Combine the study of two core elements of business on our Economics and Management joint honours programme. You gain the skills and knowledge essential for managing key areas of organisations alongside an understanding of economic processes and practices.
The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice.
Please note that meeting this typical offer/minimum requirement does not guarantee an offer being made.Please also see our general entry requirements.
If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.
BBB from three full A levels excluding General Studies and Critical Thinking
Mathematics grade B / 6. However, those who hold GCSE Mathematics at grade 5 will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis.
If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.
The University will consider applicants holding BTEC National Diploma and National Extended Diploma qualifications (QCF; NQF; OCR) on a case by case basis. Applicants must also have one or more accompanying A levels.
34 points overall or 15 points at HL, including Mathematics SL or HL at 4, or Mathematical Studies at 5
The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.
However, please note that international fee-paying students cannot undertake a part-time programme due to visa restrictions.
If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.
For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.
Please see our English language entry requirements web page.
Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme.
Duration: 3 years full-time (4 with a year in industry)
The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.
On most programmes, you study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also be able to take ‘elective’ modules from other programmes so you can customise your programme and explore other subjects that interest you.
The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.
The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.
The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.
The module introduces students to theories of management beginning with classical management perspectives through to contemporary management concepts. It will illustrate the continuities and transformations in management thinking throughout the 20th and 21st century. The main topics of study include: Scientific Management; Human Relations Approach; Bureaucracy and Post-Bureaucracy; The Contingency Approach; Culture Management; Leadership; Aesthetic Labour; Extreme Management.
The module will cover various aspects of the changing international business environment, and their impact upon business operations and strategy. It will give students an appreciation of the business difficulties faced; the variety of factors influencing the choices and compromises that have to be made in international businesses, and the implications of those for the future viability and effectiveness of the organisations concerned.
An indicative list of topics is given below:
2. External environment in a cross-border context
3. Introduction to international trade
4. Introduction to international investment
5. Global finance
6. Technology,Innovation and sustainability
7. Introduction to international entrepreneurship
8. Social responsibility and ecological environment
9. Challenges, risks and change
10. variety of geopolitical country contexts
An indicative set of topics to be covered within the module are outlined below.
• Basic Spreadsheet Functionalities: Introduction to common spreadsheet features: workbooks, worksheets, menus, cells, rows, columns, data types, relative and absolute cell addressing, copying, basic formulae, naming cells, formatting, charts and graphs, printing.
• Data Management Facilities: sorting, filtering, data forms, pivot tables.
• What-If Analysis: scenario manager, goal seek, data tables.
• Basic Financial Analysis: Introduction to basic financial analysis and how to carry this out using spreadsheets: compound interest, discounting, NPV, IRR, loans and mortgages.
• Advanced Spreadsheet Functionalities: automating tasks and solving simple optimisation business problems.
The module will begin with an introduction to the link between business and accounting in order to show the value to the students of their having some knowledge of accounting. The module is designed to teach students how to prepare, read and interpret financial information with a view to their being future business managers rather than accountants.
The module will continue with a brief demonstration of double-entry bookkeeping. Students will not be examined on this, it is merely to put bookkeeping and accounting in context. Following on from this, students will be shown how to prepare financial statements from a trial balance and make adjustments to the figures given by acting on information given in a short scenario.
The regulatory framework of financial reporting will be considered as will the annual reports and accounts of a variety of organisations. The module will finish will an analysis of financial statements with students shown how to interpret data and make sensible recommendations
This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules EC580 and EC581.
The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:
• Graphical and numerical analyses of data
• The principles of probability
• Probability Density Functions
• Sampling and its use in inference
• Regression and correlation
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification, or who meet the minimum entry standard. The module (or its equivalent for students without A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who do not have A-Level mathematics, AS mathematics or an equivalent qualification and who do not meet a minimum entry standard. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; and non-linear functions. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.
In addition to the core Stage 1 mathematics curriculum, the module offers targeted support to students in order to identify gaps in their basic understanding mathematics and raise their proficiency to the level required in Stage 2.
