Portrait of Dr Richard Misek

Dr Richard Misek

Senior Lecturer


Richard Misek is a film-maker, montagist, and theorist. He studied English Language and Literature at the University of Oxford, and was a Frank Knox Fellow at Harvard University. He subsequently received an MA in Film and Television Studies from the University of Warwick, and a PhD in Screen Studies from the University of Melbourne. 

His research and teaching interests encompass video technologies and aesthetics, editing and montage, remixing and copy culture, the essay film, artists’ film and video, and the interstices between film and digital media. As a practice-based researcher, he works across documentary, experimental film, and digital film studies to explore the poetics and politics of the moving image. His essay film Rohmer in Paris (2013) has screened at over twenty five film festivals on five continents, and at venues including the National Gallery of Art (Washington D.C.), the BFI and Barbican (London), and the Museum of Moving Image and Anthology Film Archives (New York). In June 2016, he curated ‘Indefinite Visions’, a series of events at the Whitechapel Gallery and Close Up Film Centre (London), bringing together international academics, film-makers and artists for presentations, conversations, and screenings on the indefinite and the illegible in experimental film and commercial cinema.

He is Principal Investigator on the ARHC Digital Transformations project, ‘The Audiovisual Essay: a digital methodology for film and media studies’. He is also a leading proponent of video essays and ‘videographic’ film studies. He believes in the combined power of word and image to create new knowledge.

Research interests

My current research focuses on exploring moving images through the use of moving images. For example, my feature-length essay film Rohmer in Paris (2013, 67’) uses the films of Eric Rohmer to explore how cinema maps screen space onto urban space. My video essay, The Definition of Film (2015, 8'), transforms Hollis Frampton’s experimental film Zorns Lemma into an online video, so exploring how video challenges our understanding of what constitutes a ‘film’. My current projects aim to extend the ‘found footage’ methodologies of my recent work into new forms including online video, gallery installation, and virtual reality. 

The above creative works form part of a broader research agenda focused on bridging the gap between film production and film studies. As well as making essayistic films and videos (including Mapping Rohmer, the first double blind peer-reviewed video essay to appear in a film journal), I am on the editorial board of InTransition: journal of audiovisual film studies, and am a leading advocate of practice-based film and media studies. My current AHRC project (‘The Audiovisual Essay: a digital methodology for film and media studies’) provides a forum for academics and artists to discuss the future of digital film studies, and is allowing a group of scholars to generate their first audiovisual research outputs. 

My practice-based research in turn feeds into my more traditional scholarly focus on the role of appropriation and creative transformation across film, media, and visual art. My recent writing focuses in particular on how ‘found footage’ film-makers and appropriation artists engage with visual property. My articles have been published in journals including OctoberScreenThe Quarterly Review of Film and Video, and Continuum, and in edited collections published by Routledge, Palgrave-Macmillan, and the AFI. I am also author of the first ever book-length history of colour in cinema, Chromatic Cinema (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), which explores the uses and meanings of colour in film, from hand painting in early films to recent trends in digital colour grading.


I supervise MA and doctoral dissertations, and welcome research proposals in arease including (but not limited to) transmedia, documentary film, video technologies and aesthetics, montage and collage, urban cinema.

I am particularly committed to practice-based research, and would welcome any media-focused projects that aim to utilise audiovisual and/or digital research methodologies.



