builds upon the themes introduced in Environmental Law I whilst placing central emphasis upon the environmental and ecological implications of land use and development, and the regulation of land use activities to secure protection of biodiversity. The module commences with some cross-cutting issues, encompassing civil liability for environmental harms and human rights in respect of the environment, before turning to consideration of regimes for restricting land use to prevent unacceptable kinds of environmental and ecological harm. This involves looking at land use development controls in national law and European Community requirements for environmental assessment of projects and plans to anticipate and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. This leads into a discussion of laws that are more specifically concerned with the protection of species and habitats, either through direct restrictions upon destructive activities or through legal mechanisms to secure biodiversity conservation through designation and management of land that is of ecological importance. In respect of each topic, the object is to place discussion of national and European Community laws into context, by considering how effectively they function as mechanisms for achieving environmentally and ecologically appropriate land use and conservation of biodiversity, and ultimately sustainable development.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW589 - The Skills of Argument - How to Argue and Win (15 credits)

Argument occurs across the full spectrum of human interaction - in pubs, at home, in seminar classes, and in professional contexts such as those provided by law, science and medicine. However, despite the importance allotted to argument and the desire of those engaged in arguments to win them, little systematic attention is given to the nature of argument and the practical skills required to argue successfully, even though this information is readily available. The ambition of the module is to equip students with this knowledge base and skills, thereby enabling them to enter into argument more confidently and with a greater prospect of success. The module divides into three parts, the first being a very brief historical and theoretical contextualisation of the topic. The second part of the module treats argument and arguing formally, by mapping the standard forms of argument and by developing the skill of picking out a bad argument from a good one, and by showing how to spot the set of common but typically unnoticed mistakes in one’s own argument or in those of others. The third part of the module turns to the skills of rhetoric and persuasion, including examination of the ploys that are often used to give bad or weak arguments persuasive force. The themes of the module are illustrated throughout using real examples from law and elsewhere.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW594 - Skills in Legal Interpretation (15 credits)

90% of English cases involve a statute. For obvious reasons, it is crucial that you should know how to interpret and apply a statute. Through a series of fascinating examples both from the UK and elsewhere, this module teaches you these skills, which all employers highly value. Skills in interpretation are also very useful when you have to deal with judicial precedents. This module will make a difference on your résumé!

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW604 - Morality and Law (15 credits)

This course will give students the opportunity to explore the ways in which morality has been understood and theorised and then to trace the development of a particular moral concept (namely, that of individual rights), that is central to legal discourse today. The methodology will be historical/contextual as well as theoretical/analytical. We will look at the way in which the idea of individual rights arose (and continues to develop) in a philosophical, political and historical context and we will examine and critically evaluate modern theories of rights and their relationship to law. The concept of a right is deceptively simple. When examined closely is gives rise to all sorts of questions and problems including, for example: how is the idea of a right justified? What is its relationship to the older idea of liberty? Can it survive the discrediting of theories of natural rights tied to natural law? Can it stand alone as a moral concept or is it merely the ‘other side’ of a duty?



Block 1: A critical introduction to the major theories of moral philosophy: virtue theory, duty based (deontological) Kantian theory and consequentialism (utilitarianism).

Block 2:. A historical/contextual examination of the development of a particular moral concept; that of individual rights.

Block 3.Oral presentations by students in pairs.

Block 4.An analytical examination and critique of modern theories of rights and their relationship to law (incl. ‘interest’ and ‘will’ theories and the legal analysis of Wesley Hohfeld)

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW596 - Gender, Sexuality and Law (15 credits)

The media is full of gender controversies: there’s same-sex marriage (or not) in California, violence against women pretty well everywhere, and a whopping 17% gender pay gap in the UK. What do you think about these issues? How do you think the law should respond?

This module focuses on how law interacts with gender and sexuality. It examines, and encourages you to discuss, the interconnections between law, policy, gender, and sexuality. We will start by focusing on key concepts in feminist and queer legal theory, such as heteronormativity (the dominance of heterosexual family and social structures). We will then relate these theories to current dilemmas: same-sex marriage; transgender rights; gay refugees; diverse family formations. Finally, we tackle the really big questions. Should we use the law to change the law? Are rights really any use? What is neo-liberalism and how does this relate to gender?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW602 - Law and Medical Ethics (15 credits)

This module considers the legal regulation of medical practice in its ethical, socio-economic and historical context, drawing on a range of critical, contextual and interdisciplinary perspectives. Students will be introduced to the major western traditions of ethical theory and the major principles of medical law. They will then pass on to their incorporation in medical negligence, confidentiality, consent and competence, and medical research. They will then draw upon these to engage in critical legal analysis of major areas of medical ethics and law.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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Year abroad

Going abroad as part of your degree is an amazing experience and a chance to develop personally, academically and professionally. You experience a different culture, gain a new academic perspective, establish international contacts and enhance your employability.

Students on a four-year degree programme spend a year between Stages 2 and 3 at one of our partner universities in Europe. For a full list, please see Go Abroad. Places are subject to availability, language and degree programme.

You are expected to adhere to any academic progression requirements in Stages 1 and 2 to proceed to the Year Abroad.  If the requirement is not met, you will be transferred to the equivalent three-year programme. The Year Abroad is assessed on a pass/fail basis and will not count towards your final degree classification.

Students normally take the equivalent of 120 Kent credits worth of modules during their year abroad (which is 60 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits under the EU's ERASMUS arrangements). Accordingly, students are required to undertake the equivalent amount of studies during their year abroad as at Kent. The majority of modules taken during the year abroad should be law modules.

Possible modules may include:

Stage 3

Possible modules may include:

LW598 - Equity and Trusts (15 credits)

This module, normally taken in Stage 2, introduces the student to the main principles and doctrines of equity and trusts. It is designed to challenge the somewhat dull image of this area of law and to encourage a critical and imaginative understanding of the subject. The law of equity and trusts is contextualized within a historical, social and jurisprudential inquiry thereby providing a much wider range of possible interpretations of its development and application. What then becomes central to the module’s approach is the complex interrelation of law with ethical, political, economic and jurisprudential considerations, and that between legal outcomes, pragmatic concerns and policy objectives.