Students will be expected to develop the ability to use appropriate techniques of analysis and enquiry within Operations Management and to learn how to evaluate alternatives and make recommendations. Topics are likely to include:
• Strategic role of operations and operations strategy
• Design of processes and the implications for layout and flow
• Design and management of supply networks in national and international contexts
• Resource planning and management
• Lean systems
• Quality planning and managing improvement
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.
The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.
Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.
Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.
The module provides a broad, basic understanding of strategy and strategic management, on which further strategic analysis and exploration of strategic issues can be built. It introduces students to the key vocabulary, concepts and frameworks of strategic management and establishes criteria for assessing whether or not a strategy can be successful. It introduces students to frameworks for analysing the external and internal environments and to different theories of how these relate and of their impact on strategy formulation and implementation.
Students will learn how to identify strategic issues, develop strategic options to address them and decide which option(s) to recommend. Through theoretical readings and case studies, students will develop an appreciation of strategy in different contexts and from different perspectives and of the complexity of strategic decision-making. Students will enhance their ability to read business articles from a strategic perspective and to present strategic arguments in a structured manner
Project Management aims to provide an understanding of the key concepts and practices within the context of the organisational setting and the wider business and technological environment.
This module aims to develop a critical understanding of project management to enable students to recognise the importance of the discipline in a variety of organisational and functional contexts. Students should develop a critical understanding of the concepts employed in project management at strategic, systems and operational levels, and an appreciation of the knowledge and skills required for successful project management in organisations.
Included topics of the module are:
• Project life cycles and alternative development paths;
• Feasibility studies;
• Time management;
• Project planning and control techniques, including Gantt charts, CPM;
• Resource planning;
• Quality Control;
• Project communication;
This module will introduce students to the key concepts of managing people involving and examination of organisational, management and human resource management theory and practice. This will be achieved through relating relevant theory to practical people and organisational management issues.
The key topics of the module are:
• The nature of human resource management
• Motivation in the workplace
• Work organisation, job design and flexible working
• Groups and team working
• Diversity in the workplace
• Recruitment & selection
• Learning and development
• Employee Involvement and participation
• Employee performance and reward
• Ethical HRM
You have the opportunity to select elective modules in this stage.
You can opt to take a year in industry with the Economics and Management joint honours programme, which contributes towards your final degree classification. The year in industry is taken between the second (Stage 2) and third years (Stage 3) of the degree. See Economics and Management with a Year in Industry for more details.
The placement must be with a suitable employer, but the reference to 'in industry' is intended to cover employers in any service sector as well as in manufacturing.
Students are responsible for finding their placements, but the School offers structured support for the application process in the form of a non-contributory module, 'Preparing for a Placement'.
Students must pass Stage 2 of their degree before they can embark on the year in industry.
Students will be expected to develop the ability to use appropriate techniques of analysis and enquiry within Operations and Service Management and to learn how to evaluate the alternatives and make recommendations. Topics include:
• The nature of services and service strategy
• Service development and technology
• Service quality and the service encounter
• Project/Event management and control
• Managing capacity and demand in services
• Managing inventories
This module focusses on performance management activities undertaken by both line managers and functional HR managers in organisations in a variety of contexts (such as private, public and voluntary sector) and geographical settings (domestic and international). The aim of the module is to analyse organisational processes and practices pertaining to the optimisation of employee performance and managing related aspects of the employment relationship. Underpinning theories/principles related to this module arise mainly from psychology and organisational behaviour origins, and will include critiques from a variety of appropriate perspectives such as ethical, unitarist, pluralist, and labour process perspectives. A key aspect of the module is to develop students' conceptual and practical skills in managing employee performance.
Employee performance, retention, recruitment/selection, development, engagement
The module will focus on practical applications of analytical methods in the context of HR processes. Participants will acquire an understanding of quantitative methods important for prediction and evaluation. Statistical techniques will be applied to analyse a range of employee characteristics and HR processes in view of their optimisation and contribution to employee well-being and firm performance.
