Kent’s new MA in International Heritage and Law is a distinct programme combining the study of heritage with an understanding of the legal frameworks which govern the management of our heritage.
Heritage is broad discipline, encompassing the wide spectrum of cultural inheritance from all civilisations and time periods. Heritage is also a major geopolitical issue in the world today, contributing to our sense of selves and communities, with law and development arguably the two most central issues in the field of heritage studies today. The MA engages you with both intellectual and practical approaches to key issues in heritage (including archaeology), with a particular focus on the protection of international heritage as well as development.
The programme is offered through a partnership between the Department of Classical & Archaeological Studies and the Kent Law School. Over the autumn and spring terms you take a core module on heritage, and choose optional modules that cover archaeology, heritage, human rights, international law, and law and development, before undertaking an extended dissertation over the summer.
This MA is of particular interest to those who wish to study cultural heritage as an academic subject, those who wish to pursue a career in international heritage and development, lawyers who want to specialise in cultural heritage issues or heritage specialists who want to acquire a better understanding of legal issues.
In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, classics was ranked 2nd for research impact and in the top 20 for research intensity, research power, research quality and research output in the UK.
An impressive 97% of our research was judged to be of international quality and the School’s environment was judged to be conducive to supporting the development of world-leading research.
The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation. Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.
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CL805 - Contemporary Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Issues
The module is designed with training, knowledge enhancement and skills acquisition to the fore. The module begins with an introduction to the origins and development of theoretical perspectives in archaeology (e.g. ‘cultural history’, the ‘New Archaeology’, ‘Post-Processualism’), and assesses the contributions of these approaches. A central question is how we may study and define past society. Artefacts and their value as evidence of the past are then considered within a contemporary intellectual framework. Settlement sites are then examined and in particular approaches to understanding their morphology, elements and their identity as lived environments; spatial approaches are considered here too. Approaches to the archaeology of landscape are in turn examined, this being a dynamic field in contemporary archaeological understanding. How archaeological data is assesses, organized, and published is then examined from a theoretical and methodological angle. Finally, how the various strands of archaeological data can be brought together to assemble a coherent picture of past human life and society are critically examined and reviewed.Read more
CL830 - International Heritage, Archaeology and Development
This module will allow students to explore the different aspects of the complex relationships between archaeology, heritage and development. Each week, the lecture will focus on one aspect of this complex nexus. This will include analyses of the debates on whether heritage/archaeology and development are opposite or complementary; critical analyses of the key international actors and their agendas on heritage and development; issues of stakeholders' participations in heritage-led development projects; the concepts of Historic Urban Landscapes and of the limit of acceptable change; the social and economic impacts of heritage-led regeneration (both quantitative and qualitative); and critical analyses of the post-development debate in relation to archaeology and heritage. The student-focused seminars will include presentations by students of key readings, as well as critical analyses and discussions of references related to each lecture.Read more
CL900 - Research Skills in Ancient History - Understanding the City in Antiquit
The module introduces students to key research skills for the study of ancient history and the associated discipline of Roman archaeology. The focus will be on group work that will investigate how we can gain greater knowledge of an aspect of the ancient city. In so doing, students will learn new skills ranging from researching bibliographies to the development of a sustained research project. A particular focus will be placed on critique of the modern scholarship on the subject, based on historical, epigraphic, archaeological, numismatic and visual sources. The curriculum is designed to develop students' research skills at the beginning of a one year FT MA or two-year PT MA in the Autumn term. The seminars will also focus on the development of the PhD research proposal.Read more
CL831 - Heritage and Human Rights
This module will allow students to explore the different aspects of the increasingly important relationships between heritage (understood in its broadest sense) and human rights. Each week, the lecture will focus on one aspect of this complex relationships, using existing references as well as the extensive work undertaken by the course convenor on this topic. This will include analyses of the concept of human rights itself, and of human rights based approaches to heritage conservation and management; issues of repatriation and indigenous heritage, rights and heritage in conflict and post-conflict zones as well as museums and the socio-economic rights of minorities.
