Economics examines some of the profound issues in our times: economic growth and sustainable development, unemployment, poverty, financial and monetary crises, trade and aid. As a Kent Economics student, you analyse and discuss these crucial areas and are challenged to contribute to possible solutions. On this programme you also have the opportunity to spend a year studying in France.
Our School of Economics is ranked among the UK's top ten economics departments for graduate prospects. Our economists are internationally recognised for their research and are also exciting and innovative teachers who place a particular emphasis on making economics relevant to the real world.
The School of Economics provides outstanding academic support. Each student has a dedicated academic adviser and we also run a peer mentoring scheme where experienced final-year students offer advice and support to new students.
We are an international community with academic staff and students from many countries so you develop a global perspective on your subject.
Our degree programme
In your first year, you learn how economists think and become familiar with the tools they use for analysing real economic problems. You can also study modules on the European economy in the 20th century, as well as strategy and games.
In your second and final years, you study macroeconomics, microeconomics and quantitative economics. Optional modules cover areas such as international finance, industrial and monetary economics, and the economics of money and banking. Our wide range of modules means you can tailor your degree to support your particular career ambitions; for example, you can choose modules that prepare you for life as a professional economist.
On this European Economics (French) programme you spend a year between your second and final year studying at a partner university in France. Teaching is in French, and you take some language-based modules in your first and second year at Kent to develop your skills.
We also offer European Economics programmes with a year at university in Germany, Spain or Greece. For more details, see European Economics (German), European Economics (Spanish) or European Economics.
You may wish to join the following student-run societies:
- the Economics Society, which organises lecturers and conferences, as well as social events
- Kent Investment Society, which focuses on the financial markets. It is made up of analysts, head analysts and committee members, who each cover a particular financial market. In previous years, the Society has organised an annual virtual trading competition.
The School of Economics also hosts events that you are welcome to attend. These include:
- public lectures and seminars
- employability workshops
- networking events.
Many of our staff advise UK, European and international organisations. These include:
- the Treasury (UK)
- Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) (UK)
- Department for International Development (DFID)
- Bank of England
- European Commission
- European Central Bank
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
- European Central Bank (ECB)
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
These links mean we can bring real-life examples and scenarios into our teaching, ensuring it is up to date and relevant.
Economics at Kent was ranked 16th in The Guardian University Guide 2018. In the National Student Survey 2017, over 88% of final-year Economics students were satisfied with the overall quality of their course.
For graduate prospects, Economics at Kent was ranked 6th in The Complete University Guide 2018, 7th in The Guardian University Guide 2018 and 7th in The Times Good University Guide 2017. Of Economics students who graduated from Kent in 2016, 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).
Teaching Excellence Framework
Based on the evidence available, the TEF Panel judged that the University of Kent delivers consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students. It is of the highest quality found in the UK.
Please see the University of Kent's Statement of Findings for more information.
The course structure below gives a flavour of the modules that will be available to you and provides details of the content of this programme. This listing is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation.
|Modules may include||Credits|
EC309 - Statistics for Economics
This module introduces students to the basic concepts of probability and statistics, with applications to a variety of topics illustrated with real data. The techniques that are discussed can be used in their own right to solve simple problems, but also serve as an important foundation for later, more advanced, modules. Importantly, the module serves as a prerequisite for Stage 2 econometric modules EC580 and EC581.
The module commences with an overview of descriptive statistics. It then considers the key ideas in probability theory before moving on to statistical inference - the science of drawing conclusions from data. The main topics covered in the module include:
Graphical and numerical analyses of data
The principles of probability
Probability Density Functions
Sampling and its use in inference
Regression and correlationRead more
EC314 - Data Analysis for Economists
The module introduces students to fundamental key skills used by economists in the application of economics to real world issues. It develop students' use of information technology and their ability to access electronic and other secondary sources of data. In particular, the module promote students' computing and quantitative skills within a structured environment.
The module covers the following topics:
Data collection and sampling, accessing and downloading electronic data
Descriptive statistics, graphical and numerical techniques for summarising data
Index numbers, Paasche and Laspeyres indices, chained and non-chained indices
National income accounts, growth accounting, logarithm and exponent functions
Investment decisions, discounting, NPV, internal rates of returnRead more
EC304 - Principles of Economics
The module provides students with a thorough understanding of economics at an introductory level and provides the basis for all subsequent study that is taken on economics degree programmes. It is designed to teach students how to think as an economist and how to construct and use economic models. It also shows them how to be critical of economic models and how empirical evidence can be used in economic analysis.
