Careers Help for Postgraduates and Contract Researchers

This information is designed to help postgraduates and contract researchers to achieve their career aims after they complete their courses or research.

  • Introduction

  • What do
    postgraduates do?
  • Opportunities

  • Skills gained through
    postgraduate research
  • Choosing a
    career
  • Applications & interviews
    for academic posts
  • Applications & interviews
    for other jobs
  • Vacancy sources,
    links and resources


This information is designed to help postgraduates and contract researchers (such as post-doctoral research fellows and research assistants) to achieve their career aims after they complete their courses or research.

    Picture of Owl

Most of what is written here applies equally to contract research staff and postgraduate students. Contract research staff are most welcome to use the Careers and Employability Service for information, advice and guidance. Begin your career planning early and don't wait until the last few weeks of your contract before taking action: many large employers will advertise their vacancies well in advance. Also there is a need to network and make contacts at this level as many jobs will come via such contacts.

There are over half a million postgraduate students in the UK making up almost a quarter of the total student numbers in higher education. Over 75% are studying for taught Masters degrees or for postgraduate certificates and diploma such as PGCEs. Around half of postgraduates are studying part-time - often combining their studies with full-time or part-time work

Universities UK www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/facts-and-stats/Pages/facts-and-stats.aspx

“Postgraduate students” are a very diverse group, from taught Master’s students, to a Humanities Ph.Ds, to post-doctoral scientific researchers, to MBAs. Because of this, these pages inevitably have to generalise in places. Use them as an introduction, and follow up by using the various information resources to which they will point you, or bringing your individual questions to the Careers and Employability Service.

There is further information in our Career Planning Guides for postgraduates. You can pick up a copy from the CES building or download them from:

 

This page was last fully updated in 2017

 

What do postgraduates do?

The majority of postgraduates enter employment at the end of their studies. Although the number of postgraduates has grown significantly over the past ten years, their job prospects have not decreased as a result. Of the 41,220 Masters graduates who finished their courses in 2015, more than 80% were in full or part-time employment six months after graduation. Of those who got a job in the UK, 86% were in professional or managerial jobs, compared to 71% of first degree graduates.

PhD graduates also have a very high employment rate. By no means all enter academic careers: quite the opposite. Of the PhD graduates in employment six months after graduation, only around a third work as a higher education teaching professional or a university researcher. The majority therefore choose to pursue non-academic careers.


The work which postgraduates enter will depend not only upon the type of degree and the subject studied but also upon the individual graduate - their interests, abilities, personal circumstances and reasons for undertaking postgraduate study. Still more important are the personal skills and experience which you have to offer. Even students entering academic careers will need to be able to show good communication and organisational skills in addition to their subject expertise.

Types of jobs entered by postgraduates

Careers with a PhD

Masters Destinations 2015

 

www.prospects.ac.uk/postgraduate-study/masters-degrees/your-masters-what-next

PhD Destinations 2015

Destinations of University of Kent postgraduates 2012 — 2015

CATEGORY / Student response by Year

2012

%

2013

%

2014

%

2015

%

Employment

375

68.3

464

71.7

513

79.5

419

79.2

Further study

93

16.9

95

14.7

67

10.4

57

10.8

Not available

20

3.6

47

7.3

31

4.8

24

4.5

Unemployed

42

7.6

21

3.2

22

3.4

16

3.0

Refusal to answer

19

3.5

20

3.1

12

1.9

13

2.5

TOTAL responding

549

99.9

647

100

645

100

529

100

 

Destinations of Kent PhD GRADUATES 2013-2015

Science

Actuarial Science

University of Ghana Business School

Lecturer

Actuarial Science

Prudential

Graduate Trainee

Actuarial Science

Prudential

Manager Actuarial

Applied Maths

University of Kent

Lecturer

Biochemistry

Pfizer

Affiliate Quality Operations Executive

Biochemistry

Univ. of New South Wales

ARC Postdoctoral Research Associate

Biochemistry

John Innes Centre

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Biochemistry

Michigan State university

Postdoctoral research position

Biochemistry

Glide Pharmaceuticals

Project Manager

Biochemistry

Imperial College

Research Associate

Biochemistry

Mologic Ltd

Research Scientist

Biochemistry

Havas Lynx

Account Executive

Biochemistry

Imperial College London

NMR Technician

Biochemistry

UCB

Scientist

Biochemistry

University of Bristol

Postdoctoral Research Assistant

Biochemistry

University of Kent

Postdoctoral Research Assistant

Biochemistry

University of Kent

Visiting Scientist

Biochemistry

University of Kent

Research Associate

Chemistry

University of Kent

Laboratory experimental officer

Chemistry

Institute of Chemical & Engineering Sciences

Research Scientist

Chemistry

Holiday company

Operations Manager

Computer Science

University of Kent

Classroom Supervisor - Computer Science

Computer Science

WebCrate Ltd.

Director & Lead Developer

Computer Science

Ocado

Software Developer

Computer Science

INRIA

Consultant for functional safety of embedded systems

Computer Science

Aalto University

Postdoctoral researcher

Computer Science

University of Kent

Research Associate

Computer Science

King's College London

Research Associate

Computer Science

Visor Media

Software Developer

Computer Science

Helsinki Institute for Information Technology

Postdoctoral researcher

Computer Science

Trinity College Dublin

Research Fellow

Computer Science

Hitachi Consulting

Business Intelligence Manager

Computer Science

Fundapps

Software Engineer

Electronics

University of Reading

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Electronics

University of Kent

Research Associate

Electronics

KU Leuven

Postdoctoral Researcher

Electronics

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR)

Senior Lecturer in Telecommunications

Electronics

University of Kent

Research Associate

Electronics

University of Kent

Research Associate

Electronics

University of Kent

Researcher

Electronics

Deusto University

Senior Research Fellow Microwave Engineering

Electronics

TU Delft

Post-doc researcher

Genetics

Labtech International Ltd.

Technical Sales Specialist

Genetics

University of Kent

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Mathematics

University of Kent

Temporary Lecturer

Mathematics

University of Kent

University Lecturer

Microbiology

Naresuan University

University lecturer

Microbiology

University

Research Assistant Microbial Diseases

Physics

Canterbury Christ Church Univ.