Drawing upon the student’s experience of the study of law, in particular that gained from Foundations of Property Law and Property Law, this module examines the trust both as a private legal institution (the trust in family and commercial settings) and a public one (the charitable trust), placing special emphasis on the management of the trust and the powers, duties and obligations of the trustee. Yet in departing from conventional approaches this module does not study equity merely in regards to its role as the original creator of the trust. Equity is instead acknowledged to be what it really is - a vital and fruitful component of the English legal system; a distinct form of legal interpretation possessing its own principles and method of legal reasoning, and comprising an original and continuing source of legal development in the sphere of remedies.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW599 - Land Law (15 credits)

The focus of the module is private property in English land: title by registration; squatting; owner-occupation; leases; covenants and land development. It builds on the Foundations of Property module to develop an in-depth understanding of English land law, its conception of property and its politics and effects. And it gives experience in how to advise clients on land law problems – and on how to avoid problems for clients.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW602 - Law and Medical Ethics (15 credits)

This module considers the legal regulation of medical practice in its ethical, socio-economic and historical context, drawing on a range of critical, contextual and interdisciplinary perspectives. Students will be introduced to the major western traditions of ethical theory and the major principles of medical law. They will then pass on to their incorporation in medical negligence, confidentiality, consent and competence, and medical research. They will then draw upon these to engage in critical legal analysis of major areas of medical ethics and law.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW596 - Gender, Sexuality and Law (15 credits)

The media is full of gender controversies: there’s same-sex marriage (or not) in California, violence against women pretty well everywhere, and a whopping 17% gender pay gap in the UK. What do you think about these issues? How do you think the law should respond?

This module focuses on how law interacts with gender and sexuality. It examines, and encourages you to discuss, the interconnections between law, policy, gender, and sexuality. We will start by focusing on key concepts in feminist and queer legal theory, such as heteronormativity (the dominance of heterosexual family and social structures). We will then relate these theories to current dilemmas: same-sex marriage; transgender rights; gay refugees; diverse family formations. Finally, we tackle the really big questions. Should we use the law to change the law? Are rights really any use? What is neo-liberalism and how does this relate to gender?

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW604 - Morality and Law (15 credits)

This course will give students the opportunity to explore the ways in which morality has been understood and theorised and then to trace the development of a particular moral concept (namely, that of individual rights), that is central to legal discourse today. The methodology will be historical/contextual as well as theoretical/analytical. We will look at the way in which the idea of individual rights arose (and continues to develop) in a philosophical, political and historical context and we will examine and critically evaluate modern theories of rights and their relationship to law. The concept of a right is deceptively simple. When examined closely is gives rise to all sorts of questions and problems including, for example: how is the idea of a right justified? What is its relationship to the older idea of liberty? Can it survive the discrediting of theories of natural rights tied to natural law? Can it stand alone as a moral concept or is it merely the ‘other side’ of a duty?



Block 1: A critical introduction to the major theories of moral philosophy: virtue theory, duty based (deontological) Kantian theory and consequentialism (utilitarianism).

Block 2:. A historical/contextual examination of the development of a particular moral concept; that of individual rights.

Block 3.Oral presentations by students in pairs.

Block 4.An analytical examination and critique of modern theories of rights and their relationship to law (incl. ‘interest’ and ‘will’ theories and the legal analysis of Wesley Hohfeld)

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW594 - Skills in Legal Interpretation (15 credits)

90% of English cases involve a statute. For obvious reasons, it is crucial that you should know how to interpret and apply a statute. Through a series of fascinating examples both from the UK and elsewhere, this module teaches you these skills, which all employers highly value. Skills in interpretation are also very useful when you have to deal with judicial precedents. This module will make a difference on your résumé!

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW589 - The Skills of Argument - How to Argue and Win (15 credits)

Argument occurs across the full spectrum of human interaction - in pubs, at home, in seminar classes, and in professional contexts such as those provided by law, science and medicine. However, despite the importance allotted to argument and the desire of those engaged in arguments to win them, little systematic attention is given to the nature of argument and the practical skills required to argue successfully, even though this information is readily available. The ambition of the module is to equip students with this knowledge base and skills, thereby enabling them to enter into argument more confidently and with a greater prospect of success. The module divides into three parts, the first being a very brief historical and theoretical contextualisation of the topic. The second part of the module treats argument and arguing formally, by mapping the standard forms of argument and by developing the skill of picking out a bad argument from a good one, and by showing how to spot the set of common but typically unnoticed mistakes in one’s own argument or in those of others. The third part of the module turns to the skills of rhetoric and persuasion, including examination of the ploys that are often used to give bad or weak arguments persuasive force. The themes of the module are illustrated throughout using real examples from law and elsewhere.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW586 - Environmental Law II (15 credits)

Environmental Law II builds upon the themes introduced in Environmental Law I whilst placing central emphasis upon the environmental and ecological implications of land use and development, and the regulation of land use activities to secure protection of biodiversity. The module commences with some cross-cutting issues, encompassing civil liability for environmental harms and human rights in respect of the environment, before turning to consideration of regimes for restricting land use to prevent unacceptable kinds of environmental and ecological harm. This involves looking at land use development controls in national law and European Community requirements for environmental assessment of projects and plans to anticipate and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. This leads into a discussion of laws that are more specifically concerned with the protection of species and habitats, either through direct restrictions upon destructive activities or through legal mechanisms to secure biodiversity conservation through designation and management of land that is of ecological importance. In respect of each topic, the object is to place discussion of national and European Community laws into context, by considering how effectively they function as mechanisms for achieving environmentally and ecologically appropriate land use and conservation of biodiversity, and ultimately sustainable development.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW572 - Immigration, Asylum and Refugee Law (30 credits)

The following key themes will be covered in the module:



I. Legal Sources of Immigration, asylum and refugee law: British, EU, Council of Europe, international, comparative.

II. Historical Evolution of the government and regulation of immigration, asylum and refugee subjects.

III Asylum and Refugee law: (1) International, ECHR and EU standards on asylum and refugee protection (2) Key aspects of British law and practice on asylum.