  • Misek, R. (2015). Trespassing Hollywood: Property, Space, and the “Appropriation Film.” October [Online] 153:132-148. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1162/OCTO_a_00230.
    n the two decades since the first exhibition of Douglas Gordon's 24 Hour Psycho (1993), “appropriation”—a mainstay of visual art since the mid-twentieth century—has also become a mainstay of experimental filmmaking and artists' film and video. Montages, collages, found-footage documentaries, essay films, and diverse other works made from pre-existing moving images now feature regularly at film festivals, in museum cinematheques, and in art galleries. Yet beyond the protective walls of these cultural institutions, a global copyright war is raging. Over recent years, media owners have become ever more assertive of their intellectual property rights, while activists have become ever bolder in their demands for radical open access. How have film and video artists responded to these differing views about what constitutes our cultural commons? This article explores the question by focusing on two test cases: Thom Andersen's essay film Los Angeles Plays Itself (2003) and Christian Marclay's video collage The Clock (2011). Both involve unlicensed reuse of pre-existing film and television material. However, in their overall conception, methods of production, and distribution and exhibition, Andersen's and Marclay's works provide opposing models for how to engage with media property. The article concludes by suggesting that the two works' differences raise urgent ethical question about how (and where) contemporary artists' film and video is exhibited.
  • Misek, R. and Cameron, A. (2014). Time-lapse and the projected body’. Moving Image Review and Art Journal [Online] 3. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/miraj.3.1.38_1.
    The technique of time-lapse, which has been applied to all manner of subjects from the cellular to the celestial, has an ambiguous relationship with the human body. Whereas slow motion typically accentuates the force and aesthetics of physical movement, time-lapse tends to decorporealize human figures, projecting bodies forward through time while turning them into phantasmal projections in space. This article examines a number of experimental films that explore the body’s precarious state within time-lapse. Here, the body is figured variously as a medium through which environmental forces are made visible, as a liminal figure that leaves traces of its presence in the landscape or as a kind of ghost suspended outside of its native temporality. These works destabilize the body both as the subject and as the object of representation, making ambiguous its place in relation to different temporal scales.
  • Misek, R. (2014). Colour Films in Britain: the negotiation of innovation 1900-1955 by Sarah Street. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 34:31-33.
  • Misek, R. (2010). Dead time: Cinema, Heidegger, and boredom. Continuum [Online] 24:777-785. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2010.505331.
    This article explores cinematic boredom. It investigates how feature films exemplify prevailing cultural attitudes towards boredom, and suggests that dominant cinema's fear of being ‘boring’ reflects a cultural refusal to address the implications of time passing. Most feature films kill time. The article analyses how and why they do so, and then explores what happens when a film refuses to kill time. By engaging with temporality, a film may risk being called ‘boring’ but it may also perform the important cultural role of encouraging us to reflect on the limited time-span of our own lives.
  • Misek, R. (2010). The ’look’ and how to keep it: cinematography, postproduction and digital colour. Screen [Online] 51:404-409. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/hjq045.
    Jacques Aumont has noted that, throughout screen history, filmmakers have tended to regard colour as something to be controlled.1 Between the rise of Technicolor in the mid 1930s and the emergence of digital cinema in the late 1990s, this typically involved controlling the colours that appeared in front of a film camera through techniques including production design, costume design, lens filtration and coloured lighting. Since the spread of Digital Intermediate (DI) in the early to mid 2000s, screen colour has owed at least as much to computer-based postproduction processes as it has to camera-based production processes.2 In this essay I explore colour as the focal point of a renegotiation of the historical roles of what are anachronistically still called the ‘production’ and ‘postproduction’ sectors of the film industry. I do so by means of a case study of the recent activities of the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC). Though the Society's membership numbers barely three hundred, it has for many decades been a prominent advocate of the ‘art of cinematography’ and of the interests of the cinematography profession as a whole.3 Using articles from its widely read trade journal, American Cinematographer, I explore some of the strategies used by the ASC over the last decade to preserve the privileged creative status of the Director of Photography (DoP) in the context of rapid technological and industrial change.4 These strategies have typically focused on colour. By exploring the various interactions between the ASC and the postproduction sector reported in American Cinematographer, as well as the rhetoric used to report them, I address the following question: if colour is something to be controlled, who controls it?