PGCE Science

Pure Maths

Barclays Capital

Risk Analyst

Statistics

Terra Motors

Strategy Manager

Statistics

Bocconi University

Postdoctoral Researcher

Statistics

Berumen y Associates

Data Analyst

Statistics

University of Melbourne

Research Fellow

Statistics

University of Melbourne

Research Fellow

Statistics

University of Kent

Lecturer

 

Humanities

Classics & Archaeology

University of Kent

Student Learning Advisor

Comparative Literature

Community School (Ireland)

Teacher of Italian & Spanish

Comparative Literature

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer

Comparative Literature

Seikei University, Tokyo

Postdoctoral Study

Comparative Literature

Freelance

Translator

The Contemporary Novel: Practice as Research

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer

The Contemporary Novel: Practice as Research

University of Kent

Publications editor (part-time)

Drama: Practice as Research

Raw Material Ensemble

Performer/Director

Drama

Randstad Student support

Self-employed dyslexia coach

Drama

University of Kent

Visiting Drama Lecturer

English

Heythrop College

Postdoctoral Research Coordinator

English

University of Kent

Associate Lecturer in English

English

University of Kent

Lecturer American Literature

Film

Gold Band Films

Videographer

French

Open University

Associate Lecturer in French

French

University of Kent

Honorary Research Fellow

History

Centre for Social Justice

Policy Researcher

History

University of Kent

Lecturer in American History

History

University of Kent

Associate Lecturer

History

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer

Italian

University of Kent

Italian Language Co-ordinator (part-time)

Philosophy

Centre for Social Justice

Policy Researcher

Philosophy

The National Archives

Document Services Operator

Postcolonial Studies

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer

Postcolonial Studies

University of Kent

Lecturer (Sessional)

Theology & Religious Studies

All Saints Church

Vicar

 

 

 

 

Social Sciences

Agricultural Economics

European Commission

Research Fellow

Agricultural Economics

Swedish Competition Authority

Senior Economist

Anthropology

University of Parma

Postdoctoral fellow

Anthropology

Institute for Social Anthropology

Senior Researcher

Anthropology

University of Kent

University Lecturer

Anthropology

Universitat Bielefeld

Lecturer

Anthropology

University of Cambridge

Temp. lecturer: Human Evolution

Anthropology

Canterbury Christ Church Univ.

Researcher

Anthropology

Academy

Researcher

Anthropology

Lucille Packard Foundation for Children's Health

Data Consultant

Anthropology

Make Human Project

Web Tester

Anthropology

Queen Mary Univ. of London

Postdoctoral Researcher

Biodiversity

University of Exeter

Darwin Research Fellow

Biodiversity

Panthera UK

Conservation Biologist

Biodiversity

Independent wildlife consultancy

Owner/Principal Ecological Consultant

Biodiversity

WWF-Malaysia

Research Scientist

Biodiversity

Finnish Centre of Metapopulation Biology

Postdoc Researcher

Biodiversity

University of Kent

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Biodiversity

World Wide Fund for Nature - Tigers Alive Initiative

Consulting Biologist

Biodiversity

International Institute of Environment & Development

Principal Researcher

Biodiversity

University of Kent

Postdoctoral Researcher

Biodiversity

Chester Zoo

Grants Consultant

Community Care

University of New South Wales

Research Associate

Community Care

Canterbury Christ Church Univ.

Research Fellow

Criminology

Brighton University

Lecturer

Criminology

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer

Criminology

University of Haiti

Lecturer

Criminology

University of Kent

PhD Criminology

 

 

 

Economics

University of Keele

Lecturer

Economics

PIDE

Research Economist

Economics

University of Karachi

Research Economist/Assistant Professor

Economics

London School of Economics

Research Fellow

Economics

Commonwealth Secretariat

Analyst

Economics

University of Hull

Lecturer in Economics

Economics

University of East Anglia

Lecturer in Macroeconomics

Economics

University of Girona

Lecturer

Economics

University of Kent

Part time teacher

Environmental Social Science

University of Dar es Salaam

Lecturer

Ethnobiology

Freelance

Ethnobiologist

Forensic Psychology

University of Kent

Research Assistant

Forensic Psychology

University of Kent

Community Programme Tutor

International Conflict Analysis

University of Kent

Lecturer: International Conflict Analysis

International Conflict Analysis

University of Birmingham

Research Fellow

International Conflict Analysis

Point Loma Nazarene University

Professor

International Conflict Analysis

Cambridge Education Group

Tutor

International Relations

Queen's University Belfast

Lecturer & Student Teacher

International Relations

Tutorial firm

Academic Tutor

Law

Ministry of Justice, Stuttgart

Judge

Law

Canterbury College

Lecturer

Law

Carleton University

Assistant Professor

Management

University of Kent

Researcher

Management

University of Kent

Assistant Lecturer - Seminar Leader

Management

University of Sussex

Lecturer in International Business

Management

University of Kent

Senior Lecturer in Business

Management

Dunnhumby

Client Director

Management Science

Thomson Reuters

Research Analytics Consultant

Marketing

Hang Seng Management College

Assistant Professor

Marketing

University of Kent -Kent Business School

Research Associate

Management

NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences

Lecturer

Marketing

UEA

Research Associate

Marketing

University of Coventry

Teaching Fellow

Migration Studies

HMP & YOI Substance Service

Substance Misuse Worker

Migration Studies

MIND

CEO

Migration Studies

University of the Peloponnese

Visiting Research Fellow

Operational Research

KPMG

Financial Modeller

Politics

University of Bern

Post-doc

Politics

Grammar School

Teacher

Politics

Soongsil University

Lecturer

Psychology

Lancaster University

Lecturer

Psychology

University of Kent

Research Fellow

Psychology

Canterbury Christ Church Univ.