IV. Select aspects of Immigration law (British, EU and ECHR standards will be integrated)

V. Key contemporary problems in each of the fields of immigration, asylum and refugee law (as case studies).

VI. Key interdisciplinary contemporary debates and contributions to the study of immigration, asylum and refugee law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW578 - Law and Political Theory (30 credits)

This module is designed to provide an understanding of the interrelationship between political theory and law in modernity. Drawing upon political theory it explores ideas of law, power, resistance, community, sovereignty and the subject. The objective is to build a solid understanding of political theory in relation to these key concepts, and then use this understanding to examine contemporary political and juridical questions such as those of democracy and citizenship; multiculturalism, bio-politics, secularism, terrorism, post-colonialism and contemporary formations of Empire. In so doing, the module seeks to equip students with the necessary intellectual tools for deploying insights from political theory and philosophy to the study of law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW580 - Consumer Law (30 credits)

Consumer law and policy is a significant area of current UK and European Union market regulation. This module initially discusses the rationales for consumer law and the different forms of regulating consumer markets. We then look at topics such as deceptive and unfair advertising, standard form consumer contracts, consumer credit law, quality standards in the supply of goods and services, product safety, consumer redress and access to justice. Consumer law cuts across traditional doctrinal boundaries of private and public law and provides an opportunity for analysing a variety of forms of regulation such as private law, public regulation and enforcement, co-regulation, soft law, shaping market values, and harnessing market incentives.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW581 - Law and Literature (15 credits)

So much of law is about text and the manipulation of language: Becoming sensitive to the construction of narratives in judgements, learning to read argument in its many forms, recognising the ways in which words, and patterns of words, can be used to create effect, playing with ambiguities or seeking to express an idea with clarity, all these are fundamental skills for a lawyer. Law is also about performance, the roles which are assigned to us and the drama of the court room. And law, as text and performance, carries fundamental cultural messages about the society we live in and the values we aspire to. During this module, we will examine some of the many ways in which reading, viewing and listening to, 'the arts' helps us to think more concisely as well as more imaginatively about law. We welcome on to the module anyone who shares, with us, an enjoyment of reading, viewing and listening – this is a chance to be introduced to material you may not be familiar with as well as a chance to pursue an interest you may already have. Although the module is designed primarily for law students, it is also open to undergraduates from other degree programmes.



The module focuses on a small number of key texts through which to explore the themes and develop student skills. These vary from year to year.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW582 - Banking Law (15 credits)

This module will focus primarily on the domestic law of banking. The module is designed to provide students with a solid grounding in banking law as well as an understanding of the broader social, economic and political issues underlying the rapid evolution that is presently taking place in the banking industry. In addition, the module aims to provide students with an understanding of the relationship between banking practice and law and the practical application of banking law.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW583 - Art and Cultural Heritage Law (30 credits)

This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy considerations relating to the art market and cultural heritage. This module aims to define art and cultural heritage/cultural property; to identify the need for national and international regulation of the art trade (theft, illegal export, trafficking) both in time of peace and in time of war as well as the issue of restitution of wrongfully displaced objects. It will also explore areas of the art trade that need regulation such as consumer protection (fakes and forgeries); the role of experts (opinion and liability), artists (his rights, his freedom and his life), dealers (auction houses and private dealers), and museums (role and collection management) in the trade. Finally, the module addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage and it aims to give coherence to a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW584 - Forensic Science in Criminal Trials (15 credits)

Please note: You do not need to have studied maths, science or probabilities to perform well on this module!



Forensic evidence is a rapidly developing area in criminal trials – new techniques are continually being developed and forensic evidence such as DNA profiling is increasingly presented as evidence. This rapid expansion has resulted in forensic evidence becoming increasingly debated in the media and by the criminal justice process – from articles hailing DNA profiling as preventing or undoing miscarriages of justice to those questioning a lay jury’s ability to make a judgement in case involving highly complex scientific or medical evidence. This module considers how the criminal justice system makes use of forensic science. Initially, analysis of the relevant rules of evidence will be made alongside a broad overview of forensic science in the courtroom. This is then built upon through an exploration of case law and consideration of topical questions such as who should decide whether a new scientific technique should be admissible evidence, who are the experts who present the evidence to juries and the extent to which the admission of forensic evidence assists juries.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW585 - Environmental Law I (15 credits)

Environmental law involves the study of those areas of law which concern the threats to environmental quality and ecosystems brought about by a variety of human impacts, especially those involving pollution and the unsustainable use of natural resources. The subject represents both a pressing area of public concern and an increasingly important area of legal practice. Environmental Law I is focused upon those parts of environmental law which are most relevant to avoiding pollution of the environmental media of water, air and land. The module commences with a discussion of the foundational concepts of the subject, including the meaning of ‘the environment’, ‘pollution’ and ‘sustainable development’ in law. These ideas are then related to environmental quality legislation, concerned with public health and pollution controls in respect of different environmental media. After examining sectoral approaches to pollution control, the module then considers cross cutting issues, such as access to environmental information and alternative approaches to environmental regulation which utilise market mechanisms. In each case the object is to place discussion of national and European Community environmental laws in context, by considering how effectively they function as mechanisms for achieving sustainable development. These themes are pursued further in Environmental Law II, which is primarily concerned with the regulation of land use for environmental purposes and the legal protection afforded to biodiversity.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW509 - Human Rights and English Law (30 credits)