Indicative topics of study are:
• Introduction to People Analytics
• HR Systems, Data Databases and their usage
• Statistical methods for prediction and evaluation
• Analytics for diversity management
• Analytics for employee attitudes and perceptions
• Analytics for managing employee turnover and performance
• Analytics for managing recruitment and selection
• Analytics for training, learning and development
• Critical People Analytics – data privacy, transparency, security and ethics
The module looks at how digital marketing applications can be used by modern organisations. The module considers the fundamental technologies that support digital marketing along with the regulatory and societal challenges that must be taken into account, for example, privacy and data protection. The methods available to attract customers through digital marketing are covered making a distinction between paid methods, such as sponsored search, and non-paid methods, such as an organisation's own social media assets. Issues around loyalty are considered especially in the context of falling search costs which enable customers to switch providers.
The unique nature of digital products, for example music downloads or video streaming, are outlined with the marketing challenges and opportunities this presents. The module stresses the importance of implementation, using applied examples, and the uncertainty involved.
The digital marketing environment; Enabling technologies for digital marketing; Website design, implementation and analysis; Social media; Social commerce; Customers in the Internet age: knowing, reaching & retaining the customer; Network effects and versioning; Loyalty, Customer Relationship Management and Data Mining; E-Marketing campaigns; Brands in the Internet age; Data protection, privacy and legal issues; Digital marketing and globalisation
This module is designed to provide students across the university with access to knowledge, skill development and training in the field of entrepreneurship with a special emphasis on developing a business plan in order to exploit identified opportunities. Hence, the module will be of value for students who aspire to establishing their own business and/or introducing innovation through new product, service, process, project or business development in an established organisation. The module complements students' final year projects in Computing, Law, Biosciences, Electronics, Multimedia, and Drama etc.
This module facilitates the development of an entrepreneurial mind-set, and equips students with necessary cutting-edge knowledge and skills vital for generating value in a knowledge based economy. The curriculum will include the following areas of study:
• Broader application of entrepreneurship
• Co-creation as a new form of generating value in an innovation ecosystem.
• Managing innovation entrepreneurially
• Entrepreneurial opportunity
• Entrepreneurial Motivation
• Entrepreneurial Marketing
• Entrepreneurial Finance – Finance fuels entrepreneurship.
This module presents an overview of what workforce diversity is and its relevance and usefulness in improving our understanding and management of people (including ourselves) at work. The demographics of the population and the workplace are changing drastically because of a number of factors, such as an increasing number of ethnic minorities and women in the workforce and in management. Accordingly, there is a need to effectively understand and manage workforce diversity not only to increase organisational business outcomes but also to create an inclusive workplace in a socially responsible manner.
The module will examine issues confronting managers of a diverse workforce. In particular issues such as ethnicity, race, language, ageing, disability, gender, and intersectional identities will be discussed. Two key approaches towards managing diversity will be explained, i.e. the social equity case of managing diversity, and the business benefits case of managing diversity. The module will explore a range of diversity related concepts and topics, such as social identity, stereotyping, discrimination, intergroup conflict, structural integration, and organisational change.
Indicative topics are:
• Origins of diversity and equal opportunity in the workplace context;
• Social and psychological perspectives on workplace diversity;
• The UK and European diversity contexts;
• Business benefits case and social equity case of managing diversity;
• The legal framework for diversity;
• Organisational approaches to diversity;
• Contemporary issues central to the experiences of diverse individuals in the UK and in organisations across a range of diversity dimensions;
• Diversity management in an international context
This module presents an overview of what work psychology is and its relevance and usefulness in improving our understanding and management of people (including ourselves) at work. Many work places operate sophisticated and expensive systems for assessing the costs and benefits of various workplace elements but often do not extend this to the management of employees. This module aims to demonstrate the benefits of having a comprehensive understanding of the role psychology can play in the management of people in contemporary organizations. Indicative content includes:
• Work psychology
• Individual differences and psychometrics
• Best practice personnel selection
• Stress and well-being
• Stereotypes and group behaviour
• Leadership and diversity
• The dark side of personality
• Political behaviour in the workplace
• The psychology of entrepreneurs
• Using work psychology to enhance employability
International and Comparative Human Resource Management aims to provide an analysis of the HRM systems in seven countries: USA, Germany, Sweden, France, Italy, China and India. Students will be introduced to the main concepts and theories through readings and discussions of the main authors in the field.