Lecturer

Psychology

Centre for Social Relations, Coventry University

Senior Research Assistant

Psychology

University of East Anglia

Lecturer

Psychology

University of Winchester

Lecturer in Psychology

Psychology

Plymouth University

Research Fellow

Psychology

Pilgrims Hospices

Research Facilitator

Social Policy

Save the Children UK

Research Adviser

Social Psychology

Equality & Human Rights Commission

Research Manager

Social Psychology

METU University

Lecturer

Sociology

Canterbury Christ Church Uni

Lecturer

Sociology

Birmingham City University

Lecturer in Sociology

Sociology

Birkbeck, University of London

Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Sociology

Reading Voluntary Action

Project Manager

Social Policy

Save the Children UK

Research Adviser

Social Work

University of Jordan

Ass't Professor

Social Psychology

Equality & Human Rights Commission

Research Manager

Social Psychology

METU University

Lecturer

Social Psychology

University of Kent

Research Associate

Sociology

Canterbury Christ Church Uni

Lecturer

Sociology

Sheffield Hallam University

Lecturer in Politics & Sociology

Sociology

University of Kent

Lecturer in Cultural Studies (PGCHE)

Sociology

Swansea University

Lecturer in Sociology & Social Policy

Sociology

University of Kent

Lecturer in Criminology

Sociology

University of Exeter

Associate Research Fellow

Sociology+Politics

Canterbury Christ Church Univ.

Lecturer

Sociology+Politics

University of Kent

Research Fellow

Medway

Journalism

University of Kent

Lecturer in Journalism

Music & Technology

Concepts2music - University of Kent

Postdoctoral Researcher

Pharmacy

University of Wolverhampton

Lecturer in Pharmaceutics

Pharmacy

Washington University School of Medicine

Postdoctoral Research Associate

Pharmacy

University of Kent

Clinical Lecturer

Pharmacy

Albany Medical Center

Postdoctoral Fellow

Pharmacy

National Physical Laboratory

Higher Research Scientist

Pharmacy

University of Huddersfield

Research Fellow

Sports & Exercise Science

Aberystwyth University

Lecturer

 

For destinations of Master’s graduates, go to www.kent.ac.uk/careers-local/fdrbases/destinations.htm and click on “Postgraduates” in your chosen year

"You'll need the ability to adapt to new challenges, analyse complex problems and generate original ideas. You'll need the intellectual courage to question convention and explore more effective ways of doing things. You will also need excellent team skills, the ability to understand customer needs and a willingness to continue learning throughout your career".

GSK (pharmaceutical company)

 

 

Opportunities with a postgraduate degree

You may have chosen to undertake postgraduate study/research with a particular career in mind and know exactly what you want to do; you may have only a more vague idea of how you can use your postgraduate studies in your career or you may have taken your degree purely out of interest and now be looking at a wide range of possibilities.

In general, postgraduates are attractive to a wide variety of employers, whatever their field of study or research. A 2010 report from the Council for Industry and Higher Education, “Talent Fishing”, found that 70% of employers surveyed sought out postgraduate students, and 90% of those who did valued the analytical thinking and problem-solving skills a Masters or PhD brings.

Academic careers

An academic position is the main career goal for many postgraduate students but, even after a PhD, this is not an easy option. The academic job market is highly competitive, particularly in humanities and social sciences, and only about 22% of all PhDs continue into postdoctoral research.

Even for those who do succeed in entering an academic career, life is not easy. Academia is far from being an ivory tower: it can be stressful, with long hours, and insecure. The vast majority of researchers are employed on short-term contracts and, increasingly, so are early-career academics. 

Many academics work over 50 hours a week and there is constant pressure: pressure to produce high-quality research that can contribute to the University’s position in league tables and, for those engaged in teaching, pressure in terms of large class sizes, student expectations and greater teaching or tutoring workloads.

Having completed a PhD does not automatically mean that an academic career is the right option for you and you should carefully consider:

  • What do you want out of a career and is that a good match for a career as an academic?
    • Do you enjoy teaching as well as research?
    • How important to you are salary and job security?
    • Are you prepared to take on administrative responsibilities?
    • Does your career need to fit in with that of your partner or family?
    • Have you looked at all the possible career options or do you want to stay in academia because you don’t know what else you could do?

  • Have you got what it takes to make it in the competitive world of academia?
    • Do you have the confidence to flourish in a high-pressure environment?
    • Do you still have a passion for your research? Have you the motivation to publish it and to present it at conferences?
    • Are you good with people and a good networker?
    • Are you resilient? Can you multi-task and work under pressure? Can you cope with criticism and rejection?
    • Are you flexible and able to cope with change?
    • Can you be proactive in seeking out opportunities to develop your career (including bidding for funding)?

A useful site for help with deciding on an academic career is www.academiccareer.manchester.ac.uk. This site is for anybody interested in becoming an academic, providing information on what academics really do and how people typically enter academic careers. While it does not gloss over the challenges involved in an academic career, it also gives you lots of suggestions for how you could improve your chances. 

Academic career paths

It is unlikely that postgraduates will obtain a position as a lecturer immediately after completing their PhD. More typically they will start out in a role such as Teaching Assistant, Research Assistant or Postdoctoral Fellow. These will generally be temporary contracts lasting one, two or three years and may lead on to a permanent academic post, although there is no guarantee of this. Teaching posts in particular are likely to be part-time and remunerated only on the number of hours taught.

What do academic employers look for?

Universities will look at more than just the quality of your research: candidates for academic posts should be able to offer all of the following:

  • Publications. You should be able to demonstrate that you have begun to disseminate your work to the wider academic community through published journal articles or books and/or presenting papers at conferences.
  • Teaching experience. Teaching at undergraduate level is obviously also an essential part of an academic career and you should therefore take advantage of any opportunities to gain teaching experience during your postgraduate studies. Departments frequently require, or strongly encourage, their research students to do this but, if your own department does not offer any teaching opportunities, you may be able to obtain part-time teaching in further and adult education.
  • Administrative skills. Academic staff also have a number of administrative responsibilities (such as convening courses, managing exams, sitting on committees, quality assessment, etc.) so any experience of people or project management would be helpful here.
  • General transferable skills such as those set out under “Skills gained through postgraduate study”

 

A typical Person Specification for a junior lectureship:

Essential:

  • Breadth or depth of specialist knowledge in the discipline to work within established teaching and research programmes;
  • An ability to lecture and conduct seminars clearly and effectively;
  • Skills in research relevant to the subject area;
  • Effective oral and written communication skills;
  • Computer proficiency in standard packages;
  • Effective presentation skills;
  • An ability to relate well to students and to appreciate and react to the needs of individual students and their circumstances;
  • Organisation and administration skills;
  • Commitment to working with diversity;
  • Ability to engage the interest and enthusiasm of students and inspire them to learn;
  • Research experience at postgraduate level;
  • PhD or equivalent.

Desirable

  • Teaching experience at degree level;
  • Publications in peer-reviewed journals;
  • An ability to attract research funding.