  • Misek, R. (2010). The invisible ideology of white light. New Review of Film and Television Studies [Online] 8:125-143. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17400301003700160.
    This paper explores the role of white light in film history. It argues that, though we live our lives immersed in ‘white’ daylight, the historical hegemony of white light within moving images has been far from inevitable. The paper elaborates this claim by focusing on how and why Technicolor Inc. predicated its infamous but influential ‘law of emphasis’ on white balanced lighting, and by foregrounding ways in which subsequent uses of and discourses about colour in film have assumed the presence of full-spectrum light. Having drawn attention to this imperceptible – and so, until now, unnoticed – visual ideology, the paper then explores cinematic challenges to the hegemony of white light in films including South Pacific, Querelle and Chunkging Express.
  • Misek, R. (2008). Exploding Binaries: Point-of-View and Combat inThe Thin Red Line. Quarterly Review of Film and Video [Online] 25:116-123. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509200601074710.
  • Misek, R. (2008). A Parallax View of ’Psycho’. International Journal of Zizek Studies [Online] 2. Available at: http://zizekstudies.org/index.php/ijzs/article/view/93/164.
    Parallax is the change visible when an object is seen from two different points of view. In The Parallax View (2006), Slavoj Zizek uses parallax as a metaphor for the gap that opens up whenever there co-exist two irreconcilable perspectives. The book looks at examples of parallax in philosophy, science, and politics. Despite the multiplicity of parallaxes on view, there is one object onto which Zizek does not project his metaphor: cinema. This article extends the metaphor of parallax to include Zizek’s favourite extra-curricular obsession. Inspired by Zizek’s prior writings on Psycho, the article juxtaposes Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film and Gus Van Sant’s 1998 remake, focusing specifically on how the two films play out the cinematographic parallax gap between black-and-white and colour. Onto this stylistic parallax gap, the article superimposes the theoretical parallax gap between Zizek’s psychoanalytic approach to film and the approach of Zizek’s academic antithesis, post-theorist David Bordwell. By exploring one version of Psycho from a Zizekian perspective and the other from a Bordwellian perspective, the artice suggests that Zizek and Bordwell’s seemingly irreconcilable perspectives can productively interact to provide a binocular view of Hitchcock’s film.
  • Misek, R. (2007). Wrong Geometries in The Third Man. Rouge [Online]. Available at: http://rouge.com.au/rougerouge/third_man.html.
    Carol Reed’s The Third Man (1949) is simultaneously a visual document of the bombed-out fabric of late 1940s Vienna and a stylised dream space built on the aesthetic foundations of German Expressionism. In this, it exemplifies the way in which film abstracts physical location while remaining indexically linked to it. This paper uses The Third Man to interrogate the relationship between spatial denotation and connotation. It explores how the film exploits the visual contradictions that result from transforming (three-dimensional) physical place into (two-dimensional) cinematic space. Through the use of Dutch angles, high contrast lighting, wide angle photography, and disjunctive montage sequences, the film plays place and space off against each other to create an aesthetic of disorientation. Its oneiric spaces repeatedly confound attempts by Holly Martens (Joseph Cotton) to orientate himself geographically, narratively, and socially. By contrast, urbane racketeer Harry Lime (Orson Welles) moves through the city as if he were in a film, appearing and disappearing at will. Holly is stuck in the denoted city, while Harry traverses the connoted city. However, the distorted perspectives created by Robert Krasker’s camerawork result in a spatial disorientation so extreme that the film sometimes approaches graphic abstraction. In the end, even Harry finds himself unable to make sense of the film’s spaces and dies ensnared in the chiaroscuro patterns of a spiral staircase.