This module seeks to provide a sound knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles underlying the

law relating to human rights, including a grounding in the historical development and political philosophy of human

rights law; to provide a detailed grasp of the current protection of human rights in English law, with particular

reference to the Human Rights Act 1998 and European Convention on Human Rights; and to promote a critical

discussion about the nature, function and effects of human rights as they are, or might be, expressed in English law.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW505 - Family Law (30 credits)

This module focuses on the way law defines, constructs and regulates the family and familial relations. Autumn term deals broadly with the institution of marriage and relations between partners, including definitions of the family, marriage, civil partnerships and cohabitation, domestic violence, divorce and family dispute resolution. Spring term deals with the relationship between parents, children and the state, including reproductive technology, parenthood, children’s rights, private law disputes over post-separation arrangements for children, child support, and public law provisions for the care, supervision and adoption of children

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

Read more

LW507 - Critical Legal Theory (30 credits)

Are you interested in critical approaches to law? Critical Legal Theory can help! This module introduces you to major concepts, questions and perspectives that are important for a critical engagement with the problem of law in contemporary life. The module’s first aim is to build your vocabulary of critical legal concepts, which will deepen your engagement with law and legal problems. What does it mean to be ‘critical’? How can law aim for justice? Is law still authoritative? What qualifies as a legal text in contemporary society? How can we use understandings of sovereignty, judgment or the nature of government to critically analyse contemporary law? In the second term, we will apply these critical legal perspectives to a range of contemporary problems and situations. Examples might include biotechnology, facebook and social media, theoretical questions in governance and regulation, political protest, films and other popular cultural forms, human rights, social equality, terrorism and counter-terrorism, torture, the casualized workforce, and the plight of the refugee. Contemporary critical legal theory comes in many varieties and draws on many disciplines, and this module introduces you to a range of major approaches. Students will be able to focus their research essay on any substantive or theoretical area.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW518 - The Law of Evidence (30 credits)

The role of evidence in a courtroom is technical but its rules reflect core principles of the due process of law. These are becoming more significant with the implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998. The module considers matters such as the functions of judge and jury, standards and burdens of proof, the competence and examination of witnesses, the exclusionary rules relating to character, opinion and hearsay, improperly obtained evidence. The module also introduces students to the process of inferential logic.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW520 - Company Law and Capitalism (30 credits)

This module seeks not only to familiarise students with the basic concepts and structure of modern British company law, but also to provide them with a critical understanding of the nature and dynamics of modern capitalism and of the historical development of industrial organisation and the emergence of company law within it. In addition to a selection on modern company law, therefore, the module also traces the rise of the joint stock company in the nineteenth century and the emergence of company law in its wake. It moves on to trace the twentieth century rise of the modern multidivisional, multinational company and its impact on company law. In this context, it also considers the nature of the share and of shareholding, and the role of the Stock Market, and explores contemporary debates about corporate governance. Key aspects will include exploring the contractual relations between, on the one hand, the company and its agents and on the other hand, third parties who deal with the company, tracing the evolutionary changes from the Common Law to the modern predominantly statutory framework. It will also deal with aspects of corporate management and control, including directors’ duties, shareholders’ rights and the increasingly important issues pertaining to market abuse and how the law seeks to deal with such practices. Students are encouraged to familiarise themselves with current issues in the commercial world by reading the financial pages of the newspapers, as reference will frequently be made to current events to facilitate the learning process. The module will address a range of inter-related questions: How well suited is modern company law to the regulation of the large modern corporation? What do shareholders do? What does the Stock Market do? In whose interests are modern corporations run? In whose interest should they be run? How do companies contract and what are the relationships between the organs of the company?

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW522 - Comparative Law (30 credits)

Over the academic year, a wide range of topics will be covered, these may include the following:



- The History of Comparative Law

- The Strengths and Weaknesses of Comparative Law

- The Politics of Comparative Law

- Method: Comparative Law's Quandary

- The Relationship Between the (Legal) Self and the Other

- Reading Foreign Law: The Possibilities and Limits of Legal Translation

- Common Law and Civil Law: Not so Different?

- How Legal Concepts Travel (or Not) Across Legal Cultures

- Can Western Comparative Law Work in Asia?

- The Use of Foreign Law in Constitutional Interpretation

- The Debate Over Harmonization and Uniformization of Laws

- Towards a Global Legal Order? Comparative Law’s Contribution

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW539 - Droit civil (30 credits)

The module comprises an introduction to French Civil Law followed by a detailed analysis of the French law of obligations. It also includes practice in French legal methodology, particularly the essay (dissertation), the case commentary (commentaire d'arrêt) and the French legal plan.

The module consists of three parts. Following a brief introduction to French Civil Law the first part of the module examines the French law of contracts and quasi-contracts .This is intended to introduce students to key terms which will be used during the year and to provide a thorough grounding in the key aspects of contract law. The second section is devoted to the study of French tort law looking at the different regimes organised by the Civil Code and corresponding case law. The third section covers the general principles applicable to all obligations examining in particular the methods of circulation and extinction of civil obligations.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW540 - The Philosophy of Law (30 credits)

The Philosophy of Law is a module designed for those who are interested in all kinds of reflective speculation about law. What is law for? Should we value it? Should we obey it? What is its relation to justice, to morality and to politics? The module is divided into two parts; the first to takes the form of an examination of the major schools in legal philosophy that continue to have influence today, the second is a close, critical reading of a single work in the subject.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW542 - Policing (15 credits)

The police represent the clearest boundary between the citizen and the state - this module examines their origins and development and their current organisation as well as the evolution of the strategies of policing. It looks at their powers in relation to investigative and deployment techniques as well as issues of their accountability for their decisions and their actions. Underlying the module is an exploration of the role of policing within liberal democratic society.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW543 - Clinical Option (30 credits)

Students on this module must become members of the Kent Law Clinic, and work under Supervisors on ‘live’ cases for clients of the Clinic under the supervision of solicitors, or other experienced legal practitioners working alongside them. All Supervisors are members of the academic staff at Kent Law School. Students will develop their knowledge and understanding of specific areas of English law and procedure, and some specific skills. Students are encouraged to view their clinical work as a means to an end – not just the acquisition of important legal skills but primarily a better understanding and critical analysis of law and of legal practice. The excellent opportunity which clinical work provides for active learning, and for studying the interface between theory and practice, is placed firmly in this context.