Finding jobs

Academic posts, both in the UK and abroad, are normally advertised in the Guardian, Times Higher Education and on www.jobs.ac.uk see the “Links and Resources” section for a full list of links.

The academic job market is highly international with lecturers and postdoctoral researchers moving between countries to find employment and develop their career.

Other careers in universities

As well as academic roles, universities employ staff in a variety of academic-related management and support roles. These include:
  • Administration, including student registration and admissions, central services administration, departmental co-ordination;
  • Library and information services;
  • Scientific support, e.g. laboratory technicians;
  • Careers, employability and enterprise; 
  • Human resource management, including staff development/training;
  • IT and systems support;
  • Public relations and marketing posts, promoting universities to             prospective students (in the UK and overseas), alumni, businesses and the community;
  • Student welfare and support: counselling and advice services,  disability support, international student support;
  • Accommodation, catering and conference services;
  • Arts, music and events;
  • Financial management;
  • Health & safety.

Vacancies in these areas may be advertised at national level on the same sites as academic posts but, at entry-level grades, may only be advertised on the individual university’s website.

For more information on these options, see www.kent.ac.uk/careers/workin/university.htm

Careers in teaching: outside universities

Teaching adult learners in further education (FE) is a popular option among postgraduate students. The FE sector includes further education colleges, sixth-form colleges, community colleges, adult education centres and prisons. While no formal academic qualification is required for to teach in FE, it is an advantage to hold a professional teaching qualification focused on the FE sector, such as the Level 5 Diploma in Education and Training. However, there is strong competition for jobs in FE, with many staff being recruited on short-time contracts or on a part-time/casual basis.
For further information see www.kent.ac.uk/careers/teach-FE.htm and www.feadvice.org.uk

To teach under-16 students in state schools, you will need to undertake an Initial Teacher Education or Training Programme leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). These are available either through a full-time PGCE course or through on-the-job training and part-time study while working in a school. Although it is possible to teach in independent schools, academies and free schools in England without QTS (and a postgraduate degree may be looked on particularly favourably in some of these schools), it is a definite advantage to have it. Funding to cover fees and maintenance may be available for PGCEs, depending on your degree subject.

The Researchers in Schools programme www.researchersinschools.org provides a tailored teacher training route designed to prepare PhD graduates to work as teachers in non-selective state schools through a three-year school-based teacher training programme.  
If you intend to teach in schools, you should have some work experience with the relevant age-range. Most providers expect you to have at least two weeks' classroom experience before you begin teacher training.

For further information on teaching careers, teaching qualifications and entry requirements see:

Careers in research: outside universities

Humanities

Outside education, jobs which make direct use of a research degree in the humanities are unlikely to be more numerous at postgraduate level than they were after your BA. Areas such as the media, publishing and the heritage industry are highly competitive and, although your degree should be able to help you demonstrate an advanced level of skills and knowledge, employers will usually be seeking practical and transferable skills rather than purely academic expertise.
However, there are plenty of opportunities for using research skills beyond your immediate degree subject. Humanities PhDs have entered roles in areas such as policy research in public sector and voluntary organisations, consultancy and market research. The website, “Beyond the PhD” www.beyondthephd.co.uk has many profiles of arts and humanities PhDs describing their experience in a range of academic and non-academic careers and showing how their PhD equipped them for their role.
Currently, there are more than 1,400 consultants with PhDs at McKinsey globally … As consultants, they find they can apply their problem-solving skills in new ways, working side by side with other consultants and with their clients. www.mckinsey.com/careers/faqs/phd

Social Sciences

You may be particularly interested in the field of social research – working for central or local government bodies, think-tanks and consultancies. Our pages on political and social research careers www.kent.ac.uk/careers/workin/political-research.htm give more information about these employers. Commercial organisations, such as market research and advertising agencies, also make use of social research techniques and skills. Subjects such as law, business and economics can also be applied with commercial employers specialising in these fields.

Science and technology

Research & development scientists are employed in many organisations including manufacturing companies (cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, defence, etc), energy and utility companies, Government laboratories, charities and Research Councils. http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/workin/researchsci.htm

“Five or ten years ago about 15-20% of our graduate trainees had PhDs; now more than half have postgraduate or research experience. They tend to be more mature than younger trainees and to have more polished communication skills. Having worked as researchers themselves, they also have a keen awareness of what research is like – an important asset when dealing with our clients.”

Head of graduate recruitment at Mewburn Ellis patent attorneys

Other careers

Many students completing their PhD will have been engaged in full-time study for around twenty years, from first starting school, through a Bachelors and possibly a Master’s degree followed by three or more years of research. Your experience of employment outside education may be limited to casual part-time student jobs that offer no inspiration for alternative careers and this may make the job market outside academia seem unattractive and daunting.

However, for the significant numbers of doctoral graduates who do not wish, or who find themselves unable, to stay in higher education a change in career direction is certainly possible at this stage. This may be through entering employment immediately or may require further study or professional training.

When you start to research the job market, you may only find a limited number of opportunities that specifically request a postgraduate degree. You may find yourself applying for jobs and graduate schemes that are equally open to undergraduates. There is no disgrace in this and, as a doctoral graduate, you have considerably more to offer these employers than you did at the end of your first degree.

At the most basic level, you have an extra few years’ experience, which makes you more mature and focused. Undertaking a degree at this level demonstrates commitment, initiative and motivation. This, along with the skills developed through any further experience such as teaching, can help you to stand out when competing with Bachelor’s and Master’s degree graduates.

You may instinctively start by looking at “graduate recruitment schemes”.  These are typically offered by larger employers in business, finance, IT, law, technology, engineering and the public sector. In general, these are open to graduates at all levels and, while employers are happy to recruit postgraduates onto their graduate schemes, these graduates apply through the same route as undergraduates and are not treated any differently in the recruitment process or when they start work. A recent (small-scale) survey of ten of the largest graduate recruiters found that only four even mentioned postgraduate qualifications and that only two of these had some specific roles where a postgraduate degree might be an advantage.