This module will also provide some introduction to an ethical approach to fieldwork or heritage management through introducing students to anthropological or ethnological methods, including participatory approaches to heritage conservation and management; methods for conducting social impact assessment or rapid ethnographic assessment. The student-focused seminars will include presentations by students of key readings, as well as critical analyses and discussions of references related to each lecture. During the seminar, students will also discuss the preparation of the event which they will be assessed on (e.g. exhibition, reading, presentations, panel discussions, symposium, etc), and any issue with this task will be collectively solved.Read more
LW813 - Contemporary Topics in Intellectual Property Law
This module introduces in detail some of the most acute and pressing current problems in intellectual property, such as copyright and piracy in visual arts and music, justification for patents and their effects on scientific knowledge production, and the effects of logos and brands in capitalist symbolic economy. Offering a different way into the study of intellectual properties than by statues and case law, this course aims to provide students with a deep and nuanced understanding of intellectual properties both as social practices and cultural phenomena in today's 'knowledge economy'. Students will be introduced to the latest theoretical debates in humanities and social sciences about intellectual properties, which will complement a doctrinal study of intellectual property forms and allow for a differentiated assessment of law’s effects and limitations. Topics to be explored may include:
• What is original? Why is there so much value attached to 'originality’?
• Does free knowledge go hand in hand with precarious labour in creative industries?
• What are the modes of intellectual credit? Are there other forms of credit than property?
• What is the ‘intellectual’ in intellectual properties? How do you draw contours around intangible knowledge?
• Can nature be patented? Do patents turn human persons into things?
• Is enforcing patents on pharmaceuticals in developing countries just?
• Do trademarks commodify language?
Readings will be drawn from the multi-disciplinary scholarship on intellectual properties, including anthropology, history, science studies, economics and social theory. Prior attendance of LW 801 Intellectual Property Law in autumn term is welcome, but not a prerequisite. No prior knowledge of study of patent, copyright or trademarks law is required. Interested students from various disciplines are welcome, subject to prior agreement.Read more
LW843 - International Human Rights Law
This module is designed to enable postgraduate students to obtain both essential knowledge of and critical insight into, issues relating to international human rights law. Human rights occupy an extremely important place in contemporary discussions about law, justice and politics at both the domestic and the international level. Across all spheres of government, bodies of law and, pretty much, in every single social mobilization, human rights are invoked and debated.
This module approaches the key place occupied by human rights in the contemporary world from an international perspective. The module aims to link the international origins of human rights and the main human rights systems, with the actual practice of human rights. Particular attention is paid in the module to the value, as well as the limits of human rights when they approach, or try to address the problems and the aspirations of five important 'subjects': the Citizen, the Refugee, the Cultural Subject, the Woman and the Poor.
The module is organized around lectures and seminars delivered by the convenor, as well as lectures given by invited guests speaker. Guest speakers will explore in their lectures how they have approached in their research and practice the five 'subjects' mentioned above (ie, the Citizen, the Refugee, the Cultural Subject, the Women and the Poor).
Emphasis is placed on maximum student participation during seminar discussions for which students will need to prepare. Students are encouraged to develop a critical perspective in light of historical and socio-economic backgrounds.
Similar to the module public international law, the teaching, discussions and readings in the module will equip students both with a doctrinal understanding of international human rights law, and with an approach to the field that is grounded in a Critical, Socio-Legal and Law and Humanities perspective.Read more
LW925 - Cultural Heritage Law
Cultural heritage law has developed as a distinctive legal topic in the last thirty years to regulate the widening concept of heritage which was, historically, defined as historical monuments and has now widened to include intangible values.
This area of law considers a developing jurisprudence that involves international treaties, laws, ethics, and policy consideration relating to the heritage. This module aims to identify values and principles that contribute to a fair and equitable cultural heritage policy. It addresses the essential question of the need to change the law to accommodate the specific needs of protection of cultural heritage/cultural property and it aims to give coherence to practices shaped by stakeholders, as well as a complex body of rules at the intersection of civil law, property law, criminal law, public law, private international law and public international law.