  • Misek, R. (2010). Chromatic Cinema: A History of Screen Colour. [Online]. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Chromatic-Cinema-History-Screen-Color/dp/1444332392.
    Chromatic Cinema provides the first wide–ranging historical overview of screen color, exploring the changing uses and meanings of color in moving images, from hand painting in early skirt dance films to current trends in digital color manipulation. Offers both a history and a theory of screen color in the first full–length study ever published Provides an in–depth yet accessible account of color?s spread through and ultimate effacement of black–and–white cinema, exploring the technological, cultural, economic, and artistic factors that have defined this evolving symbiosis Engages with film studies, art history, visual culture and technology studies in a truly interdisciplinary manner Includes 65 full–color illustrations of films ranging from Expressionist animation to Hollywood and Bollywood musicals, from the US ’indie? boom to1980s neo–noir, Hong Kong cinema, and recent comic–book films

Book section

  • Misek, R. (2017). The Black Screen. In: Beugnet, M., Cameron, A. and Fetveit, A. eds. Indefinite Visions: CInema and the Attractions of Uncertainty. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 38-52. Available at: https://edinburghuniversitypress.com/book-indefinite-visions-13766.html.
  • Misek, R. and Cameron, A. (2014). ‘Modular Spacetime in the “Intelligent” Blockbuster: Inception and Source Code’. In: Buckland, W. ed. Hollywood Puzzle Films. Routledge.
    Suggesting both linear progression and configurable modularity, the complex cinematic narratives of Inception (Christopher Nolan, 2010) and Source Code (Duncan Jones, 2011) produce distinctive articulations of time and space. They also thematize the architectural processes involved in their own narrative construction, by featuring characters who are programmers, designers, and architects, and deploying a range of spatial metaphors (including lines, layers, and circles) via scenography, dialogue, and mise-en-scène. Exploring the spatiotemporality of these films, we investigate the role that graphic metaphors play within them and argue that these metaphors are oriented around two competing logics: speed and memory.
  • Misek, R. (2012). Dead Time: Cinema, Heidegger, and Boredom. In: Vassilieva, J. and Verevis, C. eds. After Taste: Cultural Value and the Moving Image. Abingdon, New York: Routledge, pp. 133-142.
  • Misek, R. (2012). Mapping Rohmer: cinematic cartography in post-war Paris. In: Roberts, L. ed. Mapping Cultures: Place, Practice, Performance. Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 68-84.
    "How can films map? Is cinematic ‘mapping’ more than a metaphor? Can films be regarded as cartographic documents? This chapter explores mapping as a cinematic process. It explores ways in which film-making can take on a mapping function, as well as ways in which maps can act as analogies for films (in other words, how films can sometimes be said to have map-like qualities). It does so by means of a set of examples: Eric Rohmer’s Paris films. In thirteen of the twenty five feature films that Rohmer made between the early 1960s and mid-2000s, characters journey through Paris – on foot, by train, and occasionally by car. Through these characters, I argue, Rohmer enacts what Teresa Castro (2009) refers to as ‘cinema’s mapping impulse’. Various basic cartographic processes (for example, drawing lines, connecting points, and reconciling accurate geographic representation with graphic simplification) recur throughout Rohmer’s cinematic representations of the city. As a result, the map of Paris appears as an implied presence in his films, as filmed journeys through city streets and on railway lines. This chapter takes the form of a spatial narrative, or ‘tour’ (De Certeau 1984: 119), through Rohmer’s cinematic map of post-war Paris.
  • Misek, R. (2007). Last of the Kodak”: Andrei Tarkovsky’s Struggle With Colour’. In: Everett, W. ed. Questions of Colour in Cinema: From Paintbrush to Pixel. Peter Lang Publishing Group, pp. 161-168.
    In interviews and writings throughout his career, Andrei Tarkovsky repeatedly returned to the theme of cinematic colour. He referred to it in order to repudiate it: colour film was ‘monstrous’ and ‘false’, an artistic ‘blind alley’. Despite his objections, Tarkovsky also repeatedly struggled with the Soviet bureaucracy to secure the use of Eastman Kodak colour negatives. Having secured the use of colour, he then minimised its impact in his films through a combination of desaturated production design and laboratory techniques, and counterbalanced its presence with repeated transitions between colour and black-and-white sequences. This essay explores the contradictions in Tarkovsky’s response to colour. It roots his work in the stagnation-era political economy of the Soviet Union, before moving on to an exploration of the ways in which his chromatic ambivalence manifested itself in the aesthetics of his films. The essay concludes by suggesting a final contradiction, namely that Tarkovsky’s chromatic conservatism anticipated the colour aesthetics of digital cinema.