These are not just in science, technology and engineering, there are also opportunities in finance and business such as the following:

The Bank of England offers a three-year fixed-term contract Research Programme for new PhD entrants from economics, finance and related disciplines. This programme is designed to offer scope to conduct policy-relevant research and opportunities to develop research skills further. Successful candidates will spend at least 50% of their time doing research and will also get involved in policy work in your area and gain experience in policy analysis. They will be expected to publish in top-quality journals and collaborate with external and visiting academics. www.bankofenglandearlycareers.co.uk/our-programmes/phd-and-experienced-researchers

A leading hedge fund is seeking exceptional PhD students interested in making a transition from academia into industry. The researchers are tasked with creating highly complex trading algorithms through the use of cutting edge mathematics, applying scientific methods from highly diverse disciplines including: Bayesian statistics, signal processing, machine learning and probability theory. This would suit those looking to remain in an academic style position, albeit outside of academia. All of the researchers within the fund joined directly out of world renowned academic institutions, with first class academic backgrounds in Mathematics or Physics. No background / prior knowledge of finance is required.

However, graduate training schemes are not the only route into a successful career: on average, only a quarter of graduates will join these schemes every year. Outside these schemes, there are plenty of opportunities where a postgraduate degree will be a requirement or an advantage and employers will value the specialist knowledge or practical skills gained through your studies. This is particularly true in scientific and social research, economics and international organisations, as well as education. Some of these employers may have an annual graduate intake, but many more will only recruit on an ad hoc basis, as and when they need somebody with a particular knowledge base or skill set.

“Even though I am not using the knowledge I gained from my MA directly, it enabled me to demonstrate that I have the commitment and intelligence to see a long, difficult and challenging task through to completion”

 

Employability Skills Obtained through Postgraduate Research

 Employers want postgraduates to be able to offer more than their academic subject knowledge. They also look for a range of skills: transferable skills such as teamworking, business awareness and communication skills plus, depending on the employer, more practical skills such as languages, numeracy, laboratory techniques and quantitative methods. These skills need to be put forward on job applications – even those for academic posts. 

PhD Skills

The transferable skills most often sought by employers of postgraduates are:

  • Written communication skills. The ability to use the English language effectively in order to express your ideas clearly and at a level appropriate for your audience.

  • Verbal communication skills. Again, using language effectively but with the additional ability to speak confidently and clearly and to pitch what you say in such a way to have the desired impact on your listeners.

  • Analytical ability. Considering differing ideas, information and theories; picking out key points and details in order to construct or support your arguments; following complex reasoning; applying logic.

  • Critical thinking. Ability to question and not to take things at face value. Interpreting information and arguments; considering their validity in the light of issues such as their source, the evidence provided to support them and other material on the topic. Constructing a reasoned argument for your own point of view.

  • Planning and organising. Approaching tasks and projects systematically; managing time; setting targets; monitoring progress; delegating; ability to handle a number of different tasks simultaneously.

  • Research/Investigative skills. Use of a variety of sources; constructing research proposals; testing different theories; using specialist techniques such as statistical packages or laboratory equipment.

  • Innovation. Ability to take a fresh approach, think laterally, be original and creative, willing to try new things and adapt to new environments.

  • Problem solving. Taking a systematic approach to problems; being flexible in finding solutions; looking at different angles and approaches; identifying the most appropriate solution for the situation.

  • Maturity and confidence. Wide experience of life generally and specifically of working with other people; strong career focus; credibility with employers and clients.

  • Self-motivation. Ability to work independently without the need for constant direction or feedback. Anticipating what needs to be done; setting your own goals and working towards them. Being positive and professional. Taking responsibility for your own work and personal development.

  • Commercial awareness. An awareness of the environment in which an organisation operates (public sector and charitable organisations face commercial and financial pressures too!). A focus on the purpose of the organisation and its clients and/or stakeholders.

  • Co-operation. The ability to work with other people, inside and outside your own department or organisation. Working together to achieve a common goal. Allocating and sharing responsibilities and tasks.

Many of these skills are developed to a high level through postgraduate research. Others can be demonstrated through other aspects of your experience, such as teaching, employment outside academia and extra-curricular activities.

“During the PhD, I developed a number of key skills vital to my current role: organisational skills, people skills, communication skills, problem solving skills, administrative skills, willingness to work long hours and team working skills”
www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/working-in-higher-education/1877/from-phd-to-first-post-in-academia

Analysing your skills

The sites listed below offer various resources to help you identify the skills you have developed through your studies and those you wish to develop further:

Once you have worked through one or two of these resources you may wish to talk over the results with a careers adviser

 

Choosing a Career

Start by thinking about what motivates you. A love of research and an enthusiasm for your subject may have kept you going through your years of study and research, but try and consider other things that you enjoy doing or that bring you satisfaction. Think too about what you can offer employers in addition to your degree, and what else is important to you in life.

You can break these issues down into topics such as:
  • Your interests
  • Your values
  • Your skills
  • Your opportunities – the job market for your area of interest
  • Other criteria – such as location, salary or work-life balance

The resources below will provide further information and careers advisers can offer personal support and guidance to help you make these decisions:

Important things to keep in mind when making career decisions:

  • Get to know yourself - your employability skills, abilities and personal qualities. Without knowing what is important to you, what you want from a job and what you can offer, it will be more difficult to make career choices.
  • Other people can often help you to see yourself more clearly. Try asking your friends, relations or tutors about your strengths and weaknesses, or talk over your ideas with a careers adviser. They could help you to see yourself more objectively.
  • Don't have fixed ideas about jobs, such as who does them and what the work is like. Stereotyped pictures of jobs are rarely accurate. Find out what is really involved and look for the truth behind the popular image.
  • The best careers advice comes from people with first-hand knowledge. Try and make contact with people doing the type of jobs that interest you and talk to them about their work. See www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/creativejobhunt.html?tab=learning-to-network for further advice on networking.    
  • Keep an open mind. Be flexible. Be receptive to new job ideas. Don't reject career possibilities without some consideration first. Remember that your first career post does not have to set the direction for the rest of your working life if you don’t want it to.
  • Make full use of the Careers & Employability Service. Use our print and online resources and consult careers advisers with any queries and problems.

 

Applications and interviews for academic posts

When applying for research posts or lectureships, make sure you have a good understanding of the department, the position and the broad area of teaching and/or research. All this may seem self-evident, but candidates for academic posts are often too focused on their own specific research and don’t think about what the job actually involves or what they can contribute to the department through their skills or experience. So, before you start to apply, put your research skills into practice to find out all that you can about the department, its staff and students (any contacts that you have built up through networking will be invaluable here). This will help you to focus your application and to demonstrate clearly what you can offer them that distinguishes you from the other candidates.