Students are expected to undertake from the second week of Autumn term onwards until the end of the Spring term, under supervision, the conduct of at least two substantial cases (or the equivalent), involving proceedings in courts or tribunals or other legal forums, or projects on an area of law of relevance to the objects of the Clinic. Students will normally work on cases rather than projects. A Supervisor will decide whether a student has undertaken two substantial cases (or the equivalent) for the purposes of this module.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW556 - Intellectual Property Law (30 credits)

This module will focus on the leading topic areas of intellectual property law (including practical aspects), namely:

• Copyright

• Patents

• The uses of IP, remedies for infringement and enforcement

• International intellectual property

• Trade marks

• Passing off

• Breach of confidence

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW563 - Law - Dissertation (30 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Public Law II is a compulsory prerequisite module. Entry to this module will be based on gaining a Merit in stage 1, however, if they achieve a 2:1 in the Public Law 2 special study they may be admitted subsequently. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 30 credits (15 ECTS credits).

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LW566 - Law Dissertation (1 unit option) (15 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 2 and 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW570 - Law and Social Change (15 credits)

This module aims to investigate the relationship between law, morality, and social change, and how this relationship has changed and may change over time. In other words, it seeks responses to questions such as the following: How does law produce morality and morality produce law? What is the role of moral norms and obligation in legal practice? How does the character of law shift in response to social struggle? Why, if some modern social theories allow for the recognition of a vastly reduced number of valid norms, is moral discourse still the default mechanism for resolving conflicts in society? Has moral discourse been supplanted by other means of conflict resolution and social integration? How might we envision an ideal moral-legal framework?



Typically its content will include:

The meanings of law and social change

Classical Social Theory, law and Social Change

Contemporary social theory, law and social change

The Hart/Devlin Debate: Law, Disgust, and Social Change

Positive approaches to the promotion of Social Change

Feminism and Legal Reform

The Legal Profession and Social Change

Rights and citizenship

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW571 - Law and Society: Regulating Communities (15 credits)

This module focuses on governance, regulation, norm-maintenance and rule non-compliance within communities and institutions. It provides a distinct perspective to general questions of law, socio-legal theory, and jurisprudence. Key questions include: when do norms count as law? How do communities govern themselves, and what role do law and social norms play in this process? What authority do intentional communities possess when it comes to rule-breaking? What is the relationship between community rules and state law? Can communities function without rules? And is institutional law-breaking (or non-compliance) analogous to individual disobedience? Topics include: legal pluralism and legal consciousness, Foucault and governmentality, norm-following among strangers, etiquette within public sex communities, virtual worlds, governing through local currencies, nudism, self-regulation in a free school, and Speakers Corner.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW646 - Homelessness Law and Policy (15 credits)

• Social understandings of home and homelessness.

• The history of contemporary homelessness law and policy.

• England's current legal framework of homelessness law.

• Comparative legal and policy perspectives.

• Street homelessness and its regulation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW642 - International Law: Principles and Sources (15 credits)

The module will examine the role and function of international law in regulating relations between States and resolving international disputes. It will introduce students to a number of theoretical frameworks through which to understand and critically evaluate international law historically and in context. It will provide students with knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of international law and of its key concepts, principles and rules. The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international law to contemporary international problems and to critically assess its limitations and effects. This will be achieved through a range of topics and case studies.



An indicative list of topics studies follows:

• The history of international law

• Sources of international law

• The relationship between international law and domestic law

• Jurisdiction and Immunities

• Statehood

• Self-determination

• State responsibility

• International dispute settlement

• The International Court of Justice and International Organisations

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW643 - International Law and the Use of Force (15 credits)

The module will examine the role and function of international law in the use of force between states as well as non-state actors. It will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of international law on the use of force and of its concepts, principles and rules governing the use of force (jus ad bellum) and the conduct of armed conflict (jus in bello). The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international law on the use of force to contemporary international disputes and to critically assess its limitations and effects. This will be achieved through a range of topics and case studies.



The topics covered may include:



• The prohibition of the threat or use of force and the right to self-defence in international law

• Principles of International Humanitarian Law

• UN Peacekeeping and UN-authorised Peace Enforcement

• Humanitarian intervention and the 'Responsibility to Protect'

• Other doctrines of unilateral intervention

• Combatants and civilians

• Weapons and Methods of Warfare

• War Crimes

• The role of international humanitarian law in international criminal trials

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW644 - International Human Rights Law in Context (15 credits)

The module will examine the evolution, principles, institutions and functions of international human rights law in their political, social and economic contexts. It will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the origins and development of human rights law through critical study and analysis of key theoretical perspectives and debates. The module will enable students to consider the relevance, or otherwise, of international human rights law to historical and/or contemporary challenges and to critically assess its limitations and effects.



An indicative list of topics is as follows:



• The History of Human Rights Law and Contemporary Approaches to Human Rights Law.

• United Nations Treaty Bodies and Special Procedures.

• Regional Human Rights Systems and Approaches.

• The International Bill of Human Rights: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

• The Prohibition of Torture.

• Human Rights in Times of Crisis.

• Rights of Women.

• Rights of the Child.

• Minority Rights.

• Indigenous People's Rights.

• Forced Migration and Displacement.