The module explores how people make choices about what and how to produce and consume. It looks at the differences in economic outcomes between firms, people and countries and how they can be related to the effects of choices they, and others, make. It builds on the very simple and plausible assumption that people make decisions in their own interests and subject to constraints.
The first term covers the principles of microeconomics and shows how they can be applied to real-life situations and economic policy. The second term develops a framework for understanding macroeconomic events and macroeconomic policy. The emphasis throughout both terms is to demonstrate the usefulness of economics as an analytical tool for thinking about real world problems.Read more
EC305 - Mathematics for Economics Mode A
This Stage 1 module is designed for students who have an A -Level in mathematics, AS mathematics or equivalent qualification. A first-year mathematics module (either Mode A or B) is a compulsory part of all economics degree programmes and these modules take place in the Autumn term with a statistics module following on in the Spring term. If you are unsure whether your mathematical background is equivalent to an A level pass, please consult the module convenors.
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who have A-Level mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; non-linear functions and integration. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.Read more
EC306 - Mathematics for Economics Mode B
The module introduces students to a basic understanding of mathematics necessary for intermediate and advanced level modules (levels 5 and 6) taken in Stages 2 and 3. The module is designed for students who do not have A-Level mathematics, AS mathematics or an equivalent qualification. The module (or its equivalent for students with A-level mathematics) is compulsory for all Single and Joint Honours degree programmes in economics.
The module considers the following topics: linear equations, quadratic equations, multivariable functions; matrix algebra; differentiation; techniques of optimisation; constrained optimisation; and non-linear functions. These topics cover the important uses of mathematics in economics (and business) and are developed within a clear, contextual framework derived from first principles. Each topic is applied to a range of economic phenomena and problems and linked explicitly to the core Stage 1 economics module - EC304 Principles of Economics. Notably, the analytical and quantitative skills developed in the module are transferable across many different occupations.Read more
FR300 - French Lower Intermediate B1
This module is for Post-A-level students and students who have mastered level A2 but not yet B1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). On successfully completing the module students will have mastered level B1. The emphasis in this course is on furthering knowledge of the structure of the language as well as vocabulary and cultural insights while further developing the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.Read more
FR330 - French Beginners A1-A2 (Intensive)
This is an intensive module for absolute beginners, Post-GCSE students and students who have not yet mastered level A2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). On successfully completing the module students will have mastered level A2. The emphasis in this course is on acquiring a sound knowledge of the structure of the language as well as basic vocabulary and cultural insights while developing the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.Read more
|Modules may include||Credits|
EC500 - Microeconomics
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of microeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the application and understanding of microeconomic issues. It introduces the fundamental theoretical foundations of microeconomics and provides examples of their application.
The module provides an analysis of the way in which the market system functions as a mechanism for coordinating the independent choices of individual economic agents. It addresses the behaviour and decision making of consumers and firms, and evaluates the efficiency and equity implications of competition and other market structures. The role of government in incentivising types of economic behaviour and addressing market failure is also explored.Read more
EC502 - Macroeconomics
This module builds on the Stage 1 teaching of macroeconomics to provide an intermediate course, which takes full account of the policy issues and controversies in the world macroeconomy.
Autumn Term considers the basic methodology of macroeconomic models and examines how macroeconomic theories of aggregate demand and aggregate supply are derived. It is important to be aware that there are many theories of aggregate demand and supply and that consideration of these theories involves studying the markets on which they are based. The Autumn Term develops and extends use of the IS-LM model to derive a theory of aggregate demand in both open and closed economies. It also scrutinises the labour market to derive a theory of aggregate supply and study the relationship between inflation and unemployment.
Spring term starts with studying the long-run, that is, what determines the standard of living of countries in the long term, as opposed to short-run economic fluctuations. It then considers microeconomic fundamentals of macroeconomics to understand in-depth the determinants of consumption, investment, and labour supply decisions. These considerations and the ideas developed in the autumn term are then used to extensively examine macroeconomic demand management policies (fiscal and monetary) and their shortcomings. Finally, we consider the role of the financial system in the macroeconomy and the causes behind some financial crises. Particular focus is given to the 2008/09 global financial crisis.Read more
EC580 - Introduction to Econometrics
The quantitative estimation and evaluation of economic models is an essential feature of the study and application of economics. This module provides an introduction to econometric theory and the application of econometric techniques to economic models and data. This is achieved by explaining key economic and econometric issues using applications of econometrics that quantify and evaluate economic theory and which provide an empirical evaluation of economic behaviour and the assessment of economic policy.