Within a broad historical context, an international comparative approach will be adopted to consider the development of the relationship between national governments, employers and trade unions. This will include an investigation of the development and decline of employment relations systems and the emergence of human resource management.
This module will allow students to work on a substantive piece of research which will allow them to frame and prioritise real business problems using well known fields and frameworks within academic business and management disciplines.
• Developing important research questions in the area of business and management
• Literature search and review
• Understanding different research designs used in business and management research projects
• Collection, use and analysis of secondary and primary data
• Developing Analytical and Critical Thinking in using theory and data to frame and address business and management problems
• Preparing and structuring the Business/Consultancy Project
• Referencing, Citations and Developing writing skills
• Communication and Presentation skills
The aim of this module is to provide students with in-depth knowledge about the accounting and control systems businesses use for making managerial decisions. In particular, the module focuses on profit planning decisions and it gives students a thoughtful understanding of the functioning and range of financial controls managers use for making profit planning decisions, related to both the business as a whole and its segments. Students are expected to conduct a management project: they will prepare a business plan that takes into account strategic, marketing and financial aspects. The module also enables students to know how to use accounting and control tools to assess business performance, provide feedback and give recommendations for improvements aimed to create more socially responsible and sustainable businesses. As such, this module is core to the degree program, because it gives an introduction to three key areas: managerial decision making, performance management and organisational financial management.
This module will explore more advanced management and organizational theory to facilitate students’ examination of contemporary management challenges. As well as considering these challenges from a mainstream managerial perspective, the module will also draw on the perspective of critical management studies as a means of providing an alternative viewpoint on contemporary management issues. Indicative topic areas may include:
Globalization and anti-globalization
The character of ownership – foreign versus national ownership
Social and environmental sustainability
Corporate social responsibility and corporate criminality
Organizational misbehaviour and resistance
Organizational identity and identity work
Masculinisation and Feminisation of Management
New forms of work such as emotional labour and aesthetic labour
New organizational forms
This module will introduce students to the key concepts of managing people, involving an examination of organisational, human resource management and industrial relations theory. This will be achieved through relating relevant theory to practical people and organisational management issues.
Topics of study are:
The theory of strategic HRM; Strategic HRM and Business Strategy;
Strategic HRM and Organisational Performance;
Strategic employee involvement and participation;
HRM in the public sector;
HRM in Small and Medium Enterprises;
HRM in the voluntary sector;
Strategic HRM in the international context.
Making decisions is one of the most important things any manager or business must do. Making smart decisions, however, can be extremely difficult due the complexity and uncertainty involved. Decision Analysis (DA) provides a structured and coherent approach to decision making. It involves a wide range of quantitative and graphical methods for identifying, representing, and assessing alternatives in order to determine a best course of action. DA is regularly employed by many leading companies in the pharmaceutical, oil and gas, utilities, automotive, and financial services sectors. In this module, you learn about the basic concepts of DA and how to apply it in a variety of practical business planning situations.
The module aims to provide a critical understanding of the challenges of managing creativity and innovation within contemporary organisations. The experience of work and employment, management practices are affected by rapid technological change, intensifying global competition and changing demographic profiles and values of the work force. Contemporary organisations are pressurised to tackle these developments through creativity, innovation and new organisational forms. This module examines the nature, antecedents, processes and consequences of creativity and innovation and their complex links with organisation, while also exploring major social and technological changes relating these to organisational creativity and innovation. Students will be introduced to the main concepts and theories on creativity, innovation and organisation through readings and discussions of the main themes and debates in the field. Case studies will be used to illustrate how these concepts are connected together and how they could impact upon management decision making within contemporary organisations. Students will be encouraged to explore some of the most notable historical and contemporary shifts in media and technology and discover how new organisational forms and methods have been devised to exploit them. They will develop awareness for the cross-fertilisation between disciplines in analyzing the dynamics of creativity, innovation and organisation and their complex relationships.