Lectures will first introduce the definition of heritage, then discuss the five UNESCO Conventions on cultural heritage as well as the restitution of trafficked objects and alternative dispute mechanisms. The last lecture will draw on the different topics studied to discuss the development of cultural rights, in particular the right to participate in cultural life and the right to access cultural heritage. Each lecture will focus on an object of cultural importance that reflects the theme of study (e.g. the Parthenon marbles, Palmyra in Syria, The Euphronios Krater …)
This module will look at the different conventions and the existing legal framework protecting cultural heritage in order to enable students to:
• Understand the key concepts, policy issues and principles underlying cultural heritage law
• Analyse the theoretical and academic debates that underlie the substantive law of cultural heritage protection
• Evaluate the role of international and national institutions as well as other stakeholders in the protection of the cultural heritage
• Understand the practical context in which cultural heritage law operates
• Compare existing legal regimes of the protection of the cultural heritage in England, the United States, and continental EuropeRead more
LW931 - Land Development and Conservation Law
The development of land places considerable stress upon on wildlife conservation, natural resources and environmental quality, and may infringe common law restrictions upon land use arising in the law of nuisance. The land use planning system gives an opportunity for planning authorities to scrutinise the likely environmental and ecological impacts of a development proposal, before a development is determined. The anticipatory approach to authorisation of developments is taken a step further when a proposed development is likely to have a significant effect upon the environment and where environmental impact assessment (EIA) is required before granting permission for development. The methodology of environmental assessment is also applied where strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is required of plans and policies, rather than individual developments. The need to implement requirements from European Union environmental law, with regard to EIA and SEA, is of critical importance.
The conservation and sustainable use of living natural resources is a key element in securing the overarching environmental policy objective of sustainable development. Conservation, ecological or biodiversity laws provide a special status for wildlife and require the national designation of land for wildlife protection purposes. Beyond the national measures for direct protection of wildlife and the protection of ecologically important habitats, important obligations from arise from the European Union and global international sources. Specifically, the EU Wild Birds and Habitats Directives, and the Biodiversity Convention are used to illustrate some of the key legal features in regional biodiversity conservation law. A concluding discussion examines the international trade dimension of wildlife conservation law and the proper utilisation of natural resources.Read more
CL897 - CL Dissertation
The Dissertation module comprises supervised research undertaken by the student, in the broad area of the history, literary sources and archaeology of the ancient world. A curriculum will be developed by the student around their own particular research interests.Read more
This programme is ideal for those wishing to develop and focus their careers in law, heritage and development.
The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the largest non-governmental organisation dealing with heritage protection (with more than 11,000 members), has highlighted the need for trained experts both in the legal aspects of heritage protection and in issues of heritage and international development.
The programme is ideal for careers in archaeology, museums and curation, preservation, conservation and the legal industries, as well as government bodies concerned with the preservation of architecture or the environment. It is also ideal for those wishing to develop a research career in heritage and law.
About the Department of Classical & Archaeological Studies
Classical & Archaeological Studies operates as a department of the School of European Culture and Languages (SECL), and there are corresponding opportunities for a high level of interdisciplinary interaction (five modern languages, philosophy, theology and religious studies and comparative literature), in addition to the informal links with staff in the rest of the University researching medieval history, the history of science, and social anthropology. We have good partnerships with high-profile universities and organisations such as the Universities of Ghent and Lille 3, the Flemish Heritage Institute, UCLA, the Free University of Amsterdam and the Vrije Universitat Brussel (VUB).
We offer bursaries to enable students to participate in departmental fieldwork projects for three weeks at a time, covering travel, food and accommodation. Typically, around 30 students each year have been placed on research and training excavations in Britain, Italy (including Ostia, port of Rome) and Greece, relating to sites of Bronze Age Greek (Minoan), Iron Age, Roman, Late Antique and Anglo-Saxon date.
About Kent Law School
Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.
In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.
You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research.
Global Skills Award
All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme. The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability.
A first or upper-second class honours degree in ancient history, ancient history and archaeology, classical studies, classical and archaeological studies, law or another relevant subject (or the equivalent).