• Right to Development.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW645 - International Law and Global Problems (15 credits)

This course explores selected global problems in their historical, social, political and economic contexts in light of international legal frameworks. The course begins with an examination of key critical perspectives in international law, such as Third World Approaches to International Law, before moving on to specific topics of historical or contemporary concern. Attention will be paid in particular to systemic problems of the global legal order and students are encouraged to analyse the limits and potential of international law to present solutions to global problems as well as the role played by international law in framing and constituting those problems in the first place.



By necessity these topics will vary, but an indicative list follows:



• International legal methods, critical histories and theoretical perspectives

• History and historiography of international law

• Reconciliation, transition and conceptions of justice

• International criminal law

• Territorial disputes

• Inequality, poverty and international law

• Natural resource use and extraction

• International law and the global political economy

• International trade and biosecurity

• International law and international relations

• Key cases in international law

• International Law and Violence

• International Law and Migration

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW611 - Law Dissertation Autumn Option (15 credits)

This module allows a student to undertake a lengthy writing project on a law -related subject that interests her/him under the supervision of a KLS staff member. It is available to Stage 2 and 3 students taking single or combined honours law programmes. Students wishing to take this module must settle on their topic and find a dissertation supervisor near the end of the Spring term of the academic year previous to the start of this module. During the first term of this module, the convenor will conduct several sessions on how to research and write a law dissertation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW616 - Law and International Development (15 credits)

The first half of the module will provide students with detailed knowledge and understanding of the idea of development, the international development project, the main international development institutions and the international context in which they developed, and the field of Law and Development. The second half of the module will examine contemporary topics in law and international development, including (but not limited to) human rights and development; decentralization and local development; sustainability and development; law and the informal sector; rule of law promotion.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW617 - Legal Ethics: Exploring the Ethics of Lawyersand Lawyering (15 credits)

This course will give students the opportunity to explore the ways in which moral reasoning can inform the study and practice of lawyering. Students will be asked to think and argue about the (possible) moral dimension of the practice of law. The course will include a theoretical component during which we will explore ways in which we might justify (or deny) a moral dimension to the practice of law. In the practical component we will use case studies (including that of the US government lawyers who provided legal justifications for the use of torture on ‘War on Terror’ prisoners). This case study and others will be used to discuss and debate issues in legal ethics, broadly conceived. The methodology will combine theoretical discussion of the principles that should inform the notion of legal ethics with analysis and discussion of actual moral and ethical dilemmas faced by lawyers and their resolution.



Block 1: Why Legal Ethics? An exploration of the moral reasoning and arguments behind the idea of ‘legal ethics’. Do lawyers have moral responsibilities as well as legal ones?

Block 2: Case studies and the ethical issues they raise. Answers to moral questions and dilemmas in legal practice.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW624 - Labour Law (15 credits)

This module is concerned with contemporary labour law. It combines legal analysis and the transmission of practical legal skills with a highly contextual and interdisciplinary understanding of the labour law and regulatory debates around labour regulation. To that end, workshops will feature extended discussion on key aspects of contemporary labour legislation using scholarly texts.. Students will also study key legal aspects of the modern employment relationship including the contract of employment, statutory employment protection provisions (for example unfair dismissal and redundancy protection), anti-discrimination legislation and provisions for reconciling work and family life (e.g. pregnancy protection and parental leave). The module will also explore selected aspects of collective labour law including the role and status of trade unions, the legal regulation of collective bargaining and/or the regulation of industrial conflict. The module seeks to combine a detailed knowledge of fundamental key aspects of labour law with the development of broader conceptual, critical and evaluative perspectives on workplace regulation.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW626 - Appropriate Dispute Resolution: Theory and Practice (15 credits)

In recent times, 'alternative' forms of dispute resolution (ADR) have been widely recognised as possessing the potential to limit some of the damage caused by civil disputes. Therefore, a lawyer’s skill-set ideally should include a well-developed ability to analyse, manage and resolve disputes both within and outside the usual setting of the courtroom. Thus, the module’s primary aim is to introduce students to the legal and regulatory issues surrounding methods of dispute resolution aside from litigation. Specifically, the module focuses on the practical factors relevant to selecting appropriate dispute resolution in distinct circumstances, including, for example, the employment and family law arenas.

Students will be provided with the resources to acquire a detailed theoretical and practical understanding of the contextual constraints associated with the use of different forms of dispute resolution and will be encouraged to develop their ability to evaluate the effectiveness of particular interventions, especially when used as an adjunct to court proceedings. The module tracks historic and current developments in relation the use of ADR, highlighting how government policy and courts appear, increasingly, to sanction failure to use ADR. This may well enhance students’ opportunities to hone career-advancing expertise in the field.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW627 - Advanced Topics in Equity and Trusts (15 credits)

This module, building on knowledge and understanding of certain concepts and principles from Equity & Trusts LW598, will explore equitable remedies and the institution of trust in further detail and examine new contexts in which they operate. Students will be introduced to a number of theoretical frameworks through which to understand and critically evaluate the role, function and concepts of equity and trusts historically and in contemporary society. These will be studied through a range of case studies and a range of different topics, including the nature of the trust; trusts and associations; secured equitable interests; pension trusts; family wealth; trusts in the offshore world; equity and fraud; equity and the vulnerable.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW629 - Critical Law and Practice of International Business Transactions (15 credits)

The module focuses on current issues in the law and practice of international business and trade law from critical perspectives. This includes exposing deficiencies in the regulation of international trade finance, international marketing operations, Countertrade, international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms and corruption in international business. The module considers the involvement of emerging business and financial jurisdictions in international trade. It broadly explores the inequities of global integration of international trade law and considers the influences of European Union law and those of leading developed economies and financial jurisdictions on regulation and actual practice of the field of international business transactions. Attention will be given to specialist and emerging areas of law such as international mergers and acquisition as well as philosophical aspects of international trade such as the Lex Mercatoria. It seeks to provide a comparative overview of emerging trends in international business regulation and aims to make students aware of ethical dimensions of international business transactions. Topics to be covered include International Trade within the contexts of public and private international law and international politics; Development and underdevelopment of commercial laws in international trade; mergers and acquisitions; counter trade as an alternative to current system of international business and trade; international franchising and agencies abroad; international commercial dispute settlement mechanisms; international corruption and the bribery of foreign officials; doctrine and practice of the New Lex Mercatoria.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW636 - Mental Health Law (15 credits)