• Conceptual foundations of creativity, innovation and organisation
• Personality and individual creativity
• Organisational creativity and innovation
• Cognition, knowledge and creativity
• Models and processes of innovation
• Organisational culture and systems for supporting creativity and innovation
• Leadership and entrepreneurship
• Creative organisations across fields/ industries
• Socio-technological change and new forms of organisation.
This module offers a comprehensive introduction to the area of cross-cultural management research. Based on a critical analysis of the assumptions underlying various approaches to studying national cultures, frameworks are applied to understand cross-cultural issues managers in international organisations may face. Indicative topics are:
• Management and culture
• Different approaches to cross-cultural management
• Cultural-frameworks and its application
• Roles of the global manager
• Global management challenges
The aim of this module is to provide students with (1) a systematic understanding of how information technology is driving business innovation, (2) the methods and approaches used by managers to exploit new digital opportunities, and (3) an appreciation of the knowledge and skills needed to manage the business innovation. By the end of this module, students will be equipped with the necessary knowledge and tools to deal with current business issues including digital transformation and emerging business models via technological innovations.
The aim of this module is to equip students with basic knowledge of analytics tools to analyse and interpret data, forecast future trends and optimise decisions in many areas of business, including operations, marketing and finance.
The module covers two indicative themes as follows:
1. Predictive analytics. In this part of the module, students will learn approaches to extract information from existing data sets in order to determine patterns and predict future outcomes and trends. Approaches include regression analysis, forecasting techniques, simulation and data mining.
2. Prescriptive analytics. In this part of the module, students will learn how to develop optimisation models to support business decision making. Students will be guided through demonstrations involving a variety of business problems, including transportation, assignment, product mix and scheduling problems.
The aim of this hands-on and highly practical module is to introduce students to the power of data intelligence in transforming the way businesses operate. Students will learn how to develop a successful big data strategy and deliver organisational performance improvements through the use of data analytics.
Indicative topics covered in the module include: business intelligence principles, data visualisation and dashboards, data warehouse and integration, artificial intelligence in business applications, big data, social network analysis, text mining, and participatory approaches for problem structuring.
Students will be exposed to a variety of case studies which demonstrate how pervasive data intelligence and analytics have become in every industry and sector, including examples from supply chain management, transport, marketing, finance, healthcare, and human resources. By the end of the module, students will have an understanding of how specific companies use big data and a grasp of the actionable steps and resources required to utilise data effectively.
This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.
The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.
The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.
Important considerations within the module include:
• How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?
• What is the link between money and finance?
• What explains bank runs?
• Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?
This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.
The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.
Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.
Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:
• The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty
• Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change
• Models of the growth and development process
• The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process
• Dualism and vicious circles of poverty
• Trade and Development
This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (Stata), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.
The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.
What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.
This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.
The module links theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy and includes the following topics:
Univariate Time Series Analysis
• Concepts of stochastic processes;
• Types of linear processes: Autoregressions and moving averages
• Nonstationary linear processes
• Predicting stochastic processes
• Estimation of linear time series models
Dynamic Econometric Models
• Nonsense Regressions;
• The autoregressive distributed lag model;
• Cointegration and equilibrium correction.
Multiple Time Series Models
• Vector autoregressive processes;
• Structural analysis: Causality and impulse-response analysis.
These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces students to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps students to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.
The module provides insight into the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at the EU level. It introduces the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of developments to date
The emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. The nature of economic integration is such that the module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and analysis going beyond that covered in more theory focussed modules.
This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.
The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:
1. The relationship between unemployment and wages
2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled
3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women
4. Government policy towards skills and education
5. Executive pay
Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.
The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.
The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.
The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.
The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.
The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.
The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.
The topics covered in the module include:
1. Open economy macroeconomics and policy.
2. Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.