The module provides both an analytical and practical introduction to econometric theory, equipping students with the analytical tools to carry out applied econometric work and to explore more advanced areas of econometric theory at later stages of their chosen degree programme. The practice and application of econometrics is achieved using both Microsoft Excel and specialist econometric software (e.g. Eviews &/or Stata).
The topics considered in the module include:
Models and data; ordinary least squares (OLS), properties of OLS, simple and multiple linear regression, inference, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, dummy variables, functional form, linear restrictions, diagnostic testing and basic panel data.Read more
EC581 - Introduction to Time-Series Econometrics
The module provides an analytical introduction to time-series econometrics and the challenges that present themselves with the analysis of time-series economic data. Traditional econometric techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) are poorly suited to the estimation of economic models or data which exhibit non-stationary processes. This module provides an introduction to econometric methods that are suitable for stationary and non-stationary time-series analyses.
The module is both analytical and practitioner based providing students with the knowledge, understanding, application and interpretation of time-series techniques using specialist econometric software. The module equips students with the analytical tools to carry out advanced time-series econometrics work at a later stage of their degree programme.
The topics considered in the module include:
Stationary and non-stationary data; trend- and difference-stationary processes, stationary autoregressive models, multivariate stationary models, spurious regression, cointegration, ADF tests, forecasting.
FR648 - French Upper Intermediate B2
This is an intermediate level module. Its aims are to strengthen and widen the linguistic knowledge provided in FR300, to consolidate students' vocabulary and improve their knowledge of written and spoken French through immersion in a variety of texts, and to practice translation skills both from and into French.Read more
FR652 - French Intermediate B1-B2 (Intensive)
This module is the natural follow-on for those who have, in the previous academic year, successfully taken an intensive beginners French course such as FR330, and who have covered the basics of grammar, acquired a stock of high frequency vocabulary and reached a degree of proficiency beyond GCSE and approaching A-level (A2 waystage in terms of the Common European Framework of Reference).
This module is designed to allow students, upon completion, to demonstrate a level of ability up to B2 threshold, turning students into independent users of French in both oral and written contexts. The course is thus also designed to prepare students for their year abroad and independent life in France as a foreign country. This module is an intensive course, which develops the student's active and passive aural and written skills.Read more
Going abroad as part of your degree is an amazing experience and a chance to develop personally, academically and professionally. You experience a different culture, gain a new academic perspective, establish international contacts and enhance your employability.
On this programme you spend a year between Stages 2 and 3 at our partner university in France. For further information, please see Go Abroad. Places are subject to availability, language and degree programme.
You are expected to adhere to any academic progression requirements in Stages 1 and 2 to proceed to the Year Abroad. If the requirement is not met, you will be transferred to the equivalent three-year programme. The Year Abroad is assessed on a pass/fail basis and will not count towards your final degree classification.
|Modules may include||Credits|
EC537 - Economics Year Abroad
Students take modules equivalent to 120 Kent Credits from across a range of economics, mathematics, and social science subject areas. The curriculum will vary depending on the partner institution and the modules chosen.Read more
|Modules may include||Credits|
EC565 - Extended Economics Essay
The module provides an alternative to students carrying out an economics research project in the dissertation module. Some students lack the necessary analytical, quantitative and research skills necessary for a piece of original research. This module will give such students the opportunity to investigate an area of economics in depth by critically reviewing the literature on a chosen subject.
Students will be given a set of questions with readings. They can also construct their own question so long as it is approved. Each student would write a different essay. Examples of questions are: what evidence exists on the success(es) of micro lending schemes? Can active labour market policies reduce long term unemployment? Can economists explain voting behaviour? Students are taught about what is required for an extended critical review of the literature and advised about what should be contained in an essay on their topic. They are also advised about how to present a poster session.Read more
EC541 - Economics Dissertation
This dissertation is a 30-credit module based on self-directed study, which allows you to develop a complete piece of work within the general field of economics, from the initial idea through to a final written report. It is unique amongst the modules you are taking towards your degree in Economics, both in the ways that you learn and in the ways that you are assessed. Your learning will be largely independent, but is supported by structured supervision from your dissertations supervisor and weekly computing sessions to help in accessing, coding analysing and interpreting your data.Read more
EC569 - Economic Growth
This module covers a variety of growth issues from both empirical and theoretical views. The first part of the course deals with basic concepts of economic growth, including how to measure growth and the core theories of economic growth. The second part deals with productivity; how to measure productivity and analyse different sources of productivity growth. The third part deals with economic fundamentals, including the relationship between government policies, income inequality, and growth.