The module will cover the historical development of mental health law (in brief), the Mental Health Act 1983, civil and criminal admissions to hospital, consent to treatment, capacity, the Mental Capacity Act 2005, discharge (including the role of the Mental Health Review Tribunal) and care in the community; proposals for reform; interaction with the criminal justice system.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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LW640 - Critical Legal Reasoning (15 credits)

A central question of this module is whether, and to what extent, there is anything distinctive about legal reasoning compared to reasoning in general. That question is posed from the perspective of a legal practitioner, in particular, an advocate. The aim of the module is to equip students – as potential advocates, but also in general – with a range of tools and skills of argument that are easily transferrable across legal and non-legal contexts.

It is a premise of the module that any competent advocate, or indeed lawyer, must demonstrate a proficient grounding in elementary logic. As such, the module will explore, and students will be expected to demonstrate, the role played inferential logic within legal reasoning. The module will also consider logical and other fallacies. For example, and drawing on Schauer, by asking whether authority-based reasoning (ie the doctrine of precedent) is a fallacy; and, drawing on Kahneman, by investigating the role played by psychological heuristics in all forms of decision-making including legal forms.

In addition to the conventional categories of inferential reasoning, the module will consider other forms of reasoning including, but not limited to, practical, statistical, and marginal/economic forms. In the latter context, and drawing on Farnsworth, it will consider the differences between ex post and ex ante forms of reasoning: the first response being about cleaning up after things have gone wrong, and the second about the effects of decisions in the future. The latter perspective leads naturally to a broader consideration of policy-based reasoning in general.

Students will explore the role played by different forms of reasoning in different contexts; for example by considering and demonstrating the use of logical deduction and probable inference in the context of legal proof (evidence) and the role of other forms of reasoning, including rhetoric, in the formulation of legal arguments.

The theoretical background will provide the basis upon which students will learn to construct effective (legal) arguments and to practice the skills learned in a variety of written and oral contexts ranging from skeleton arguments, oral presentations, mock trials and/or applicationsand/or mooting (subject to availability). Students will be expected to reflect critically on their learning practice by producing a self-reflective portfolio.

Credits: 15 credits (7.5 ECTS credits).

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You have the opportunity to select wild modules in this stage

Teaching & Assessment

Kent Law School emphasises research-led teaching which means that the modules taught are at the leading edge of new legal and policy developments. You are taught by as many of our leading researchers as possible. We also have one of the best student:staff ratios in the country, which allows small, weekly seminar-group teaching in all of our core modules, where you are actively encouraged to take part.

Most modules are assessed by end-of-year examinations and continuous assessment, the ratio varying from module to module, with Kent encouraging and supporting the development of research and written skills. Some modules include an optional research-based dissertation that counts for 45% or, in some cases, 100% of the final mark. Assessment can also incorporate assessment through oral presentation and argument, often in the style of legal practice (such as mooting), and client based work and reflection through our Law Clinic.

Law School staff include the winner of the 2012 OUP Law Teacher of the Year Award, with Kent the only law school in the UK to have had staff shortlisted for the award for three consecutive years.

Programme aims

The programme aims to:

  • attract and meet the needs of those contemplating a career in the legal professions or those motivated primarily by an intellectual interest in English law, and the desire to understand the workings of another jurisdiction while pursuing courses with a European, International or comparative dimension
  • widen participation in higher education by offering a variety of entry routes
  • provide students with a grounding in English law and the opportunity to acquire an understanding of other legal systems
  • encourage an interest in European culture and knowledge of a relevant European language
  • provide knowledge and understanding of the principal institutions and procedures of the English legal system
  • provide knowledge of the major concepts and principles of English law, the law of the European Union, and the European Convention on Human Rights
  • develop a critical awareness of law in its comparative, historical, socio-economic and political contexts, and introduce a range of different theoretical approaches to the study of law
  • offer a range of modules covering the foundations of legal knowledge, as defined by the Law Society and the Bar Council, which will enable students who successfully complete them, to obtain exemption from the initial or academic stage of training for entry into the legal professions
  • offer students an opportunity to study Law in a Dutch, Danish or Norwegian law faculty (Amsterdam, Maastricht, Copenhagen or Bergen) where they will obtain a diploma depending upon their individual ability
  • provide teaching informed by current research and scholarship, which requires students to engage with aspects of work at the frontiers of knowledge
  • offer the opportunity to acquire direct experience of legal practice and critically reflect on it through participation in the University Law Clinic
  • enable students to manage their own learning and carry out independent research
  • develop critical, analytical, functional, comparative and problem-solving skills
  • develop personal, communication, research and other key skills appropriate for employment in the legal professions and other fields.

Learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

You gain knowledge and understanding of:

  • the English legal system, including its institutions, procedures and sources of law
  • the law of the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
  • the concepts, principles and rules of a range of English legal subjects, including an in-depth knowledge of some areas of law and, depending on options, the law of the EU, the ECHR, international law and comparative law
  • the concepts, principles and rules of Public Law, the Law of Obligations and specialised areas of law as studied in a Dutch, Danish or Norwegian Law faculty
  • the relationship between law and the historical, linguistic, socio-economic and political contexts in which it operates
  • theoretical, comparative and critical perspectives which can be applied to the study of law.

Intellectual skills

You gain the following intellectual abilities:

  • effectively apply knowledge to analyse complex issues
  • recognise and rank items and issues in terms of their relevance and importance
  • collect and synthesise information from a variety of English, European and International sources
  • formulate and sustain a complex argumentand support it with appropriate evidence
  • recognise potential alternative solutions to problems and make a reasoned choice between them
  • independently acquire knowledge and understanding
  • demonstrate independent thought and critically challenge received understandings and conclusions
  • reflect constructively on your own learning processes.