Academic CVs follow a different format from a “normal” CV, most notably in the content and the length. They are generally longer than the “standard” two-side CV, often running to five or six pages, as they need to include information such as:

      • A detailed synopsis of your PhD and any other research;
      • Publications – books, articles, reviews, conference proceedings;
      • Conferences attended (especially if you have presented papers);
      • Membership of relevant professional bodies;
      • Teaching experience - running seminars, helping with practicals;
      • Awards – such as funded studentships, academic prizes or travel grants;
      • Details of relevant scientific or specialist packages/techniques you are familiar with such as SPSS, LexisNexis, NMR or chromatography;
      • Evidence of skills such as IT, time management, project management and report writing;
      • Work experience – only list experience relevant to your application, such as teaching, “university ambassador” roles, exam invigilation,      industrial placements and internships;
      • References. Usually three academic references (one or more from your postgraduate degree plus one from your first degree) and possibly one from an employer or another individual who can comment about your personal qualities as opposed to your academic performance.

In your covering letter or personal statement, you should outline your skills and strengths, show real enthusiasm for your subject, evidence of a wider knowledge of the area beyond your specialised field of research and awareness of recent developments.

For further information and advice see www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/cv-templates/2069/academic-cv-guidelines

Covering Letters and Personal Statements

In your covering letter or personal statement, you should outline your skills and strengths, show real enthusiasm for your subject, evidence of a wider knowledge of the area beyond your specialised field of research and awareness of recent developments.

The biggest problem is lack of clarity. People either provide too much detail or omit crucial points. A CV should provide a clear account of where you are, what you have achieved, what you are doing now and where you are moving next in your research”

Susan Bassnett, Professor of Comparative Literature, Warwick University

Interviews for Academic Jobs

PhDs are usually awarded at a viva but PhD students at a college in Srinagar, Kashmir, were until recently also expected to lay on kebabs before faculty members decided their fate, according to the Kashmir Reader newspaper. "Almost all departments ask an MPhil or PhD scholar to arrange 'refreshments' for the adjudicating panel," campus sources told the paper: students may to pay up to 10,000 rupees (£100) for the food. The rule has now been discontinued.

Interviews for academic, research or postdoctoral posts are no longer relaxed, informal chats: there is fierce competition for these posts and you need to prepare well, show enthusiasm and ask appropriate questions.

Before the interview:

      • Research the university and the department carefully;
      • Check out the research interests of the current academic staff;
      • Try to speak to current students in the department and look at notice boards, social networking sites, etc.
      • Read over your application again. Try and put yourself in the               interviewers’ shoes and think of questions they may want to ask you;
      • Think of questions you want to ask.

At the interview:

An academic interview is likely to be carried out by a panel made up of a number of members of staff, from the faculty or school, the academic department and the human resources department. Remember that, unlike HR staff, academics may not be trained interviewers, so be aware that you may occasionally have to take the initiative.

Interviews for academic posts frequently require candidates to give a short   presentation - usually on an aspect of your research. This allows the panel to assess not only your teaching skills but also your ability to plan, research, analyse and present information. You can also expect to be asked questions, and how you respond to these will also form part of the assessment. Presentations need to be pitched at the right level – at a well-informed and knowledgeable audience who may nonetheless not be familiar with the detailed nuances of your specialised area of research.

Alternatively, you may be asked to prepare a presentation of the sort that would be delivered in an undergraduate lecture.

There may also be a social side to the interview, such as a lunch to which all members of the department will be invited to meet the group of candidates. While this will not be assessed, people who are not on the actual interview panel may also be asked for their opinions of the candidates, so don’t get involved in any heated debates or inappropriate topics of conversation.

The Questions

You can expect to be asked about:
      • Your research: research already carried out, work in progress, your future direction;
      • Studentships, research grants and other funding achieved;
      • Teaching experience – what you have taught; to whom; teaching and assessment techniques;
      • Any relevant specialist technical expertise;
      • Any other ways in which you have contributed to University life, such as administration experience, involvement in open days and student recruitment.

The interviewers will also want to find out about you as an individual - will you fit in to the department? Are you a good team member?

Questions that might be asked to elicit this information include:
      • How did you choose your research topic?
      • Why do you feel that this research is important?
      • What problems did you encounter and how did you deal with them?
      • How do you see your research within the wider area of …?
      • How would your research interests fit in with the work of this department?
      • What teaching experience do you have?
      • Describe an innovation that you have introduced into your teaching.
      • How would your research and teaching complement each other?
      • How would you approach teaching first-years on our ….. module?
      • What other relevant skills or experience can you offer?
      • Have you considered any further potential areas of research?
      • How would you go about persuading a funding body to support your research?
      • What makes you the right candidate for this post?
      • Where do you see yourself in five years time?

Many of these questions demand a fairly detailed response but make sure that you don’t go into too much detail! Watch the panel for signs of impatience and pause occasionally, giving them the chance either to encourage you to continue or to move on to another question.

Remember that they will be looking at your ability to think for yourself; your capacity for independent and original thought and your ability to communicate and reason. Be polite, but don't be afraid to enter into discussion and to stand your ground. Some interviewers will deliberately challenge your replies to see if you can stand up for yourself and argue your point effectively.

They will also be looking for evidence of strong interest in your subject, as well as enthusiasm for the subject. Do you keep up to date with developments? Do you genuinely seem to enjoy talking about the subject?

Make sure that you ask questions of the panel, as this demonstrates your enthusiasm and interest.

Some questions you could ask at an academic interview

  • What do you feel are the key strengths of this department?
  • What are your most successful courses in terms of student numbers?
  • Do you have any plans to introduce new courses or modules?
  • What training is available to new members of staff? Would I have the opportunity to take a PGCHE? What staff development opportunities are available?
  • How and when will I be appraised?

Dress code

Smart casual dress may be acceptable for academic interviews, particularly those for research posts rather than lectureships, but many departments now expect more formal business dress. If in doubt, go for the smarter option: you will never prejudice your chances by being too smart, but dressing in too casual a way risks being interpreted as unprofessional or not sufficiently motivated.