The aim of the module is to teach the basic principles of economic growth in order to answer such questions as:
- what are the determinants of growth?
- how can we improve productivity?
- what kind of role does the government play on growth?
- why are there differences in the level of income among countries?Read more
EC570 - Microeconomics of Development
In the last 30 to 35 years, the study of economic development has increasingly focused on the behaviour of individuals their opportunities, constraints, and choices to understand the causes and nature of poverty, and on formulating strategies for improving their economic well-being. This trend includes the increased application of microeconomic theories to understand phenomena related to underdevelopment, the collection and analysis of data at the individual level (as opposed to the regional or national level) and, most recently, the use of lab and field experiments to better understand individual behaviour.
The module introduces you to these trends, to show how the related microeconomic tools have contributed to a better understanding of the process of economic development. Some of these methods are now widely used by international development agencies such the World Bank and DfID as well as academic researchers to critically assess development strategies and evaluate programmes aimed at improving the economic well-being of the poor in developing countries.Read more
EC571 - Agricultural, Food and Natural Resource Economics
This module introduces you to agriculture, food and natural resource economics and economics generally. A key objective is to help you develop an ability to apply economic thinking to problems in this area. The module considers various aspects of agricultural, food and resource economics including food production, economic theory related to agricultural policy, food supply chains and food prices, food economics specifically food labels and various economic aspects of natural resource management such as forestry and fisheries.
The module is divided into three parts. In Part A we examine the relationship between the economy and the agriculture. In Part B we consider aspects of food economics. In Part C we examine various issues relating to natural resource. The emphasis in all parts of the module is to understand the links between theory and practice.Read more
EC582 - The Economics of Human Capital
This course examines the economic relevance of human capital. It begins by defining and categorizing different types of human capital, and then considers the economic importance of human capital both to individuals and to society. The course then proceeds to explore the connections between human capital and the labour market, as well as social outcomes such as crime. Finally, it will discuss the challenges faced in identifying a causal effect of human capital on individual and social outcomes. Specific consideration will be given to how econometric techniques can be used to obtain causal effects.
The course will also study how human capital is formed and how it can be influenced by policy intervention. It will consider the effects of specific policy interventions on human capital development, drawing on examples from developing and developed countries.Read more
EC583 - Political Economy
The module will introduce students to the topic of political economy using microeconomic analytical tools. In particular, the module will provide students with an overview of microeconomic theories and empirical methods that have been used to bring new insights to issues related to political economy. The module will also explore how these issues relate to themes in development, public and environmental economics. The following topics will be covered in the module.
1. Electoral rules, voting and their economic implications:
2. Political Reforms and their Economic Impacts:
3. Institutions and Development:
4. Ethnic and Civil Conflict:
5. Climate Agreements:Read more
EC585 - Mathematical Economics
The module will introduce students to a range of mathematical techniques, which are useful in economic analysis. The aim is to deepen and extend the mathematical preparation of undergraduate students considering technical modules at Stage 3. Emphasis will be placed on a clear and rigorous presentation of the various technical concepts and their applications. The module will cover a range of relevant mathematical tools and techniques that are typically required for postgraduate study in economics.
Matrix Algebra and Multiple Equation Systems
Dynamic ModelsRead more
EC603 - Financial Crises
The aim of the module is to introduce the students to the evolution of the financial crises from a historical perspective. Since financial crises are infrequent (though often occurring) events, a long-run perspective is necessary to understand their causes and consequences. This module will look at financial crises from the Tulip mania in 1636 to the financial crisis of 2008, and combine theoretical approaches to understanding financial crises with critical discussion of historical episodes.
The module will cover the following topics:
1. Financial crises in historical perspective: long-run facts
2. Theories of financial crises
3. The severity of financial crises in historical perspective
4. Financial crises in the 17th and 18th Centuries
5. Early 19th century financial crises
6. The 1890s
7. The banking panic of 1907 and the emergence of Fed
8. The Great Depression I Florida housing bubble, FED and 1931 banking crises
9. The Great Depression II US banking crisis
10. The Great Depression III Germany, Eastern European crisis, sterling crisis
11. Financial crises in the 1990s
12. The Great Recessions housing bubble, contagion, banking crisisRead more
EC542 - Econometrics I: An Introduction to Modern Econometrics using Stata
This module introduces students to applied econometrics using a general-purpose statistical software package (Stata), which is suitable for those intending to undertake postgraduate training in economics and/or becoming professional economists.