Subject-specific skills

You gain subject-specific skills in the following:

  • application and problem solving: recognise the legal issues arising in a factual situation of limited complexity in English, European, Comparative and International law; identify and apply the case and statute law relevant to it; provide an informed, reasoned opinion on the possible legal actions arising from it, and their likelihood of success
  • Sources, research and evaluation: identify the legal and related issues to be researched; locate and use primary and secondary legal and other relevant sources; conduct independent legal research using a range of resources, paper and electronic; critically evaluate an area of law both doctrinally and in terms of its socio-economic and other consequences; function in both the English and the broader milieu of European, Comparative and International law.

Transferable skills

You gain transferable skills in the following:

  • communication and literacy: use, both orally and in writing, the English Language in relation to legal matters and, generally, with care, accuracy and effectiveness; engage constructively and effectively in arguments and discussions of complex matters in English law and European, International and Comparative law; give a clear and coherent presentation on a topic using appropriate supporting materials; read complex legal and non-legal materials; employ the correct legal terminology and methods of citation and referencing for legal and other academic materials and produce work in appropriate formats
  • teamwork, numeracy and IT: work collaboratively in groups to achieve defined tasks, respond to different points of view and negotiate outcomes; present and evaluate information in a numerical or statistical form; word-processing and use a range of electronic databases and other information sources.

Careers

Kent has an excellent employment record, with Law School graduates demanding some of the highest starting salaries in the UK. Law graduates can go into a variety of careers, including working as: solicitors or barristers in private practice; lawyers in companies, local authorities, central government and its agencies, or in the institutions of the European Union; non-legal careers, such as banking, finance and management.

Kent Law School has an active careers programme that sees a number of leading law firms and prominent members of the legal profession (including Kent alumni) visit the University to meet and speak with students. The Law School also gives students the opportunity to develop legal skills while at Kent, through modules in mooting and negotiation, and through involvement in the Law Clinic. We also actively work with employers to create work placement opportunities for our students.

Professional recognition

All programmes can lead to a Qualifying Law Degree (QLD). A QLD is recognised by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board as satisfying the first (or ‘Academic’) stage of training required to qualify as a solicitor or barrister in England and Wales.

Please be aware that the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board are conducting independent reviews of the legal training and education required to qualify as a solicitor or barrister in England and Wales. These reviews cover the ‘Academic Stage’ of training and may impact upon the role of the law degree as part of the training process. Please see the website of each regulator for more information (the Solicitors Regulation Authority and the Bar Standards Board).

Entry requirements

Home/EU students

The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications, typical requirements are listed below, students offering alternative qualifications should contact the Admissions Office for further advice. It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
A level

AAA-AAB

Access to HE Diploma

The University of Kent will not necessarily make conditional offers to all access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis. If an offer is made candidates will be required to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.

BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)

The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and Extended National Diploma Qualifications (QCF; NQF;OCR) on a case by case basis please contact us via the enquiries tab for further advice on your individual circumstances.

International Baccalaureate

34 points overall or 17 points at HL

International students

The University receives applications from over 140 different nationalities and consequently will consider applications from prospective students offering a wide range of international qualifications. Our International Development Office will be happy to advise prospective students on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about our country-specific requirements.

Please note that if you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes through Kent International Pathways.

Qualification Typical offer/minimum requirement
English Language Requirements

Please see our English language entry requirements web page.

Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.

General entry requirements

Please also see our general entry requirements.

Funding

University funding

Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. Our funding opportunities for 2017 entry have not been finalised but will be updated on our funding page in due course.

Government funding

You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.

The Government has confirmed that EU students applying for university places in the 2017 to 2018 academic year will still have access to student funding support for the duration of their course.

Scholarships

General scholarships

Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.

The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence

At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence. The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications as specified on our scholarships pages.

The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.

Enquire or order a prospectus

Resources

Read our student profiles

Contacts

Related schools

Enquiries

T: +44 (0)1227 827272

Fees

The 2017/18 tuition fees for this programme are:

UK/EU Overseas
Full-time £9250 £13810

As a guide only, UK/EU/International students on an approved year abroad for the full 2017/18 academic year pay an annual fee of £1,350 to Kent for that year. Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status. Please note that for 2017/18 entrants the University will increase the standard year in industry fee for home/EU/international students to £1,350.

The Government has announced changes to allow undergraduate tuition fees to rise in line with inflation from 2017/18.

In accordance with changes announced by the UK Government, we are increasing our 2017/18 regulated full-time tuition fees for new and returning UK/EU fee paying undergraduates from £9,000 to £9,250. The equivalent part-time fees for these courses will also rise from £4,500 to £4,625. This was subject to us satisfying the Government's Teaching Excellence Framework and the access regulator's requirements. This fee will ensure the continued provision of high-quality education.

For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact information@kent.ac.uk

Key Information Sets


The Key Information Set (KIS) data is compiled by UNISTATS and draws from a variety of sources which includes the National Student Survey and the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data for assessment and contact hours is compiled from the most populous modules (to the total of 120 credits for an academic session) for this particular degree programme. Depending on module selection, there may be some variation between the KIS data and an individual's experience. For further information on how the KIS data is compiled please see the UNISTATS website.

If you have any queries about a particular programme, please contact information@kent.ac.uk.

The University of Kent makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in its publicity materials is fair and accurate and to provide educational services as described. However, the courses, services and other matters may be subject to change. Full details of our terms and conditions can be found at: www.kent.ac.uk/termsandconditions.

*Where fees are regulated (such as by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills or Research Council UK) they will be increased up to the allowable level.

Publishing Office - © University of Kent

The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NZ, T: +44 (0)1227 764000

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