Further information

For advice on academic interviews, including presentations and commonly-asked questions, see:

 

Applications and interviews for jobs outside academiaPhD Interview

While your postgraduate study and research will have equipped you with a large number of the skills that employers want for graduates, if you are applying for posts outside the academic or research field, you will need to convince employers of two things:

  • that the skills you have gained can be useful in a non-academic setting;
  • that you are motivated and enthusiastic about the position that you are applying for

In other words, you not only need to convince prospective employers that you can do the job, but also that you want to do the job. This is particularly important for research postgraduates who may otherwise run the risk of being viewed by employers as “over-qualified” or as “frustrated academics”.

Your CV should therefore be more similar to an “undergraduate” CV, using your postgraduate study alongside work experience and other activities as evidence of the skills and personal qualities required in that particular position. In general, these CVs will be shorter than academic CVs – not more than two sides of A4 when printed out – and should include:

  • A brief outline of your research or course;
  • Work experience – here, any type of experience may be relevant: part-time and vacation work, voluntary work, work shadowing, etc;
  • Extra-curricular activities and interests – these do not just help to demonstrate your skills but also show that you have a life outside your studies!
  • Evidence of skills such as IT, time management, project management and  report writing;
  • References. Usually just two references, one academic and one employer or character reference. The CV itself can just say “references available on request”.

One of the best PhD CVs I have seen treated the candidate’s PhD as a project which they had managed through to a successful conclusion and included it under their work experience. The following example is based on this model, but you may prefer to use a format which puts the emphasis on your skills rather than your career history. Which you choose is up to you and depends on what you feel is best suited to you and the job for which you are applying.

The Vitae website includes examples of PhD students’ CVs in different styles www.vitae.ac.uk/researcher-careers/researcher-cv-examples/list-of-vitae-cv-examples

Interviews

Interviews

The format of these, and the questions asked, will naturally vary according to the employer and the type of job but in most cases will be different from academic interviews. You will usually be interviewed by one or two people rather than a panel and the questions are likely to focus as much on your skills and competencies as on your studies and research.

As with academic interviews, thorough preparation is the key to success. This will help you to appear confident at interview (however nervous you feel inside!) and provide evidence of your motivation and enthusiasm by showing that you have taken the trouble to research the career area and the employer to which you are applying.

As part of this preparation, you should:
  • Think about why you want the job – what motivates you? – and what you have to offer that will help you to do the job – relevant       experience, skills and/or competencies;
  • Prepare examples that demonstrate these skills;
  • Anticipate questions that you might be asked during the interview.

Demonstrating your motivation and competencies will be doubly important if you are applying for a position that has little or no direct relevance to your studies. While employers may find your academic qualifications impressive some, particularly in smaller organisations, may be intimidated by them. They may also have concerns about the relevance of these qualifications, your practical and people skills and your commitment to a career outside academia. 

A survey of employer attitudes to postgraduate researchers found that the following concerns and negative perceptions were most often raised by employers outside academia:
  • Lack of commercial awareness;
  • Difficulty in adapting to the working culture outside university;
  • Over-specialisation and lack of adaptability;
  • Unrealistic expectations – of, for example, salary and levels of responsibility. 

While many employers in this survey were enthusiastic about recruiting PhDs, you should be aware of these issues and think about how you can counter them. Using all aspects of your experience, including part-time work and extra-curricular activities, rather than just focusing on your studies, is a helpful tactic. Questions about the relevance of your postgraduate degree, and your reasons for changing career direction and applying for a particular position, can easily be seen by the candidate as hostile but are a legitimate way for the interviewer to test your motivation and enthusiasm, so don’t let yourself get flustered. 

The Questions

You can expect to be asked questions such as:
  • Why did you choose to take a postgraduate degree?
  • What did your research actually involve?
  • How might your degree be useful to us?
  • What do you know about this organisation?
  • Why are you applying for this job?
  • What do you expect to be doing in this job?
  • Apart from your degree, what can you bring to the job?
  • What other jobs have you applied for?
  • Where do you see yourself in five years’ time?
  • You have a research Master’s degree - have you thought about carrying on into a PhD?
  • You have a PhD – don’t you want to be a university lecturer?

These questions are designed to assess your motivation – do you want the job? Other questions will aim to assess your competencies – can you do the job? 

Competency-based questions will follow the format “Give me an example of a time when you have …”:
  • had to convince a person or group to do something that they were initially reluctant to do?
  • had to analyse detailed information to extract the essential points?
  • had to manage a heavy workload or a number of conflicting priorities?
  • had to organise your time to achieve a specific aim?
  • worked with a group of other people to achieve a common goal?
  • taken a major decision?
  • succeeded in a challenging task in difficult circumstances?
  • solved a problem in a creative way?
  • acted to improve a process or make a system work better?
  • had to explain something in detail to a person or group who knew little about the subject?
  • begun a task and then had to change your approach and do something in a different way?

Your studies will have given you material to use in answering many of these questions, but it is a good idea to provide a number of examples from outside academia as well - this will reassure the interviewer that you have experience beyond university and have gained skills from “real life” as well as from study and research.

For more advice on competency-based interviews, and further example questions, see www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/competency.html

For more advice on competency-based interviews, and further example questions, see www.kent.ac.uk/careers/compet/skillquest.htm

Useful sources of information and help

  • Careers & Employability Service web pages on interviews: www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/interviews.html.  These include hints on the questions you might be asked, and how to handle them, questions you might ask the interviewer and advice on preparing for interview.

  • The Careers & Employability Service booklet, “Interview Skills”, covers the same topics in a handy pocket-sized booklet. Pick up a copy from the Careers & Employability Service building or download it from www.kent.ac.uk/ces/publications/InterviewSkills14.pdf.

  • The CES runs regular talks and workshops to give advice on interview preparation and the chance to practise your interview skills – see our events pages www.kent.ac.uk/ces/events/index.html for details.

  • If you have an interview coming up you are welcome to talk to a careers adviser about it: we can go through your application with you and suggest questions that you may expect to come up.

 

Vacancy sources

Academic jobs:

Most of these sites list jobs covering a range of academic, research, managerial and support roles in higher education plus vacancies in other public and private sector bodies that are appropriate for postgraduates and researchers.

There may also be specialist listings for particular subjects, such as Inomics for Economics, Computeroxy for mathematics, electrical and electronic engineering and computer science or the Society for Classical Studies. Your supervisor will know which are the best sources for your subject area.