The module assumes a basic knowledge of statistics and quantitative methods and is designed for students who have followed Stage 1 modules in mathematics and statistics and who have taken relevant Stage 2 modules in econometrics.
What distinguishes this module is the adoption of the modern learning-by-doing approach to teaching econometrics, which emphasises the application of econometrics to real world problems. The focus is on understanding the theoretical aspects that are critical in applied work and the ability to correctly interpret empirical results.Read more
EC543 - Econometrics 2: Topics in Time Series
This module presents a systematic and operational approach to the econometric modelling of economic time series, which gives an understanding of the techniques in practical, appropriate, analytical and rigorous manner. Econometric analysis is a core skill in modern economics.
The module links theory to empirical studies of the macroeconomy and includes the following topics:
Univariate Time Series Analysis
Concepts of stochastic processes;
Types of linear processes: Autoregressions and moving averages
Nonstationary linear processes
Predicting stochastic processes
Estimation of linear time series models
Dynamic Econometric Models
The autoregressive distributed lag model;
Cointegration and equilibrium correction.
Multiple Time Series Models
Vector autoregressive processes;
Structural analysis: Causality and impulse-response analysis.
These topics are illustrated with a range of theoretical and applied exercises, which will be discussed in seminars and computer classes. As such, the module emphasises the development of practical skills in the use of software for empirical research, and introduces students to the research methods used by macroeconomists in academia, government departments, think tanks and financial institutions. It also helps students to prepare for the quantitative requirements of a master programme in economics.Read more
EC544 - Economic Integration in the EU
The module provides insight into the basic theories underlying customs union and economic and monetary union, and of the rationale for, and strengths and weaknesses of, policy intervention at the EU level. It introduces the economic rationale for the existence of the EU, the working of some of its main policy areas, and a critique and assessment of developments to date
The emphasis throughout is on the development of appropriate economic theories and their application in the specific context of the regional integration in Europe. The nature of economic integration is such that the module involves a broad coverage of both microeconomics and macroeconomics, often involving applied issues and analysis going beyond that covered in more theory focussed modules.Read more
EC545 - Economics of the Labour Market
This is a one unit module offered by the School of Economics in the Autumn Term to final year students who have completed at least Stage II level or equivalent modules in macroeconomics and microeconomics.
The market for labour is the crucial mechanism that determines the distribution of income, work and opportunities. Macro factors such as globalisation, (im)migration, technological change and government policy will affect and be affected by the structure of labour markets. Rather than trying to cover the entirety of this very broad subject, the aim of this course is to focus on a few areas of topical interest and importance. We will examine the issues like the following:
1. The relationship between unemployment and wages
2. The impact of immigration on the resources of the lower skilled
3. The differences in pay and opportunities between men and women
4. Government policy towards skills and education
5. Executive pay
Throughout we attempt to integrate theoretical issues, empirical evidence and questions of policy, drawing on research covering a range of OECD countries.Read more
EC546 - Games for Economics and Business
The module provides an introduction to game theory and its use by economists as a professional tool for understanding and analysing economic decision making under uncertainty. The module introduces students to topical and important research areas of microeconomic analysis, and develops their skills in setting up and solving games that arise in business and economics.Read more
EC547 - Industrial Economics
The module introduces students to the field of Industrial Economics and studies why and how firms and industries behave and interact with each other. Understanding firms' behaviour is relevant not only to the firms but also to the governments that design industrial policies in order to favour consumers without decreasing firms' efficiency.
The module is designed for students who have taken intermediate microeconomics and addresses issues that are present in everyday news: anti-competitive practices, the effect of market power on consumer welfare, incentives for product innovation, and the private and public effects of mergers.Read more
EC548 - International Finance
The module introduces students to the theoretical underpinnings that constitute international finance and the nature and extent of monetary and financial relations between countries.
The module introduces basic concepts of international macroeconomics such as the balance of payments and exchange rates, and arbitrage conditions. It then proceeds to analyse the impact of opening up the economy on the alternative macroeconomic policies available. The main factors that determine exchange rates between currencies, and the power of different models are also considered. Finally, the module explores 'hot topics' in international finance including the benefits and drawbacks of fixed and floating exchange rates, the concept of a speculative attack, current account imbalances from an inter-temporal perspective, and how world macroeconomic imbalances drove the 2008/09 international financial crisis and recent sovereign debt crisis in Europe.