Conference or workshop item

  • Misek, R. (2018). Notes on Rohmer. In: Zomer Film College, Royal Belgian Film Archive.
  • Misek, R. (2018). Six of Seven Things I Know About The Video Essay.
  • Misek, R. (2017). Black White Colour. In: Experience Colours!. Available at: https://experience.aalto.fi/colours/.
    A historical of the various historical modes of creating colour in film
  • Misek, R. (2017). All talk: Matias Piñeiro’s verbal narratives. In: Games People Play: The Cinema of Matias Pineiro. Available at: https://cinea.be/events/games-people-play-the-cinema-matias-pineiro/.
  • Misek, R. (2017). Why I ’pirate’ films. In: TEDx.
    An exploration of why people pirate films, and of the ethical implications of doing so.
  • Misek, R. (2016). Détournement. In: Forms of Criticism.
  • Misek, R. (2015). The Stolen Film. In: Cinematic Bricoleurs: Remixing, Restyling and Repurposing in Contemporary Filmmaking Practice. Available at: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/artshums/depts/cmci/eventrecords/2016/Cinematic-Bricoleurs.aspx.
  • Misek, R. (2015). ‘Learning from Fair Use’. Besides the Screen: Piracy in Theory and Practice. In: Coventry University Disruptive Media Centre,.
  • Misek, R. (2015). The Black Screen. In: Indefinite Visions.
  • Misek, R. (2014). What is Montage?. In: European Network for Cinema and Media Studies Annual Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2013). The Death of Remix Cinema. In: RENEW.
  • Misek, R. (2013). The True Colours of the Universe. In: CHROMA Symposium, University of Florence.
  • Misek, R. (2013). Urban amnesia: development, destruction and documentation’. In: European Network for Cinema and Media Studies Annual Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2013). Remixing the City: public and private media space in Los Angeles Plays Itself. In: The Spectacular / Contested / Ordinary Media City Symposium.
  • Misek, R. (2012). The Algorithmic Image: screen savers, visualisers, and structuralist film’. In: European Network for Cinema and Media Studies Annual Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2011). Rohmer Remixed. In: Remix Cinema Symposium.
  • Misek, R. (2011). The Mortal Sensibility of Time-Lapse: Speed, Stillness, and Decay. In: Society for Cinema and Media Studies Annual Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2010). Mapping Rohmer: cinematic cartography and geo-tagging in post-war Paris. In: Mapping the City in Film.
  • Misek, R. (2009). Theorising Boredom. In: Screen Annual Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2009). Cinema’s Imaginary Art History’. In: Colour and the Moving Image Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2009). Cinema’s Imaginary Art History. In: European Network for Cinema and Media Studies.
  • Misek, R. (2009). Boredom, Boringness, and Badness’. In: B for BAD Cinema: Aesthetics, Politics and Cultural Value Conference.
  • Misek, R. (2009). Film Practice as Film Studies. In: Teaching Film Symposium. School of Modern Languages, University of Bristol.


  • Misek, R. (2006). European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood by Thomas Elsaesser. Senses of Cinema:0-0.
  • Misek, R. (2005). Analogue Film, Digital Discourse. Film-Philosophy 9:0-0.


  • Lewis-Smith, C. (2018). The Dancer and the Looking Glass.
    This thesis concerns the relationship between the dancer, the camera, and the screen viewer in the making and watching of screendance. It documents a personal journey of exploration that has my own creative practice, located within the wider field of screendance, as a central thread.
    The research identifies a divide, with respect to control and authorship, which exists between the performer on one side of the lens and filmmakers on the other. It explores, through practice, production methodologies that challenge and narrow this divide. It finds that the small scale, single-take, single mobile camera dancing/filming event can help close the divide between dancer, camera. The research also finds that there are significantly few screendance works that are made as single-take films. As a tangent to this finding, it also finds that screendance works, like in mainstream films, are trending towards increasingly short shot lengths.
    In addition to the information that I bring together from films, theorists, and interviews, the thesis draws on nineteen short films that I have made as part of this research and concludes with the production of The Glasshouse (2016), a screendance that summarises a number of the core findings of The Dancer and the Looking Glass.
  • Alharthi, W. (2015). Investigation into the Impact of Using Virtual Heritage to Depict the Historical City of Al Madinah.
    Al Madinah, in Saudi Arabia, is the second most holy city for Muslims throughout the world and has a long and rich heritage. However, most of the historical and traditional buildings, city walls and holy places have been replaced with modern structures. But, there have been several attempts, many by individuals, to preserve the heritage of Al Madinah.

    This thesis took an in-depth look at the history of Al Madinah, with emphasis on a 3D virtual environment which was produced as part of this project and inspired by a 3D model depicting the historical city of Al Madinah.

    First, this research examined the documentation of the historical city and identified its limitations by visiting location museums and evaluating the display mediums concerned with the heritage of Al Madinah. To contrast the traditional methods employed in local museums, eight museums in the UK were visited to explore their use of technology and digital devices.