3. Microfounded models of the current account.
4. International financial flows.
5. International indebtedness.
6. International financial crises
7. International monetary arrangements.
This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.
International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.
This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:
• Structural macro and monetary modelling
• Reduced form macro and monetary modelling
• Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy
• Policy interventions
The module focuses on the role of the government in the economy. It uses the tools of microeconomics and empirical analysis to study the impact of government policies on individual behaviour and the distribution of resources in the economy.
The module explores the economic arguments for and against government intervention in the economy, also introducing insights from behavioural economics into the analysis and design of public policies.
This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.
First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.
While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.
The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions.
There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.
There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 1).
This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.
The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:
- what are the determinants of growth?
- how can we improve productivity?
- what kind of role does the government play on growth?
- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?
In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals – their opportunities, constraints, and choices – to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.
The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies – such the World Bank and DfID – as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.
This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.
The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.
The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.
1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:
2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:
3. Institutions and Development:
4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:
5. Climate Agreements:
The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.
• Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems
• Optimisation Theory
• Dynamic Models
The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.
The module will cover the following topics:
1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts
2. Theories of financial crises
3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective
4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries
5. Early 19th century financial crises
6. The 1890s
7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed
8. The Great Depression I – Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises
9. The Great Depression II – US banking crisis
10. The Great Depression III – Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis
11. Financial crises in the 1990s
12. The Great Recessions – housing bubble, contagion, banking crisis
The 2020/21 annual tuition fees for this programme are:
For details of when and how to pay fees and charges, please see our Student Finance Guide.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £9,250.
For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.*
The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £1,385.
Full-time tuition fees for Home and EU undergraduates are £1,385.
Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status.
Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details.
You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.
Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.
At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence.
The scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages.
The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either mathematics or a modern foreign language. Please review the eligibility criteria.
All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games.
The School of Economics is committed to making sure that you leave Kent with much more than just a degree in Economics. We put great emphasis on the development of transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.
The modules are assessed by a mixture of coursework and written examinations.
For a student studying full time, each academic year of the programme will comprise 1200 learning hours which include both direct contact hours and private study hours. The precise breakdown of hours will be subject dependent and will vary according to modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
Methods of assessment will vary according to subject specialism and individual modules. Please refer to the individual module details under Course Structure.
For programme aims and learning outcomes, please see the programme specification for each subject below. Please note that outcomes depend on your specific module selection:
All University of Kent courses are regulated by the Office for Students.
Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.
Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.
In the National Student Survey 2019, over 92% of final-year Economics students who completed the survey, were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.
In The Guardian University Guide 2020, over 88% of final-year Economics students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.
Business and Management Studies at Kent scored 93% overall in The Complete University Guide 2021.
Of Business Studies graduates who responded to the most recent national survey of graduate destinations, over 94% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE, 2017).
Our graduates have gone on to work in:
Recent graduates have joined:
The School offers an employability programme with specially designed modules aimed at helping you develop the skills you'll need to look for a job. In addition, we offer:
The University also has a friendly Careers and Employability Service which can give you advice on how to:
Internships, either for a week or two or for the whole summer, can be a valuable addition to your studies. We provide guidance and assistance on where to look and how to apply.
Alongside a thorough understanding of economic issues and management, you develop key transferable skills that will appeal to employers. These include the ability to:
You can also gain additional skills by signing up for one of our Kent Extra activities, such as learning a language or volunteering.
Full-time applicants (including international applicants) should apply through the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) system. If you need help or advice on your application, you should speak with your careers adviser or contact UCAS Customer Contact Centre.
The institution code number for the University of Kent is K24, and the code name is KENT.
See the UCAS website for an outline of the UCAS process and application deadlines.
If you are applying for courses based at Medway, you should add the campus code K in Section 3(d).
Discover Uni is designed to support prospective students in deciding whether, where and what to study. The site replaces Unistats from September 2019.
Discover Uni is jointly owned by the Office for Students, the Department for the Economy Northern Ireland, the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales and the Scottish Funding Council.
Find out more about the Unistats dataset on the Higher Education Statistics Agency website.