The module has both a theoretical and an applied emphasis in order to apply available theories into the real problems of the world economy. It does not analyse the detailed workings of international financial markets or questions related to firm financial management in international capital markets but students interested in these aspects can acquire basic foundations that are fundamental in understanding the context in which firms and governments work.
The topics covered in the module include:
1. Open economy macroeconomics and policy.
2. Exchange rates determination theory and empirics.
3. Microfounded models of the current account.
4. International financial flows.
5. International indebtedness.
6. International financial crises
7. International monetary arrangements.Read more
EC549 - International Trade
This module provides students with an in-depth understanding of current issues and theoretical debates in international trade, together with their policy implications. It also provides the knowledge and skills necessary for interpreting related studies of countries at different levels of development.
International trade is a key issue on the world agenda and has considerable effects on countries' economies. The effects occur at the micro level of firms and households as well as at the macro level, where they are the subjects of government policy debates. International Trade takes advantage of the tools of economic analysis, which are common to other areas in economics, to study the issues raised by the economic interaction between sovereign states.Read more
EC550 - Monetary Economics
This module introduces students to monetary and macroeconomic issues from a theoretical perspective. The following topics are considered:
Structural macro and monetary modelling
Reduced form macro and monetary modelling
Short-run analysis of the aggregate economy
Long-run analysis of the aggregate economy
Policy interventionsRead more
EC562 - Economics of Finance 1
This module provides an overview of the main instruments in financial markets, the motivation for trade in these assets and the pricing of these assets. Specifically, we show how the economics of uncertainty motivates trade in a wide range of financial assets. This helps us determine how the risk and maturity of different assets affects the demand for those assets.
First, the module introduces the key principles of asset pricing: discounting, diversification, arbitrage and hedging. Second, the module introduces and motivates the use of debt, equity and derivative instruments in financial markets. Third, the module applies the key principles of asset pricing to help understand the behaviour of prices across these asset classes. While different classes of assets expose their holders to different types of risks, the key principles of asset pricing are common to all asset classes. This concept is formalised by the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing.
While focusing on financial applications, the module does speak more widely to methodological challenges encountered when testing economic theories against data. These challenges are particularly relevant in financial economics. While the literature has developed a range of innovative techniques to more effectively test competing theories against the data, the answers to a number of key questions remain contested.Read more
EC563 - Economics of Finance 2
The module develops skills in asset pricing and an understanding of the theoretical basis of the theory behind it. The module requires knowledge of some mathematical techniques but stresses practical training in asset pricing with a focus on the intuitions and heuristics behind theorems and formulae, rather than their rigorous derivations and semantic definitions.
There are three key topics; (i) investors' optimisation, (ii) discrete time models and (iii) option Greeks and option strategies. For (i), the module first introduces the basic financial economics, and, based on it, we establish the basis of the risk-neutral probability. For (ii), the module discusses how to construct the tree model based on the historical price data, and shows that the model can be used to find the fair prices of a wide range of financial derivatives. For (iii), the module investigates the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) formula, and then how to use it to find the optimal hedge ratio for delta hedging. In this respect, the module also discusses how to use the return correlations to find the optimal hedge ratio.
There are no pre-requisites for this module but the following modules are recommended: EC534(Money and Banking), EC550(Monetary), EC548(international Finance), EC562(Finance 1).Read more
EC538 - Economic Controversies
This module introduces students to the skills of economic reasoning and argument by exposing them to critical debates within the discipline. It is designed for students who have completed Stage 1 Economics.
The module draws on current and past controversies to give students a critical insight into theoretical and empirical differences of opinion and approach to economics in the real world. The curriculum provides an insight into the academic and professional development of the discipline, and provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills. It also lays the foundations to many of the skills required for modules taught at Stage 3.
Four controversies will be covered each drawn from a range of topics pertinent to the discipline and relevant sub-disciplines. Students must study two controversies.Read more
EC540 - Development Economics
Development Economics is a sub-field of economics that focuses on the unique problems of poor countries. In the course we will use economic analysis to understand the structure of poor economies and the behaviour of individuals within them. The goal is to better understand why the world looks the way that it does so that one can make more informed opinions and decisions about policies meant to improve global welfare. The topics considered in the module will include:
The development gap in the world economy and the measurement of poverty
Characteristics of underdevelopment and structural change
Models of the growth and development process
The role of agriculture and surplus labour in the development process
Dualism and vicious circles of poverty
Trade and DevelopmentRead more
EC531 - Policy Analysis
This module applies economic theory and statistical methods to the understanding and critical assessment of economic policy. It focuses on the policy application of economic concepts and provides an introduction to material that may be studied in greater depth at Stage 3. A key aspect of this module is the relationship to contemporary policy issues.