    After these two initial steps, the main contribution focused on developing an effective installation to present the heritage of Al Madinah using first hand material. The Madinah Virtual Heritage (MVH) installation was developed in two main stages and tested for its usability. MVH provides a virtual reality experience by using an affordable head-mounted VR display, which would be especially beneficial for local museums with limited budgets. This thesis gives an overview of how to create a virtual heritage environment, and the principles can be applied to other fields. The findings show that there are limited resources available to understand the heritage of Al Madinah, especially because local museums are self-funded and use traditional media and redundant displays. The use of 3D is a possible solution to reconstruct the demolished buildings. Virtual reality brings interactivity and engagement to the installation, which could be used in local museums as it is now available in head-mounted format at an affordable cost.

Visual media

  • Misek, R. and Beugnet, M. (2017). In Praise of Blur. [DCP]. Ghent Film Festival. Available at: http://mediacommons.org/intransition/2017/07/11/praise-blur.
    A brief respite from the visual precision of the ultra high definition image.
  • Misek, R. (2017). The Black Screen. [DCP]. Alchemy Film and Moving Image Festival. Available at: http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/intransition/2017/06/01/black-screen.
    All films emerge from and return to the void of the black screen. Black is cinema’s ground, a blank canvas in negative. Yet when we see a black or near-black image within a film, it is never nothing. What does the black screen reveal to us... or conceal from us? In this film, an unseen editor explores the ambiguity and mystery of cinema’s primary colour by taking a mental journey through some of the most obscure moments in film history.
  • Misek, R. (2015). The Definition of Film. [Online video]. InTransition: Journal of Videographic Film & Moving Image Studies (2.2, 2015). Available at: http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/intransition/2015/05/25/definition-film.
    Video essay.
  • Misek, R. (2013). Rohmer in Paris. [Film]. Available at: https://vimeo.com/234036554.
    A love letter to legendary Nouvelle vague film-maker Eric Rohmer and the world capital of cinema. The film begins with a chance encounter with Rohmer in 1994, while he was filming Rendez-vous in Paris on location in Montmartre. This accidental connection becomes the basis for a passionate exploration Rohmer’s lifelong relationship with the city and the many cinematic journeys he made through it. Innovatively combining biographical documentary, psychogeography, speculative fiction, and remix, the film provides a narrated tour of Rohmer’s works, of modern Paris, and of the pains and pleasures of cinephilia.
  • Misek, R. (2012). Mapping Rohmer: A Video Essay. [Video]. Available at: http://framescinemajournal.com/article/mapping-rohmer-a-video-essay/.
    ‘Mapping Rohmer’ explores representations of urban space in the films of Eric Rohmer. Rohmer was the quintessential Parisian filmmaker: he lived in Paris, worked in Paris, and died in Paris. Between the late 1950s and mid-2000s, he shot over twenty short films, feature films, and documentaries on location in Paris. Situated in the space between mash-up, experimental film, and digital film criticism, ‘Mapping Rohmer’ journeys through Rohmer’s Paris using only footage from his films. It looks through Rohmer’s lens, and follows the various paths that he, his actors, and his camera together traced through the city.

    As François Penz notes,[1] within his films, Rohmer maintained spatial continuity – shot by shot, his characters travel through contiguous locations; they stick to the map. By contrast, the lifelong path traced by Rohmer encompasses unconnected arrondissements at discontinuous times, stops and starts, loops and repeats. Its logic is more psychogeographic than topographic, and provides insight into the nature of Rohmer’s relationship with, and perception of, Paris. ‘Mapping Rohmer’ argues that individually and collectively, Rohmer’s films constitute a complex cinematic cartography, in which narrative, moving image, and urban form map onto each other. By creating new connections between Rohmer’s films, ‘Mapping Rohmer’ accents this complexity.


  • Misek, R. (2019). ‘Real-time’ virtual reality and the ideology of immersion. Screen [Online]. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/screen.
  • Misek, R. (2018). "All I have to offer is myself”: the film-maker as narrator. In: Vassilieva, J. and Williams, D. eds. Beyond the Essay Film: Subjectivity, Textuality and Technology. London, UK: Bloomsbury.
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