All applicants are considered on an individual basis and additional qualifications, and professional qualifications and experience will also be taken into account when considering applications.
Please see our International Student website for entry requirements by country and other relevant information for your country.
English language entry requirements
The University requires all non-native speakers of English to reach a minimum standard of proficiency in written and spoken English before beginning a postgraduate degree. Certain subjects require a higher level.
For detailed information see our English language requirements web pages.
Need help with English?
Please note that if you are required to meet an English language condition, we offer a number of pre-sessional courses in English for Academic Purposes through Kent International Pathways.
Currently particular areas of interest are:
The history of archaeology; Roman ceramics; the archaeology of the Roman army and frontier; archaeology and gender; classical medicine; Minoan iconography, Mycenaean administration, Mycenaean epigraphy, ritual theory and general Bronze Age Aegean archaeology; archaeoastronomy; catasterism myths; later prehistory in temperate Europe, including the British Isles; the archaeology of the Roman era in Britain and the Western Provinces; Roman artefacts and art; the late post-Roman transition in the West; landscape and settlement studies; the archaeology of the Transmanche region; investigating the Mediterranean city in Late Antiquity (AD 300-650); Late Antiquity cities.
Classical studies, Late Antiquity and Byzantium
Ancient narrative literature, especially the novel; classical literature; Greek palaeography; hagiography; Byzantium; historiography; and gender studies.
Archaic, classical and Hellenistic Greece; late period, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Egypt; the history of the Roman Republic; the life course; roads and the landscape of the Roman Empire; tourism and the classical tradition; the social, economic and financial aspects of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire; Greek and Egyptian papyrology; epigraphy; palaeography; Greek and Roman performance arts, costume, and gender studies.
Staff research interests
Dr Efrosyni Boutsikas: Lecturer in Archaeology
Archaeoastronomy; Greek ritual; religious timekeeping; catasterism myths.View Profile
Dr Evangelos Kyriakidis: Senior Lecturer in Classical and Archaeological Studies
Minoan iconography; Mycenaean administration; ritual theory; general Bronze Age Aegean.View Profile
Dr Csaba La'da: Reader in Ancient History, Papyrology and Egyptology
Late period, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Egypt; archaic, classical and Hellenistic Greece; Greek and Egyptian papyrology, epigraphy and palaeography.View Profile
Dr Luke Lavan: Lecturer in Archaeology
Late antique archaeology; the archaeology of late antique cities; visualisation of the ancient world.View Profile
Dr Dunstan Lowe: Lecturer in Classical Studies
Roman poetry, especially Virgil and Ovid.View Profile
Dr Kelli Rudolph: Lecturer in Classical Studies
Ancient philosophy and science, especially issues related to ancient physics, metaphysics and epistemology.View Profile
Dr Ellen Swift: Senior Lecturer in Archaeology
Artefact studies; Roman dress accessories; the late post-Roman transition in the West; Roman art.View Profile
Dr Steven Willis: Senior Lecturer in Archaeology
Britain and Europe in the first millennium BC, the western Roman provinces, later prehistoric pottery and artefacts; samian pottery; the archaeology of the Transmanche area; landscape and maritime studies.View Profile
Dr Rosie Wyles: Lecturer in Classical History and Literature
Research interests include: Greek and Roman performance arts, costume, reception within antiquity and beyond it, and gender.View Profile
Dr Sophia Labadi: Senior Lecturer in Heritage and Archaeology
Museums and human rights, world heritage and intangible heritage conventions as well as heritage and development.View Profile
Dr Patricia Baker: Senior Lecturer in Archaeology
The archaeology of the Roman army and frontier; archaeology and gender; classical medicine.View Profile
Dr Anne Alwis: Senior Lecturer in Classical Literature
Late Antiquity and Byzantium; hagiography; gender studies; Greek palaeography.View Profile
The 2018/19 annual tuition fees for this programme are:
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For students continuing on this programme fees will increase year on year by no more than RPI + 3% in each academic year of study except where regulated.* If you are uncertain about your fee status please contact email@example.com
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