The module introduces students to a variety of microeconomic policy issues. Alongside formal lectures, workshops and seminars are designed to develop academic research skills and the ability to communicate ideas both verbally and in writing. This focus provides opportunities to develop a range of highly transferable skills and to develop as autonomous learners.Read more
EC534 - The Economics of Money and Banking
The module provides a starting point for understanding financial markets. It attempts to link models of money, banking and finance into one generic, or foundation, view and provides insight into what determines the set of equilibrium prices required to provide an appropriate level of savings in an economy to finance the expected level of expected activity. It considers how financial and economic innovations have evolved over time, and explores why and how it seems to be that when finance fails, so does the modern market economy.
Important considerations within the module include:
How can we analyse the appearance of money in an economy?
What is the link between money and finance?
What explains bank runs?
Can we explain the occurrence of financial crises?Read more
Teaching and assessment
All of our modules are taught by a combination of lectures and small group sessions, which include seminars, computing practicals, problem sets, debates and role-play games. On average, you have a total of 12-14 hours of lecture, seminar and other formal contact time per week.
The School of Economics is committed to making sure that you leave Kent with much more than just a degree in Economics. We put great emphasis on the development of transferable skills, including numeracy, analytical problem solving, data analysis, and written and oral communication, as well as subject-specific skills for further study at postgraduate level.
The modules are assessed by continuous assessment of coursework throughout the year and an end-of-year exam in the final term. A number of modules at each stage are assessed solely through coursework.
The programme aims to:
- provide a stimulating education in the principles of economics and its application, in which students are motivated to achieve their full potential
- provide a flexible, progressive curriculum that is suitable both for students who have studied economics before and those who have not
- develop students' ability to apply economic knowledge, analytical tools and skills in a range of theoretical, applied and policy problems
- widen the learning experience by providing an opportunity for students to study economics at the University of Grenoble and develop French language skills
- provide a range of options to enable students to study selected areas of economics in depth, informed by the research and scholarship of teaching staff
- provide students with the knowledge, analytical and other skills from which they can proceed to employment in a related area to economics or further study
- provide a range of skills that will be of value in future employment
- offer information and advice on future employment and higher education opportunities.
Knowledge and understanding
You gain knowledge and understanding of:
- the concepts, principles, theories, models and methods of modern economic analysis and their application in different areas of economics
- analytical skills to formulate and consider a range of economic issues
- mathematical, statistical and computing methods used in economics
- data and methods used to analyse economic data
- the economic analysis of policy
- specific problems, issues and policies in a range of areas in economics
- key concepts affecting decision making
- critical discussion of economic problems, issues and policies in politics and the media
- an economic topic of your choice, submitted as a supervised final-year project
- the study of other social science subjects in the first year
- oral, aural and written fluency in the French language.
You gain the intellectual abilities to:
- abstract the essential features of a complex system
- apply knowledge of the important variables and fixed parameters in solving a problem
- analyse complex issues using deductive and inductive reasoning
- organise and use information to analyse complex issues and test different hypotheses
- review critically alternative explanations and analyses of a problem
- manage a final-year supervised project on an economic topic of your choice.
You gain subject-specific skills in the following:
- analytical skills relevant to economics
- the ability to apply economic principles and analysis to a range of issues, problems and policies
- the ability to abstract the essential features of an economic issue, problem or system
- knowledge of the principal sources of economic data and information, and the ability to use and present this information
- economic/econometric analysis of data
- the ability to provide advice on how to make economic decisions
- synthesis and critical comparison of critically different economic analyses of an economic issue
- the ability to research the literature on an economic issue
- the ability to apply economic skills to investigate a supervised final-year project on an economic topic of your choice
- written, aural and oral fluency in the French language.
You gain transferable skills in the following:
- effective communication of analysis and ideas: orally, aurally and in writing in English and French
- the ability to assemble, analyse, use and present data
- the ability to use economic, mathematical and quantitative methods to analyse issues and problems
- the ability to analyse and make decisions using economic concepts, such as opportunity cost and strategic behaviour
- IT abilities using statistical and econometric packages
- independence in initiating and executing work
- the ability to think critically about proposed analyses and solutions to a problem
- the ability to manage your own learning and academic performance
- the ability to manage a supervised final-year project on an economic topic of your choice.