 General graduate jobs:

These are national resources which chiefly focus on large corporate and public sector recruiters. If you are interested in working locally (where there are few such recruiters), working in media or the arts, or working for a smaller employer, the following may help you: 

  • I Want to Work In …” www.kent.ac.uk/careers/workin.htm- brief introductions to almost 100 popular career areas, with useful links
  • Working in Kent www.kent.ac.uk/careers/kentopps.htm
  • Working in Small Businesses www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sme.htm
  • The Creative Career Search www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/creativejobhunt.html
  • The Careers & Employability Service’s vacancy database https://careers.kent.ac.uk/student/home.html  includes jobs with all kinds of employers (in Kent, nationally and internationally) plus postgraduate studentships and research posts. 

Links and resources

  • Vitae - a national organisation supporting the personal, professional and career development of doctoral researchers and research staff in higher education institutions and research institutes. The site includes a great deal of useful information for postgraduates;
  • Jobs.ac.uk offers many ebooks and other useful resources covering topics such as “Career Planning for PhDs”, “10 Career paths for PhDs” and “A Practical Guide to Planning an Academic or Research Career” as well as advice on applications and interviews for academic jobs www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/resources/ebooks-and-toolkits
  • Research Fundermentals by Phil Ward, research funding manager at the University of Kent. Excellent information on research funding.
  • Beyond the PhD Arts and humanities PhDs describe their experience, their current work in a range of academic and non-academic  careers and how their Has equipped them for their role;
  • Social Science Space A resource for social scientists with pages of advice for those at the start of their career.
  • An Academic Career www.academiccareer.manchester.ac.uk Covers issues such as: Is an academic career for you? What do academics do?  How do you become an academic? What are the alternatives?
  • Research Careers: advice and resources from Research Councils UK, including case studies on careers in research;
  • Career Resources for Researchers from the University of East Anglia. Includes links to professional and funding bodies in a wide range of fields; vacancy sources and recruitment agencies relevant to research students.;
  • Research is Cool: recruitment & social networking site for researchers at all stages of their career including vacancies for research assistant jobs, postdoctoral positions, postgraduate studentships and careers advice;
  • Shinton Consulting: provides careers advice, information and professional development training to scientists, academic researchers, research students and academic staff. Their website carries advice, profiles, case studies, information about careers in academia and beyond, plus links;
  • LinkedIn group for PhDs seeking career opportunities outside of academia
  • Reflecting on the value of your PhD: what are employers looking for?
  • Guardian Higher Education Network: news, advice and issues relevant to Students and graduates;
  • Times Higher Education: higher education jobs, news and resources for the academic community;
  • One Step Beyond: a Government review investigating the benefits of postgraduate education for the UK economy, employers, higher education institutions and the students themselves;
  • PhD Comics: comic strip charting the “ongoing chronicle of life (or the lack thereof) in graduate school”. Many a true word is spoken in jest!



Links and resources

  • Vitae - a national organisation supporting the personal, professional and career development of doctoral researchers and research staff in higher education institutions and research institutes. The site includes a great deal of useful information for postgraduates;
  • New PhD Portal on jobs.ac.uk www.jobs.ac.uk/phd From PhD programmes and studentships to professional doctorates, jobs.ac.uk has launched a dedicated new PhD portal for postgraduates where you can search for your ideal PhD. Last year we advertised over 5,500 PhD opportunities for universities and research institutions throughout the UK, Europe and beyond. This year we have introduced new filters to make finding PhDs on jobs.ac.uk even easier including:
    • Qualification type
    • Discipline and sub-category
    • Funding amount and eligibility
    • Provider
    • Location
    Plus we have lots of great careers resources specifically for postgrads thinking about doing a PhD including PhD interview tips, a funding guide and this handy ebook called ‘A Practical Guide to Planning an Academic or Research Career’.
  • Beyond the PhD Arts and humanities PhDs describe their experience, their current work in a range of academic and non-academic  careers and how their Has equipped them for their role;
  • Social Science Space A resource for social scientists with pages of advice for those at the start of their career.
  • Science and Technology Facilities Council - survey of the career paths of PhD graduates in physics and related subjects;
  • Postgraduate Careers Blog from the University of Manchester. Careers news, comments, vacancies and deadline alerts for postgraduates;
  • Research Careers: advice and resources from Research Councils UK, including case studies on careers in research;
  • Research Fundermentals by Phil Ward, research funding manager at the the University of Kent. Excellent information on research funding.
  • Career Resources for Researchers from the University of East Anglia. Includes links to professional and funding bodies in a wide range of fields; vacancy sources and recruitment agencies relevant to research students.;
  • Choosing a PhD http://targetpostgrad.com/content/find-a-phd academic jobs, jobs outside academia, research and professional training.
  • Research is Cool: recruitment & social networking site for researchers at all stages of their career including vacancies for research assistant jobs, postdoctoral positions, postgraduate studentships and careers advice;
  • Shinton Consulting: provides careers advice, information and professional development training to scientists, academic researchers, research students and academic staff. Their website carries advice, profiles, case studies, information about careers in academia and beyond, plus links;
  • Researchers in Schools www.researchersinschools.org is a salaried teacher training programme exclusively for researchers with a doctoral qualification. Participants will receive a minimum training scholarship of £17,000 in the first year and a competitive salary thereafter.
  • LinkedIn group for PhDs seeking career opportunities outside of academia
  • Reflecting on the value of your PhD: what are employers looking for?
  • Guardian Higher Education Network: news, advice and issues relevant to Students and graduates;
  • Times Higher Education: higher education jobs, news and resources for the academic community;
  • One Step Beyond: a Government review investigating the benefits of postgraduate education for the UK economy, employers, higher education institutions and the students themselves;
  • The Research Councils' Graduate Schools Programme (RCGSP) www.gradschools.ac.uk well established annual series of career and personal development courses run exclusively for PhD students. On these a number of postgraduates will get together to meet managers and researchers working in industry, to work together on case studies and simulations, and to be introduced to the variety of jobs on offer on completion of their research. They are also an excellent way to learn about and to start developing relevant personal transferable skills.
  • PhD Comics: comic strip charting the “ongoing chronicle of life (or the lack thereof) in graduate school”. Many a true word is spoken in jest!
  • 10-step regime for steering postgrad students through the final stages of their thesis
  • How not to write a thesis or how to fail your PhD
  • Want to hire creative risk-takers? Doctoral graduates could be the answer

 

Last fully updated 2013