Our Economics graduates have developed careers in accountancy, banking and finance, journalism, management consultancy and business. Fluency in French and experience of living and studying in France opens up a broader range of job opportunities, too. Recent graduates have gone on to work for:
- the Government Economic Service
- Bank of America
- Goldman Sachs
Help finding a job
The School of Economics supports and advises you in deciding what to do after your Economics degree. We offer:
- one-to-one advice from a member of our employability team
- employability workshops
- talks from alumni and outside employers.
The University also has a friendly Careers and Employability Service which can give you advice on how to:
- apply for jobs
- write a good CV
- perform well in interviews.
Internships, either for a week or two or for the whole summer, can be a valuable addition to your studies. We provide guidance and assistance on where to look and how to apply.
Alongside a thorough understanding of economic issues, you develop key transferable skills that will appeal to employers. These include the ability to:
- think critically
- communicate your ideas and opinions succintly
- work independently
- use your initiative and be proactive
- work as part of a team and independently
- manage your time and plan effectively
- problem solve.
You can also gain extra skills by signing up for one of our Kent Extra activities, such as learning a language or volunteering.
For graduate prospects, Economics at Kent was ranked 6th in The Complete University Guide 2018, 7th in The Guardian University Guide 2018 and 7th in The Times Good University Guide 2017. Of Economics students who graduated from Kent in 2016, 95% were in work or further study within six months (DLHE).
According to Which? University (2017), the average starting salary for graduates of this degree is £24,000.
The University will consider applications from students offering a wide range of qualifications. Typical requirements are listed below. Students offering alternative qualifications should contact us for further advice.
It is not possible to offer places to all students who meet this typical offer/minimum requirement.
New GCSE grades
If you’ve taken exams under the new GCSE grading system, please see our conversion table to convert your GCSE grades.
|Qualification||Typical offer/minimum requirement|
ABB from three full A levels excluding General Studies and Critical Thinking
Mathematics grade B (or grade 6)
|Access to HE Diploma||
The University will not necessarily make conditional offers to all Access candidates but will continue to assess them on an individual basis.
If we make you an offer, you will need to obtain/pass the overall Access to Higher Education Diploma and may also be required to obtain a proportion of the total level 3 credits and/or credits in particular subjects at merit grade or above.
|BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma (formerly BTEC National Diploma)||
This qualification is not accepted on its own. Applicants must have accompanying A levels. Applications are assessed on a case-by-case basis.
34 points overall or 15 points at HL, including Mathematics 4 at HL or SL, or Mathematical Studies 5
The University welcomes applications from international students. Our international recruitment team can guide you on entry requirements. See our International Student website for further information about entry requirements for your country.
If you need to increase your level of qualification ready for undergraduate study, we offer a number of International Foundation Programmes.
Meet our staff in your country
For more advice about applying to Kent, you can meet our staff at a range of international events.
English Language Requirements
Please see our English language entry requirements web page.
Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of 'pre-sessional' courses in English for Academic Purposes. You attend these courses before starting your degree programme.
General entry requirements
Please also see our general entry requirements.
The 2019/20 tuition fees have not yet been set. As a guide only, the 2018/19 annual tuition fees for this programme are:
For students continuing on this programme, fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.*
Your fee status
The University will assess your fee status as part of the application process. If you are uncertain about your fee status you may wish to seek advice from UKCISA before applying.
Fees for Year in Industry
For 2018/19 entrants, the standard year in industry fee for home, EU and international students is £1,385.
Fees for Year Abroad
UK, EU and international students on an approved year abroad for the full 2018/19 academic year pay £1,385 for that year.
Students studying abroad for less than one academic year will pay full fees according to their fee status.
General additional costs
Kent offers generous financial support schemes to assist eligible undergraduate students during their studies. See our funding page for more details.
You may be eligible for government finance to help pay for the costs of studying. See the Government's student finance website.
Scholarships are available for excellence in academic performance, sport and music and are awarded on merit. For further information on the range of awards available and to make an application see our scholarships website.
The Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence
At Kent we recognise, encourage and reward excellence. We have created the Kent Scholarship for Academic Excellence.
For 2018/19 entry, the scholarship will be awarded to any applicant who achieves a minimum of AAA over three A levels, or the equivalent qualifications (including BTEC and IB) as specified on our scholarships pages.
The scholarship is also extended to those who achieve AAB at A level (or specified equivalents) where one of the subjects is either Mathematics or a Modern Foreign Language. Please review the eligibility criteria.